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Occupational exposure limits - 3,466 entries found

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  • Occupational exposure limits

2012

CIS 12-0260
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area
List of MAK and BAT values 2011
This report lists maximum permissible workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values of chemical substances in Germany. Contents of the 2011 edition, which contains new data on 61 substances: significance, use and derivation of MAK values (maximum concentrations - maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration); lists of substances with MAK values; carcinogenic substances; sensitizing substances; aerosols; limitation of exposure peaks; skin absorption; MAK values and pregnancy; germ cell mutagens; substances requiring special consideration; significance and use of biological tolerance values (BAT); list of substances with BAT values; biological guideline values (Biologische Leitwerte - BLW). Replaces CIS 10-0091.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2011. 259p. Illus. + CD-ROM. Price: GBP 80.00; EUR 96.00.
List_of_MAK_and_BAT_values_2011_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

2011

CIS 12-0263 EH40/2005 workplace exposure limits
Many workers are exposed to a variety of substances at work, including chemicals, fumes and dusts, which can have a harmful effect on their health. If exposure to these hazardous substances is not properly controlled, it may cause ill health in a number of ways. This book contains advice and guidance about European occupational exposure limits, workplace exposure limits, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (as amended) (COSHH) and approved workplace exposure limits. This edition of EH40 replaces the previous version, first published in 2005 (see CIS 05-401), and takes account of new substances and workplace exposure limits introduced in 2007 and 2011.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2011. 74p. 16 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
EH40/2005_Workplace_exposure_limits_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0563 Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields (1 Hz to 100 kHz)
Lignes directrices pour l'établissement de limites d'exposition aux champs électriques et magnétiques variables dans le temps (fréquences de 1 Hz à 100 kHz) [in French]
This article offers guidelines for fixing exposure limits applicable to time-varying low-frequency electric and magnetic fields of frequency from 1 Hz to 100 kHz for the purpose of human protection. Contents: physical dimensions and units; scientific basis for limiting exposure; guidelines for fixing exposure limits; reference levels; preventive measures; issues relating to possible long-term effects.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st quarter 2011, No.222, p.35-50. Illus. 84 ref.
PR_47-222.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0086 Sperk C., Scutaru A.M., Däumling C., Groneberg D.A.
Description and analysis of the setting of occupational exposure limits in Great Britain
Darstellung und Analyse der Ableitung von Arbeitsplatzgrenzwerten in Grossbritannien [in German]
This article analyses the approach used by the United Kingdom to derive occupational exposure limits. Contents: background; methodical approach; definitions and values of occupational exposure limits; approach for defining occupational exposure limits; establishing the scientific basis; checking the feasibility; role of stakeholder committees; extrapolation factors; specific groups of substances (carcinogens, allergens, sensitizers, reprotoxic substances, skin penetrating substances, mixtures of substances); references to Directive 99/45/EC and United Kingdom Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 2011, Vol.61, No.1, p.22-28. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 10-0826 Exposure limits at the workplace 2011
Grenzwerte am Arbeitsplatz 2011 [in German]
Valeurs limites d'exposition aux postes de travail 2011 [in French]
List of exposure limits at the workplace for 2011 in Switzerland. Contents: exposure limits for harmful substances; list of average and limit exposure values; permissible biological exposure indices; permissible values for physical agents at the workplace (ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, noise and vibration, compressed air, infrared radiation). Replaces CIS 09-249.
Suva, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2001. 156p. Illus.
SUVA_1903.d.pdf [in German]
SUVA_1903.f.pdf [in French]

2010

CIS 11-0688 Chemicals in the enterprise: A policy evaluation tool
Agents chimiques en entreprise: un outil d'évaluation de la politique [in French]
This article comments the provisions of Belgian Royal Decree of 11 March 2002 on chemicals (see CIS 01-1586), and presents a chemical hazards evaluation tool suited for small enterprises, developed and validated by means of a questionnaire survey.
Prevent Focus, Oct. 2010, p.12-15. Illus.

