Protective clothing - 429 entries found
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Vu-Khanh T., Dolez P., Nguyen C.T., Gauvin C., Lara J.
Glove resistance to needle puncture - Development of a test method
Résistance des gants à la piqûre par les aiguilles - Mise au point d'une méthode d'essai [in French]
At the request of sector-based associations and three workplaces at risk of needle-stick injuries, namely police officers, officers in correctional facilities and blue collar workers, the IRSST developed a test method for determining the resistance of protective gloves against needle pricks. The project involved taking into consideration the impact of needle characteristics, including their sharp points, in order to define prick resistance. Various models of protective gloves were then evaluated to determine which performed the best by measuring their resistance to three types of mechanical agents: pricks by medical needles, puncture and cutting. The report recommends the most suitable gloves according to the type of use.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. xvi, 103p. Illus. 78 ref.
Résistance_des_gants_à_la_piqûre_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Williams W.J., Coca A., Roberge R., Shepherd A., Powell J., Shaffer R.E.
Physiological responses to wearing a prototype firefighter ensemble compared with a standard ensemble
This study investigated the physiological responses to wearing a standard firefighter ensemble (SE) and a prototype ensemble (PE) modified from the SE that contained additional features, such as magnetic ring enclosures at the glove-sleeve interface, integrated boot-pant interface, integrated hood-SCBA facepiece interface, and a novel hose arrangement that rerouted self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) exhaust gases back into the upper portion of the jacket. Although the features of the PE increased the level of encapsulation of the wearer that could lead to increased physiological stress compared with the SE, it was hypothesized that the rerouted exhaust gases provided by the PE hose assembly would provide convective cooling to the upper torso, reduce the thermal stress experienced by the wearer and reduce the overall physiological stress imposed by the PE such that it would be either less or not significantly different from the SE. Ten subjects (seven male, three female) performed treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber while wearing either the SE with an SCBA or the PE with an SCBA. Heart rate, rectal temperature, sweat loss, and endurance time were measured. It was concluded that the rerouting of exhaust gases to the jacket did not provide significant convective cooling or reduce thermal stress compared with the SE under the mild conditions selected, and the data therefore did not support the hypotheses of the present study.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.49-57. Illus. 37 ref.
Gao P., Jaques P.A., Hsiao T.C., Shepherd A., Eimer B.C., Yang M., Miller A., Gupta B., Shaffer R.
Evaluation of nano- and submicron particle penetration through ten nonwoven fabrics using a wind-driven approach
This study focused on the design and characterization of a method for evaluating the performance of materials used in protective clothing. Ten nonwoven fabrics were selected, and physical properties including fiber diameter, fabric thickness, air permeability, porosity, pore volume and pore size were determined. Each fabric was sealed flat across the wide opening of a cone-shaped penetration cell that was then housed in a recirculation aerosol wind tunnel. The flow rate naturally driven by wind through the fabric was measured, and the sampling flow rate of the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer used to measure the downstream particle size distribution and concentrations was then adjusted to minimize filtration effects. Results show that particle penetration increased with increasing face velocity, and penetration also increased with increasing particle size up to about 300 to 500nm. Penetrations measured by the wind-driven method were lower than those obtained with the filtration method for most of the fabrics selected, and the relative penetration performances of the fabrics were very different due to the vastly different pore structures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.13-22. Illus. 25 ref.
Cáceres Armendáriz P.
Protective clothing for wildland firefighters
Ropa de protección para bomberos forestales [in Spanish]
This technical note describes the requirements for protective clothing worn by wildland firefighters: design adapted to firefighting; ergonomics (permeability to sweat); protection against radiant heat and heat resistance; resistance to mechanical stress; high visibility in smoke (fluorescent marks); appropriate labelling.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 4p. Illus. 7 ref.
NTP_867.pdf [in Spanish]
Bröde P., Kuklane K., Candas V., den Hartog E.A., Griefahn B., Holmér I., Meinander H., Nocker W., Richards M., Havenith G.
Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability
The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were considered. Garments with various outer materials and colours and additionally an aluminised reflective suit were combined with dry and pre-wetted underwear layers. Under radiant stress, whole body heat loss decreased, in other words heat gain occurred compared to the reference. This heat gain increased with radiation intensity and decreased with air velocity and clothing insulation. Except for the reflective outer layer that showed only minimal heat gain over the whole range of radiation intensities, the influence of the outer garments, material and colour was small with dry clothing. Wetting the underclothing for simulating sweat accumulation, however, caused differing effects with higher heat gain in less permeable garments.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.2, p.231-244. Illus. 40 ref.
Coca A., Williams W.J., Roberge R.J., Powell J.B.
Effects of fire fighter protective ensembles on mobility and performance
Many studies have shown that fire fighter turnout gear and equipment may restrict mobility. The restriction of movement is usually due to a decrease in range of motion (ROM). It is important to know how much the decrease in ROM affects performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fire fighter protective ensembles on mobility and performance by measuring static and dynamic range ROM and job-related tasks. Eight healthy adults participated in the study which consisted of measuring a battery of motions and fire fighter specific tasks while wearing a standard fire fighter ensemble or regular light clothing (baseline). The overall findings support the need for a comprehensive ergonomic evaluation of protective clothing systems to ascertain human factors issues.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.636-641. Illus. 28 ref.
Dolez P.I., Vu-Khanh T.
Recent developments and needs in materials used for personal protective equipment and their testing
The field of personal protective equipment (PPE) has led to several high technology innovations. Indeed, improved protection against the various possible encountered risks is looked for, in particular at the workplace. This has generated the development of new materials and new manufacturing technologies, as well as the introduction of new applications for existing ones. However, the remaining challenges are numerous. This article reviews some of the new technologies introduced in the field of protective clothing against heat and flames, mechanical risks and chemical aggressors. It also describes new challenges that are currently worked on, in particular the effect of service aging and the need for testing methods that reproduce real-use conditions. Finally, it discusses various existing and potential applications of nanomaterials and smart textiles for PPE.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.4, p.347-362. Illus. 88 ref.
Recent_developments.pdf [in English]
Bernard T.E., Ashley C.D.
Short-term heat stress exposure limits based on wet bulb globe temperature adjusted for clothing and metabolic rate
Most heat stress exposure assessments based on wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) consider the environmental conditions, metabolic demands, and clothing requirements, and the exposure limit is for extended work periods (e.g., a typical workday). The U.S. Navy physiological heat exposure limit (PHEL) curves and rational models of heat stress also consider time as a job risk factor so that there is a limiting time for exposures above a conventional WBGT exposure limit. The PHEL charts have not been examined for different clothing and the rational models require personal computers. This study examined the role of clothing in short-term exposures and proposed a relationship between a Safe Exposure Time and WBGT adjusted for clothing and metabolic rate. Twelve participants worked at a metabolic rate of 380W in three clothing ensembles, namely work clothes, microporous coveralls and vapour-barrier coveralls at five levels of heat stress. The combinations of metabolic rate, clothing and environment were selected in anticipation that the participants would reach a physiological limit in less than 120 min. An equation was developed to recommend a safe exposure time for exposures up to 120 min.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2009, Vol.6, p.632-638. Illus. 10 ref.
A critical appraisal of safety concerns regarding chest waders
Chest waders are waterproof trousers that extend from the feet to the chest. They are widely used for recreational and work-related activities, in both marine and freshwater environments. A study was conducted into the risk of drowning as a consequence of sinking in water-filled waders or floating feet-up in air-filled waders. It is concluded that other factors are involved in drowning deaths, including panic, poor swimming ability, poor health, hypothermia, fatigue and the presence of strong currents or rough waters. Waders should be properly fitted and incorporate a sturdy belt; furthermore, wader familiarization should be arranged prior to their use in work-related activities.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2009. Vol.25, No.5, p.375-383. 10 ref.
Heutelbeck A.R.R., Hallier E.
Prevention of cattle allergy in agriculture: Experience with work clothing impermeable to allergens
Aktuelles zur Prävention der berufsbedingten Rinderallergie in der Landwirtschaft: Erfahrungen mit allergendichter Arbeitskleidung [in German]
This study evaluates the first experience with allergen impermeable work clothing worn by 24 farmers with allergic respiratory disorders due to cattle. The results show that protective clothes that are impermeable to occupational allergens may be a suitable complement to traditional work clothing and may lead to an improvement of the symptoms. Skin symptoms such as itching or erythema also lessened when wearing impermeable clothes.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Apr. 2009, Vol.59, No.4, p.98-104. Illus. 33 ref.
UV protection by textiles - Good stuff
UV-Schutz durch Textilien - Guter Stoff [in German]
Outdoor workers are exposed to UV radiation and should therefore wear protective clothing when working in the sun. This article discusses the protective measures to be adopted to protect workers as well as the UV protection factor of different protection measures (UV protection clothing, cotton clothes, sun cream). An EU-standard for sun protective clothing has been developed (EN 13758) which specifies the UV protection factor (UPF) of protective clothes. Only clothing with a UPF greater than 40 are in compliance with the standard.
Faktor Arbeitsschutz, 2009, No.3, p.12-13. Illus. 3 ref.
Frost S., Mogridge R.