CIS 11-0085 Hazardous substances 2011 - With updated workplace threshold limit values
Gefahrstoffe 2011 - Mit aktuellen Arbeitsplatzgrenzwerten [in German]
Contents of this vademecum with updated threshold limit values for hazardous substances: classification according to technical rules TRGS 900 (workplace threshold limit values), 903 (biological threshold limit values), 905 (CMR substances) and 906 (carcinogenic activities); risk assessment; protective measures; labelling according to GSH; list of P and H phrases; list of R and S phrases; preventive medicine; glossary.
Universum Verlag GmbH, Taunusstrasse 54, 65183 Wiesbaden, Germany, 2010, 262p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: EUR 6.00

CIS 10-0402 Milosavljevic S., Bergman F., Rehn B., Carman A.B.
All-terrain use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock
Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation in daily ATV usage as well as 7-day and 12-month prevalence of spinal pain. Frequency-weighted vibration exposure and total riding time were calculated to determine the daily vibration dose value. Findings are discussed. The results demonstrate high levels of vibration exposure among New Zealand farmers. Practical recommendations to reduce their exposure to WBV are proposed.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.530-535. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 10-0412 Lacey S.E., Abelmann. A., Dorevitch S.
Exposure to human waste from spills while servicing aircraft lavatories: Hazards and methods of prevention
Workers service the lavatories of commercial aircraft approximately 11 million times per year in the United States and may have exposure to the spectrum of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites potentially found in human waste. An industrial hygiene inspection of the workplace was conducted by an interdisciplinary occupational safety and health team, during which the tasks carried out by lavatory waste operators and supervisors were observed. Exposure to untreated waste can occur through dermal, ingestion and inhalation in quantities ranging from droplets to large spills. Several engineering and administrative measures were advised to minimize worker exposure, including the effective locking of a critical valve and a mechanism for communicating valve locking problems.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.123-128. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposure_to_human_waste.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0271 Brasseur G., Ganem Y., Larcher C., Lemarié J., Ravellec C.
Workplace noise - An issue which is often met by silence
Bruit au travail - Une nuisance souvent passée sous silence [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on workplace noise: sound exposure; diseases caused by noise; focus areas of INRS research in 2010; modelling for optimizing noise attenuation in the design of a new facility for the maintenance of trucks; acoustic treatment of the walls in an enterprise producing wooden roof beams.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2010, No.704, p.20-28. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 10-0091
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
List of MAK and BAT values 2010
This report lists maximum permissible workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values of chemical substances in Germany. Contents of the 2010 edition, which contains new data on 61 substances: significance, use and derivation of MAK values (maximum concentrations - maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration); lists of substances with MAK values; carcinogenic substances; sensitizing substances; aerosols; limitation of exposure peaks; skin absorption; MAK values and pregnancy; germ cell mutagens; substances requiring special consideration; significance and use of biological tolerance values (BAT); list of substances with BAT values; biological guideline values (Biologische Leitwerte - BLW). Replaces CIS 08-411.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007. 259p. Illus. + CD-ROM. Price: GBP 80.00; EUR 96.00.

2009

CIS 09-1109 Salonen H.J, Pasanen A.L., Lappalainen S.K., Riuttala H.M., Tuomi T.M., Pasanen P.O., Bäck B.C., Reijula K.E.
Airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and ammonia in Finnish office buildings with suspected indoor air problems
A database of indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde and ammonia in office environments was analysed to suggest interpretation guidelines for measurements in office buildings with suspected indoor air problems. Indoor air samples were collected for VOCs from 176 office buildings, 23 offices for formaldehyde, and 14 office buildings for ammonia in 2001-2006. Although the buildings had reported indoor air complaints, a walk-through inspection by indoor air specialists showed no exceptional sources of indoor air pollutants. The measurements of chemical pollutants did not indicate any clear reason for the complaints. Guidance values for various indoor air pollutants are proposed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.200-209. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 09-429 Exposure limits at the workplace 2009 [Switzerland]
Grenzwerte am Arbeitsplatz 2009 [in German]
Valeurs limites d'exposition aux postes de travail 2009 [Suisse] [in French]
List of exposure limits at the workplace for 2009 in Switzerland. Contents: exposure limits for harmful substances; list of average and limit exposure values; permissible biological exposure indices; permissible values for physical agents at the workplace (ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, noise and vibration, compressed air, infrared radiation). Replaces CIS 07-673.
Suva, Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2009. 152p. Illus.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/01903_d.pdf [in German]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/01903_f.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-251 Glacial acetic acid
Ácido acético glacial [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for glacial acetic acid. The substance is toxic and corrosive. As a liquid or an aerosol, it induces severe skin burns and can cause death. It can cause severe damage to nasal mucous membranes, throat and lungs; high concentrations can cause pulmonary oedema. Eye contact can induce irreversible corneal lesions. Exposure limit values according to ACGIH: 10ppm (TWA) and 15ppm (STEL).
Protección y seguridad, Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2009]. 4p.