Health and Safety Executive
Physiological safety of airfed suit use during nuclear decommissioning
Most nuclear decommissioning operations require work to be done by employees working in potentially hazardous environments. Operatives conducting this work are required to wear air-fed suits (AFSs) to minimise risks from radioactive particulate hazards. The objective of this literature survey was to review existing legislation, guidance and standards applicable to AFS use in nuclear decommissioning work, with respect to the physiological safety of the wearer.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 25p. 51 ref.
HSE_Research_Report_658.pdf [in English]
Laroudie S., Vuillaume M.
Contributions of heart rate measurements on asbestos removal sites under thermal constraints - Feedback
Apport de la cardiofréquencemétrie sur des chantiers de désamiantage sous contrainte thermique - Retour d'expérience [in French]
This study presents the findings of cardiofrequency measurements on asbestos removal sites during particularly difficult thermal environmental conditions and specific constraints. Following a literature survey on working under hot conditions, the article presents the protocol developed for heart rate monitoring on asbestos removal sites. It explains the choice of indicators retained for the direct interpretation of the graphs and the practical monitoring of workers. The descriptive and retrospective study includes 173 graphs highlighting the physically and thermally strenuous nature of asbestos removal work, particularly above 45°C. Several criteria that modify the heart rate were observed and are described.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2008, No.116, p.513-520. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20176/$File/TF176.pdf [in French]
Choi J.W., Kim M.J., Lee J.Y.
Alleviation of heat strain by cooling different body areas during red pepper harvest work at WBGT 33°C
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of various types of personal cooling equipment (PCE) on the alleviation of heat strain during red pepper harvest simulated in a climatic chamber. Twelve subjects worked in a climatic chamber with a WBGT of 33°C, simulating the conditions for harvesting red pepper. Eight PCE conditions were tested involving various combinations of cooling scarves, vests and hats. It was found that a vest with a cooling area of only 3.3% body surface area was effective in alleviating heat strain in a simulated harvest work. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.620-628. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_620.pdf [in English]
Mäkinen H., Bartkowiak G.
This issue contains part of the presentations at the 3rd European conference on protective clothing held in Gdynia, Poland, in May 2006. Main topics covered: thermal strain in firefighters; development of test methods for protection against hot alkaline chemical splashes and from stream at high pressures; optimization of protective clothing performance; evaluation of the flexibility of protective gloves; dry and wet heat transfer through clothing; variable thermoinsulation garments; numerical simulations of heat and moisture transport in thermal protective clothing.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.1, p.7-115 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ashley C.D., Luecke C.L., Schwartz S.S., Islam M.Z., Bernard T.E.
Heat strain at the critical WBGT and the effects of gender, clothing and metabolic rate
Twenty nine participants (20 men and 9 women) walked on a treadmill at a moderate metabolic rate, wearing five different clothing ensembles. Furthermore, a subset of 15 participants (11 men and 4 women) completed trials for all ensembles at low and high metabolic rates, using a progressive heat stress protocol. The critical WBGT (WBGTcrit) was defined as being the WBGT index 5min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium and represents the upper limit of thermoregulatory control. As expected, there was an ensemble effect and metabolic rate effect for WBGTcrit. The metabolic rate also had significant effects on heat strain. After adjustment, there was no gender effect for WBGTcrit or skin temperature. There were, however, significant gender effects for heart rate, core temperature and physiological strain index. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 2008, Vol.38, No.7-8, p.640-644. Illus. 25 ref.
Protective clothing and the quest for improved performance
In protective clothing, the technical protection factors such as chemical, water, thermal and flame resistance are well understood. The emphasis is now on comfort factors, such as fabric weight, fabric texture, seaming, stretch, protection from hot and cold work environments, and on making the clothing more attractive, for example similar to those worn in sports such as automobile racing. This article discusses recent trends in protective clothing with respect to comfort, design, fibres and fabrics, durability and visibility.
Occupational Hazards, Feb. 2008, Vol.70, No.2, p.63-65. Illus.
Protecting against arc flash hazards
In 2005, 250 workers died in the United States after coming into contact with an electrical current, often the result of an arc flash occurring from equipment that had not been de-energized before repair or maintenance work began. Most, if not all, of these deaths could have been prevented by ensuring that workers use fire-resistant personal protective clothing, are properly trained and adopt safe practices such as de-energizing or isolating high-voltage equipment.
Occupational Hazards, Jan. 2007, p.61-63. Illus.
Signalisation [in French]
Contents of these three articles on danger signalling: general principles of signalling panels (intelligibility of the signs, meaning of the colours, effectiveness, light panels, maintenance and power supply, Belgian legislation); installing the signalling (field of vision, panel size, road panels); high visibility clothing (EN 471 standard, Belgian legislation, road work, airport work).
Prevent Focus, June 2007, No.6. p.4-13. Illus.
Eaton P., Healey M.
Health and Safety Executive
The development of a 'female' form manikin as part of a test facility to assess the fire protection afforded by personal protective equipment
The concept of using heat sensing mannequins to assess the protection against flashover fires provided by clothing is increasingly recognized. However, the United Kingdom Fire Service was concerned that because the test facilities only used a "male" form of mannequin, it was not possible to assess clothing for female firefighters. The aim of this project was to develop and commission a "female" form fire test mannequin, the intention being that this facility would feature mannequins of both sexes, enabling a direct comparison of the performance of heat and flame protective clothing intended for male and female personnel.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 44p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr475.pdf [in English]
McLellan T.M., Selkirk G.A.
The management of heat stress for firefighters: A review of work conducted on behalf of the Toronto fire service
This article summarizes research projects aimed at defining safe work limits for firefighters wearing protective clothing and working in warm environments. It examines strategies for reducing the thermal burden and extending operational effectiveness. Subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25°C, 30°C and 35°C. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0°C, 38.5°C and 39.0°C. The study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. Adequate fluid replacement and forearm and hand immersion, increased exposure time (and work productivity) by 100%.
Industrial Health, July 2006, Vol.44, No.3, p.414-426. Illus. 67 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_3_414.pdf [in English]
Vanhoutte H., Catrysse M.
Vêtements de protection [in French]
This collection of articles on protective clothing provides a general overview of the various types of clothing available and examines Belgian and European legislation and the factors that need to be taken into account for the selection, use and care of protective clothing. It also covers the application of so called "intelligent" textiles based on the integration of electronics into protective clothing.
Prevent Focus, Nov. 2006,, No.9 p.4-12. Illus. 9 ref.
How to choose protective clothing
Comment choisir ses vêtements de protection? [in French]
Topics addressed in this article on the selection of protective clothing: hazard evaluation; avoiding overprotection; importance of instruction sheets and labels; responsibilities of employers; French and European standards; maintenance of the clothing.
Face au risque, Oct. 2006, No.426, p.33-34, 36. Illus. 8 ref.
International Social Security Association (ISSA)
Guidelines for the selection of personal protective clothing when exposed to thee thermal effects of an electric arc
Leitlinie für die Auswahl von persönlicher Schutzausrüstung gegen thermische Auswirkungen durch einen Störlichtbogen [in German]
Guía para la selección de equipamiento de protección personal contra los efectos térmicos del arco eléctrico [in Spanish]
This booklet provides guidance on the selection of personal protective clothing for workers exposed to the thermal effects of electric arcs. Topics addressed: definitions; effects of electric arcs; assessment of materials; calculation of heat stress parameters; electric arc test procedures; classification of arc resistant protective clothing; quality control; recommendations for selection and wear.
International Section of the ISSA on Prevention of Occupational Risks due to Electricity - Gas - Long-Distance Heating - Water, c/o Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer, 50968 Bonn, Germany, [ca 2006]. 64p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://electricity.prevention.issa.int/product/electricarc_engl.pdf [in English]
http://electricity.prevention.issa.int/product/electricarc_esp.pdf [in Spanish]
http://electricity.prevention.issa.int/product/electricarc_deu.pdf [in German]
Marchand D., Tremblay G., Tellier C.
Evaluation of the physical constraints associated with the wearing of different personal protective clothing for fire fighters
Evaluation des contraintes physiques associées au port de différents vêtements individuels de protection des pompiers [in French]
Heat stress is the main cause of death for fire fighters. Their protective clothing produces risks of thermal reaction, in addition to being the cause of accidents due to its bulkiness and its inadequacy for the task. In response to a request from the City of Montreal, several studies were undertaken to compare different types of uniforms. This study evaluates the physical stresses related to the wearing of firefighters' protective clothing based on psychophysical perception, oxygen consumption, heart rate, skin temperature, electromyography and humidity. It resulted in a classification of the uniforms, which can be used as a reference for fire brigades in choosing uniforms with the fewest stresses.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. xvi, 137p. Illus. 60 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 13.00. Downloadable version (pdf format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-444.pdf [in French]
Which protective clothing to use against chemical hazards
Quels vêtements de protection contre les risques chimiques? [in French]
The use of protective clothing against chemical hazards is often necessary despite the implementation of collective prevention measures. Safety data sheets for chemicals often mention the need for protective clothing without providing sufficient details. The objective of this sheet is to provide information on the approach to be adopted for selecting suitable clothing for specific chemical hazards and on the use and care of this clothing.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2006, No.660, 4p. Insert. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/B18E705C5E29849FC1257123004E8305/$FILE/ed127.pdf [in French]
Brouwer D.H., Aitken R.J., Oppl R., Cherrie J.W.