2008

CIS 10-0835 Bégin D., Debia M., Gérin M.
Inventory of tools for comparing solvents
Recension des outils de comparaison des solvants [in French]
The substitution of undesirable solvents with less dangerous products or processes is often the most suitable method from the standpoints of occupational safety and health and environmental protection. This study surveyed the available methods and software used to compare solvents by taking into account health, safety, environmental and technical aspects of a substitution project. Thirteen tools are described and discussed, together with several auxiliary tools used for estimating missing physico-chemical, environmental or toxicological data.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vi, 96p. 166 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-567.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-635 Tak S., Roscoe R.J., Alarcon W., Ju J., Sestito J.P., Sussell A.L., Calvert G.M.
Characteristics of US workers whose blood lead levels trigger the medical removal protection provision, and conformity with biological monitoring requirements, 2003-2005
In the United States, workers with blood lead levels (BLL) ≥60µg/dL are required to be removed from work involving lead exposure. This study estimated the proportion of workers with BLLs that triggered the medical removal provision by sector, and examined whether workers received appropriate follow-up blood lead testing. Data from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance Program for 2003-2005 showed that of 13,724 adults with BLLs ≥25µg/dL, 533 had BLLs that triggered the lead exposure removal provision. Rate ratios (RR) of adults with BLLs triggering medical removal were highest for "painting and wall covering contractors" (RR 22.1) followed by "highway, street and bridge construction" (RR 14.7), "amusement, gambling, and recreation" (RR 11.4) and "glass product manufacturing" (RR 10.1). Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.691-700. Illus. 22 ref.
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119877947/PDFSTART [in English]

CIS 09-254 Nitric acid 50-70%
Ácido nítrico 50-70% [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for nitric acid 50-70%. The 50-70% aqueous solution of nitric acid is a strong acid. lt is corrosive and reacts strongly with alkalis, metals and organic compounds. Inhalation causes irritation of the nose, throat and respiratory tract and may cause respiratory impairment and pulmonary oedema. Ingestion may cause immediate pain and burns of the mouth, throat, oesophagus and gastrointestinal tract. Contact with the eyes may cause redness, severe burns and irreversible damage. Contact with the skin causes redness and severe burns. Concentrated solutions may cause ulceration of the skin and yellow spots on the skin. Long periods of exposure to concentrated vapours may cause erosion and loss of the teeth and pulmonary damage (chronic pneumonia and bronchitis). Threshold limit values (ACGIH): 2ppm-5.2mg/m3 (TWA); 4ppm-10mg/m3 (STEL).
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2008]. 4p. Illus.

CIS 09-252 Acetylene
Acetileno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for acetylene. The substance is an extremely inflammable dissolved gas with a smell of garlic. It is asphyxiating agent and has an anaesthetic effect at low concentrations. Inhalation can induce sleepiness, vertigo and dizziness, loss of coordination and unconsciousness. In atmospheres with a low concentration of oxygen, it can cause convulsions, respiratory collapse, and lead to death. In the case of repeated exposure, skin contact of liquid acetylene can cause irritation and dermatitis.
Protección y seguridad, Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2008]. 4p.

CIS 09-397 González Fernández E.
Prospects for defining occupational exposure limits for carcinogens
Perspectivas en el establecimiento de los límites de exposición profesional para los carcinógenos [in Spanish]
In practice, establishing occupational exposure limits for carcinogens involves collecting and analyzing available toxicological and epidemiological data concerning the level (concentration or amount) for which no adverse effects are observed (NOAEL) or the lowest level for which an effect is observed (LOAEL) based on the dose-response relationship for the chemical being evaluated. However, many scientific issues still need to be understood and resolved.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2008, No.50, p.20-26. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 09-145 Duhayon S., Hoet P., Van Maele-Fabry G., Lison D.
Carcinogenic potential of formaldehyde in occupational settings: A critical assessment and possible impact on occupational exposure levels
This literature survey reviewed epidemiological studies investigating the association between occupational exposure to formaldehyde and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) risk having led to a change in the classification of formaldehyde by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2004, as well as studies published thereafter, with the objective to examine whether occupational exposure levels for formaldehyde should be changed. Human studies concerning the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde are not conclusive. Experimental data indicate that in rats, the carcinogenic activity of formaldehyde is associated with cytotoxic mechanisms. Current exposure limits are sufficient for protecting from these effects and should therefore be sufficient to protect from potential carcinogenic effects, if any in humans.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.695-710. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 08-1406 2008 TLVs and BEIs
The information in this pocket-sized publication can be used as a guide for evaluation and control of workplace exposures to chemical substances and physical agents. Threshold Limit Value (TLV) occupational exposure guidelines are recommended for more than 700 chemical substances and physical agents. There are also more than 50 Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) that cover more than 80 chemical substances. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registry numbers are listed for each chemical. Introductions to each section and appendices provide the scientific background and practical recommendations for using TLVs and BEIs.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45240, USA, 2008. xix, 252p. Illus. 12 ref. Index. Price: USD 39.95.