Concepts of skin protection: Considerations for the evaluation and terminology of the performance of skin protective equipment
This article proposes a common language for better understanding the processes involved in dermal exposure and skin protection. A conceptual model has been developed that describes the transport of agent mass from sources, eventually resulting in "loading" of the skin surface or the skin contaminant layer. Evaluation of skin protective equipment (SPE) performance has mainly focused on chemical resistance testing for permeation, penetration, or degradation of SPE materials. In practice, however, all processes will occur concurrently. Thus, SPE field performance evaluation including user-SPE interaction complementary to material testing is warranted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.425-434. Illus. 24 ref.
When workclothes sound the alarm
Quand les vêtements de travail donnent l'alerte [in French]
This article describes an "intelligent" fireman's jacket whose textile fabric includes gas detectors powered by rechargeable batteries. The jacket includes a radio transmitter and a GPS positioning system that enables the real-time detection of wearers at all times and the transmission of their body temperature and pulse rate. A micro-camera incorporated into the fabric at chest level allows images to be sent to the control centre. Other options and applications are possible, in particular in the chemical industry. This project received an award in France and is approved at the European level.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2005, No.656, p.10-11. Illus.
Bernard T.E., Luecke C.L., Schwartz S.W., Kirkland K.S., Ashley C.D.
WBGT clothing adjustments for four clothing ensembles under three relative humidity levels
Threshold limit values for heat stress and strain are based on an upper wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) for ordinary work clothes, with clothing adjustment factors (CAFs) for other types of clothes. This study investigated CAFs for various types of coveralls against a baseline of cotton work clothes and examined the potential effect of relative humidity. A climatic chamber was used to slowly increase the level of heat stress by increasing air temperature at three levels of relative humidity (20%, 50% and 70%). Study participants wore one of five ensembles while walking on a treadmill at a moderate metabolic rate. Physiological and environmental data were collected. CAFs are proposed for each type of coverall.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2005, Vol.2, No.5, p.251-256. Illus. 16 ref.
Glass C.R., Harrington P.M., Mathers J.J., Smith S.W., Cocker J., Akrill P.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of field and laboratory effectiveness of whole body coveralls
This report describes a study carried out to investigate the level of protection offered against liquid penetration by two types of coveralls (type 6 PPE and polycotton workwear). The research also considered whether the choice of garment or the way in which it was used could contribute to the total potential exposure. The performance of the coveralls was investigated under laboratory and field conditions and the extent of enhanced absorption of hazardous substances through the skin was measured in volunteers doing replicated tasks with and without coveralls.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 39p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr351.pdf [in English]
Gao P., El-Ayouby N., Wassell J.T.
Changes in permeation parameters and the decontamination efficacy of three chemical protective gloves after repeated exposures to solvents and thermal decontaminations
Chemical protective clothing and gloves are usually too expensive to be considered disposable. Their repeated use without effective decontamination may result in secondary exposure. However, decontamination may change the physical and chemical properties of the barrier material, causing variations in breakthrough time (BT) and steady-state permeation rate (SSPR). Neoprene, butyl rubber and nitrile rubber were selected for this study, while toluene and acetone were chosen as the challenge chemicals. Permeation was measured in a closed loop system using a 2.5cm permeation cell and an infrared analyser. Following the permeation test, the samples were thermally decontaminated. After each exposure and decontamination cycle, BT and SSPR were measured. Permeation test results were collected on each material/chemical combination for ten cycles. Findings with respect to changes in BT and SSPR as a function of glove material, solvent and number of cycles are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2005, Vol.47, No.2, p.131-143. Illus. 15 ref.
Marszałek A., Smolander J., Sołtyński K.
Age-related thermal strain in men while wearing radiation protective clothing during short-term exercise in the heat
The aim of this study was to compare heat strain among different age groups of men wearing protective clothing during short-term physical work. Eight young (20-29 years), six middle-aged (41-55 years) and eight older (58-65 years) men exercised for 30 min on a cycle ergometer in two hot environments with a similar WBGT, once with minimal clothing without infrared radiation (E1), and once while wearing aluminized protective clothing under infrared radiation (E2). All subjects had sedentary jobs, but only the older subjects were physically active in their leisure-time. Body temperatures, heart rate, sweat rate and subjective feelings were determined during the tests. Higher thermal strain was observed in E2 than in E1. No age-related differences in thermal strain were observed in either experiment indicating that active older men can tolerate short work periods with protective clothing in the heat as well as younger sedentary men.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.361-367. Illus. 26 ref.
Selkirk G.A., McLellan T.M., Wong J.
Active versus passive cooling during work in warm environments while wearing firefighting protective clothing
This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the study. Subjects walked at 4.5km/h with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50min) and rest (30min) schedule. Work continued until rectal temperature reached 39.5°C or heart rate (HR) reached 95% of maximum or exhaustion. One of three cooling strategies, forearm submersion in water, mister, and passive cooling were employed during the rest phases. Findings suggest that there is a definite advantage when utilizing forearm submersion compared with other methods of active or passive cooling while wearing FPC and SCBA in the heat.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2004, Vol.1, No.8, p.521-531. Illus. 42 ref.
Vêtements de protection [in French]
Contents of this information leaflet on protective clothing: regulations governing the use of work clothing and protective clothing (categories of workers concerned, types of protection); selection of work clothing, protective clothing or high-visibility clothing; care and replacement; information and training of workers on the use of protective clothing; checklist for the selection of protective clothing suited to the type of work.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Use of protective clothing against laceration and piercing caused by knives
Benutzung von Stechschutzbekleidung [in German]
This Directive of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association applies to the selection and use of protective clothing against laceration and piercing caused by knives that employers are required to provide to their employees according to the provisions of the law on occupational safety and health. It describes the various types of clothing (aprons, waistcoats, shirts, hoods, trousers) and the criteria for selecting the suitable type of clothing, together, with rules for their use, hygiene, maintenance, repair and storage.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2003. 34p. Illus.
http://www.sitech.meb.uni-bonn.de/su/arbeitsschutz/psa/text/bgr_196.pdf [in German]
Schenker M.B., Orenstein M.R., Samuels S.J.
Use of protective clothing among California farmers
A telephone survey of 1,947 California farmers recorded information on occupational exposure, health outcomes and use of protective equipment to lessen risk from exposure to dust, sun, noise, pesticides and tractors. More than 93% of respondents reported using personal protection from exposure to pesticides; however, fewer than one third used consistent protection against other hazards. Younger age and male sex were associated with better use of protection from dust, noise, pesticides and tractors, but negatively associated with sun protection. There was no consistent relationship of protective behaviours with cigarette smoking, living on the farm, marital status, or time in non-administrative farmwork. Risk perception was strongly associated with behaviour: farmers concerned about specific health problems were much more likely to use protective equipment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.42, No.5, p.455-464. Illus. 21 ref.
Personal protective equipment - Body protection
Środki ochrony indywidualnej - Odzież ochronna [in Polish]
This guide lists the manufacturers of personal protective equipment for whole-body protection available in Poland. Contents: general regulations; regulations, standards and suppliers by type of product; fall arresters; heat and flame protective clothing; cold and weather protective clothing; protective clothing against mechanical hazards; miscellaneous protective clothing; distributors by region. For each type of equipment, this guide mentions the applicable Polish and European regulations. Polish translation of INRS publication ED 319 (see CIS 95-322).
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 29p. Illus. 39 ref.
Lead aprons, radiographers and discomfort: A pilot study
The association between fatigue and ease of movement while wearing different configurations of lead aprons has not been widely studied. The main aim of this study was to make appropriate recommendations to staff working within an angiography suite with regard to the most appropriate choice of lead shielding. In a crossover study design, five radiographers (three women, two men) each wore three different configurations of lead aprons: a two-piece suit, a one-piece suit and one-piece suits with waist belts. They completed visual analogue scales on their perceived levels of discomfort and fatigue at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of patient procedural lists. Information on "ease of movement" was collected at T2 only. Statistical analysis revealed significantly greater levels of discomfort in the neck and lower back regions between T1 and T2 for subjects while wearing one-piece aprons, with a trend towards significantly greater discomfort in the thoracic region.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2002, Vol.18, No.4, p.357-366. Illus. 14 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Dermal exposure resulting from liquid contamination
To estimate dermal exposure to pesticides during spraying applications, it is critical to know the fraction of the amount deposited on a worker's clothing that actually reaches the skin. The objective of this project was to evaluate dermal exposure to pesticides by using an articulated mannequin to replicate realistic spraying conditions. Patches were affixed to different locations on the mannequin, and a simulated pesticide formulation was sprayed with the mannequin unclothed and wearing different types of protective clothing. Data from this study can be used for evaluating the protection factor of work clothing.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 63p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Cadarette B.S., Levine L., Kolka M.A., Proulx G.N., Correa M.M., Sawka M.N.