CIS 08-1125 Stouten H., Ott H., Bouwman C., Wardenbach P.
Reassessment of occupational exposure limits
The Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment requested that the Health Council of the Netherlands reassess the health protection of maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) values contained in the 1994 Dutch MAC list. Criteria documents were prepared for 161 substances. They were evaluated by a committee consisting of international experts who reassessed the toxicological hazards of these substances and recommended, whenever possible, health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs). The results of this reassessment were compared with the MAC values of the 1994 Dutch MAC list, ACGIH TLVs, and existing German OELs. It was found that the committee's criteria for a health-based OEL were met for only 40% of the compounds. Many older MAC values were either too high, or not scientifically supported and therefore not health-based.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2008, Vol.51, No.6, p.407-418. 18 ref.

CIS 08-909 Drolet D.
Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for unusual work schedules
Guide d'ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles (VEA) pour les horaires de travail non conventionnels [in French]
Because of recent changes to the Regulations concerning occupational safety and health in Quebec (Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail - RSST, see CIS 02-1506), the IRSST had to update the guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values for unusual work schedules, as well as the computer-based tool allowing its application. This technical guide includes recent toxicological knowledge on the substances concerned by the regulatory changes and allows determining the pathology codes and adjustment categories for the new substances included in the RSST.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 3rd ed., 2008. v, 17p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/T-21.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/T-22.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-914 Drolet D.
Guide to the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for nonusual work schedules
Guide d'ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles (VEA) pour les horaires de travail non conventionnels [in French]
Because of recent changes to the Regulations concerning occupational safety and health in Quebec (Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail - RSST, see 02-1506), the IRSST had to update the Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values for unusual work schedules, as well as the computer-based tool allowing its application. This technical guide includes recent toxicological knowledge on the substances concerned by the regulatory changes and allows to determine the pathology codes and adjustment categories for the new substances included in the RSST. Replaces 04-658.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 3rd ed., 2008. v, 17p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/T-21.pdf [in French]

2007

CIS 10-0154 Manganese and its compounds
Manganèse et ses composés [in French]
Occupational exposures to manganese and its compounds are mainly encountered in the steel and smelting industries, as well as in welding. Other industries such as dry cell manufacture, glassworks, and the production of paints and pigments can give also rise to exposures, as can certain pesticides used in agriculture. Occupational exposure to manganese occurs almost exclusively through inhalation, with the lungs and the central nervous system being the main target organs. In cases of chronic exposure, neurological disorders and in particular perceptual-motor performance, constitute the main critical effect. Higher exposures (generally above 5mg/m3) give rise to Parkinson-like symptoms. The identification of groups of exposed workers is possible by means of determinations in blood or urine. Monitoring of manganese exposure rests mainly on atmospheric sampling. Acceptable occupational exposure levels are 0.050 and 0.200mg/m3 respectively for respirable and inhalable fractions. Replaces CIS 03-827.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 10p. 72 ref.

CIS 09-915 Williams W., Burgess M.
Occupational noise exposure and action levels
European Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253) specifies noise level thresholds above which employers are required to take action. This article examines the concept of action levels and their value in the workplace. A model for introducing action levels into Australian and New Zealand OHS legislation at 5 decibels below current noise exposure limits is proposed, and suggestions for the actions to be undertaken by management are given.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.343-348. 14 ref.