Heat strain reduction by ice-based and vapor compression liquid cooling systems with a toxic agent protective uniform
The purpose of this study was to compare a vapour compression microclimate cooling system (MCC) and a personal ice cooling system (PIC) for their effectiveness in reducing physiological strain when used with cooling garments worn under the impermeable self-contained toxic environment protective outfit (STEPO). A second comparison was done between the use of total body and hooded shirt-only cooling garments with both the MCC and PIC systems. Eight subjects (six men, two women) attempted four experiments at 38°C, 30% rh, 0.9m/sec wind, while wearing the STEPO. Subjects attempted four hours of treadmill walking (rest/exercise cycles of 10/20min) at a time-weighted metabolic rate of 303±50W. It was found that the total body circulating liquid cooling was more effective than shirt-only cooling under the impermeable STEPO uniform. The MCC and PIC systems were equally effective during heat exposure, but neither system could allow reaching the four-hour targeted time.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.73, No.7, p.665-672. Illus. 13 ref.
Hermetic protective clothing
Szczelna odzież ochronna [in Polish]
Contents of this booklet on hermetic protective clothing: influence of hermetic protective clothing on the human body; maximum length of working time for workers wearing hermetic protective clothing; influence of underwear on work comfort.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 23p. Illus. 18 ref.
Rissanen S., Rintamäki H., Holmér I.
Prediction of duration limited exposure for participants wearing chemical protective clothing in the cold
The suitability of the IREQ (insulation required) index for predicting the thermal responses of six participants wearing chemical protective clothing was tested at -20 and -25°C. IREQ was used to calculate the duration-limited exposure (DLE). Measured DLE correlated well with the predicted DLE. In exposures exceeding 40min, however, the predicted DLE tended to be 10-20min too short compared to the measured DLE. During short exposures, the prediction was 5-20min too long. IREQ overestimated the cold strain in participants wearing chemical protective clothing during cold exposures longer than 40min. Nevertheless, the predicted DLE never exceeded measured times; consequently, the prediction was always safe from the occupational point of view.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.451-461. Illus. 18 ref.
Prezant D.J., Freeman K., Kelly K.J., Malley K.S., Karwa M.L., McLaughlin M.T., Hirschhorn R., Brown A.
Impact of a design modification in modern firefighting uniforms on burn prevention outcomes in New York City firefighters
To determine the influence of firefighting uniforms on the incidence and severity of thermal burn injuries affecting firefighters, data were collected for the entire New York City fire fighting force wearing the traditional uniform (protective over-coat), the modern uniform (protective over-coat and over-pant) and the modified modem uniform (short sleeved shirt and short pants, worn under firefighters protective over-clothes). With the change from traditional to modern uniforms, the distribution of burns per fire decreased significantly, and days lost to medical leave for upper or lower extremity burns decreased by 89%. Burn incidence and severity were not significantly affected by the change to the modified modern uniform. The distribution of heat exhaustion or cardiac events per fire was not significantly affected by the change from the traditional to modern uniform, but heat exhaustion was decreased by the change to the modified modern uniform.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.827-834. Illus. 19 ref.
Bartels V.T., Umbach K.H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Physiological optimization of cut-resistant protective clothing
Bekleidungsphysiologische Optimierung von Schnittschutzkleidung [in German]
Over 250,000 workers in Germany (including forestry workers, fire fighters and rescue workers) use chain saws and need to wear cut-resistant protective clothing. This type of clothing generally cannot be used for extended work periods without leading to the critical overheating of the body, particularly during the warm season and with heavy physical activity. The objective of this project was to develop thermophysiologically-optimized cut-resistant protective clothing systems. Heat transmissions were recorded for clothing made from various fabric weights, layer compositions and constructions, and clothing fabrics offering the best comfort while meeting specific technical protection requirements were identified. Skin sensitivity was also taken into account in choosing the layer of fabric in direct contact with the skin.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 80p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: EUR 10.00.
Dyson H.M., Johnson D.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Protective clothing in potteries
Evaluation of dust protection, wear and comfort was carried on polyester fabrics used in protective clothing for pottery workers. The most commonly used fabric had good mechanical properties and moderate moisture transmission (MVT), but was very uncomfortable. Before use, the fabric had acceptable dust protection properties; however, after a minimal number of laundering cycles, the particle exclusion efficiency deteriorated significantly. Six alternative fabrics were evaluated as possible replacements. All had improved dust exclusion properties, especially after laundering, and much higher MVTs. In factory trials, all fabrics showed improved comfort. Parameters evaluated for the measurement of comfort, particularly water vapour concentration both within and outside the protective garment, were compared with subjective tests and recommendations for suitable alternative fabrics were made.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. iv, 85p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 60.00.
Portillo García-Pintos J., Bahima Toha J., Cohen Gómez E.
Ropa de protección [in Spanish]
This guide presents the various types and classes of protective clothing along with the pictogrammes used for labelling. It gives guidance to the proper selection, wear and maintenance of protective clothing.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 24p. Illus.
Schlingensiepen J., Tismer S.
Beware of nips....
Achtung Fangstelle ... [in German]
Laboratory experiments show that work clothing that is wet or soiled with oil and, surprisingly, cloth samples chemically impregnated (water or oil-proofed) get caught more easily by unguarded rotating machine parts than dry, clean and untreated work clothing. The experiments involved rotating cylinders with diameters of 100, 50 and 20mm and a surface roughness commonly used for rotating parts. It is recommended not to use substances which make work clothing more prone to get caught in machines, and to initiate the search for substances reducing this risk.
Die BG, May 1999, No.5, p.264-267. Illus. 11 ref.
Protective aprons - How to use them. Ten questions on protective aprons
Les tabliers de protection - Mode d'emploi. Les tabliers de protection en dix questions [in French]
This safety guide is aimed at butchers working with knives and having to wear metallic protective aprons. Contents include: different types of aprons; marking; sizes; settings; protection against different types of knives; cleaning, legal responsibilities of employers.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., Dec. 1999. Booklet (6p.) + leaflet. Illus.
Marszalek A., Smolander J., Sołtyński K., Sobolewski A.
Physiological strain of wearing aluminized protective clothing at rest in young, middle-aged and older men
The aim of this study was to assess the thermal strain of wearing radiation protective clothing as a function of age. The subjects were 24 healthy men similar in daily physical activity, body size and subcutaneous fat thickness, divided into three groups: young, middle-aged and older. Subjects rested in a sitting position for 60min in a climatic chamber in two experiments with WBGT of around 29°C that represented a low stress (LS, low radiant heat and little clothing) and high stress (HS, high radiant heat and aluminized protective clothing). The findings indicate that heat stress conditions did not cause marked heat strain, which seemed to be within acceptable limits for all age groups. Healthy older men were able to tolerate the heat stress tests as well as young and middle-aged men. However, ratings of thirst in the oldest group may indicate a greater risk for dehydration.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 29 Nov. 1999, Vol.25, No.2, p.195-202. Illus. 29 ref.
Prezant D.J., Kelly K.J., Malley K.S., Karwa M.J., McLaughlin M.T., Hirschorn R., Brown A.
Impact of a modern firefighting protective uniform on the incidence and severity of burn injuries in New York City firefighters
In 1994, The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) changed to modern firefighting protective uniforms, including both protective over-coats and over-pants, whereas traditional uniforms include only the over-coat. Modern uniforms are manufactured using improved thermal protective textiles that meet or exceed current National Fire Protection Association standards for structural firefighting. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the modern uniform on the incidence and severity of FDNY burn injuries and the incidence and severity of other non-burn injuries. The number of lower-extremity burns decreased by 85% when 2 years' experience while wearing the modern uniform was compared with 2 years while wearing the traditional uniforms. Upper-extremity burns and head burns decreased by 65% and 40%, respectively. Severity indicators (days lost to medical leave, hospital admissions and skin grafts) for lower- and upper-extremity burn injuries were all substantially reduced. This occurred without significant change in the incidence or severity of trunk burns, heat exhaustion, inhalation injuries or cardiac events.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.41, No.6, p.469-479. Illus. 9 ref.
Reneau P.D., Bishop P.A., Ashley C.D.
A comparison of physiological responses to two types of particle barrier, vapor permeable clothing ensembles
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on worker productivity of particle barrier, vapour permeable suits based on polyethylene (PE) and on polypropylene (PP). Fifteen male subjects performed four work tests consisting of a walk/arm curl combination, two in a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 26°C and two in a WBGT of 18°C, with subjects wearing each suit once in each environment. No significant difference was observed between the suits at 18°C WBGT, but a significant difference was found between the suits, with the PP having a lower Tre in the WBGT=26°C at the 80th, 100th and 120th min. A significant difference was also seen in the 26°C WBGT with the PP resulting in a lower heart rate (HR) at the 40th, 60th, 80th, 100th and 120th min and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at the 75th, 90th and 120th min. Additionally, a significant difference was seen between PE and PP for Tre, delta Tre, mean skin temp (mTsk), delta mTsk and HR, each regressed against time in the 26°C WBGT. Twelve of the 15 subjects also reported feeling cooler in the PP versus the PE in either WBGT environment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.60, No.4, p.495-501. Illus. 25 ref.
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