CIS 08-1130 Augustyńska D., Pośniak M.
Harmful agents in the working environment - Permissible levels 2007
Czynniki szkodliwe w środowisku pracy - Wartości dopuszczalne 2007 [in Polish]
This manual lists the occupational exposure limits for chemical, physical and biological harmful agents. The methods of measurement and assessment of occupational exposure to individual substances, as well as the basic rules for limiting exposures are discussed. The European Union directives and Polish regulations specifying employers' obligations with regard to the protection of their employees against harmful exposures to chemical, physical and biological agents are reviewed.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2007. 356p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 08-672 Toxicological data sheets
Fiches toxicologiques [in French]
CD-ROM including the complete collection of 266 data sheets published by the Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS). These data sheets provide a technical and regulatory synthesis of information on hazards related to a product or a group of products. This electronic media allows several query modes: by data sheet number, product name, CAS registry number and EINECS number. It also contains labelling pictograms in colour. The CD-ROM can be installed on a single PC or on a server and runs under both Windows and Macintosh operating systems. Topics covered by each data sheet: uses; physical and chemical properties; methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards; pathology and toxicology; current French occupational safety and health regulations in areas of occupational safety and hygiene, protection of the environment and transport; technical and medical recommendations. Internet version available free of charge. Replaces CIS 07-423.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2007. CD-ROM readable on Macintosh (OS X) or on PC (Windows 98 or higher). Price: EUR 20.00.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParIntranetID/OM:Rubrique:1147FB8BE835851CC1256C940049AE2C/$FILE/Visu.html [in French]

CIS 08-666
Ministerio de trabajo y asuntos sociales
Occupational exposure limits for chemicals in Spain in 2008
Límites de exposición profesional para agentes químicos en España 2008 [in Spanish]
Following an introduction consisting of a review of current Spanish and European regulations, this booklet contains the following sections: objectives and scope; definitions; different types of exposure limits; list of substances and their exposure limits; carcinogenic or mutagenic chemicals; sensitizing chemicals; exposure limits currently being revised; general comment on biological threshold limits; list of biological threshold limits; biological threshold limits currently being revised; methods of sampling and analysis. Appendices include: chemicals classified by CAS number; R-phrases; additional information. Replaces CIS 07-672.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2007. 224p. 13 ref.
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/TextosOnline/Valores_Limite/GT-LEPN024-07%20VLA%202008%20negro_2.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 08-411
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
List of MAK and BAT values 2007
This report lists maximum permissible workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values of chemical substances in Germany. Contents of the 2007 edition: significance, use and derivation of MAK values (maximum concentrations - maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration); lists of substances with MAK values; carcinogenic substances; sensitizing substances; aerosols; limitation of exposure peaks; skin absorption; MAK values and pregnancy; germ cell mutagens; substances requiring special consideration; significance and use of biological tolerance values (BAT); list of substances with BAT values; biological guideline values (Biologische Leitwerte - BLW). Replaces 06-1186.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007. 239p. Illus. Includes CD-ROM.

CIS 08-5 Sodium hypochlorite (6 to15% active chlorine)
Hipoclorito de sodio (6 al 15% de cloro activo) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions (corresponding to 6 to 15% active chlorine). The substance is toxic and corrosive. Inhalation causes severe irritation of the respiratory tract and of the mucous membrane, throat pain, cough, respiratory difficulties and pulmonary oedema. Ingestion causes irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; there is a risk of perforation of the intestine or the oesophagus. Contact with the skin and eyes causes burns, reddening and pain. Prolonged exposure may cause methaemoglobinaemia characterized by headache, weakness, respiratory difficulties, vertigo, pulmonary oedema, cyanosis, tachycardia and unconsciousness, possibly leading to death.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2007]. 4p. Illus.

CIS 07-924 Lefeuvre B.
Radiation protection: Effects, doses (I)
Radioprotection, les effets, les doses (I) [in French]
Radiation protection is of relevance to employees and self-employed individuals who work in the presence of ionizing radiation generated electrically (such as X-rays) or by radioactive sources, as well in the case of the risk of contamination by radioactive substances. This article on radiation protection covers the immediate effects of radiation (damage to living tissues), the longer-term effects (DNA damage), the need for radiation protection and the selection of a suitable level of protection, taking into account both technical and cost factors.
Face au risque, Jan. 2007, No.429, p.15-17. Illus.

CIS 07-673 Exposure limits at the workplace 2007 [Switzerland]
Grenzwerte am Arbeitsplatz 2007 [in German]
Valeurs limites d'exposition aux postes de travail 2007 [Suisse] [in French]
List of exposure limits at the workplace for 2007 in Switzerland. Contents: definitions of exposure limits for harmful substances; list of exposure limit values (including short-term exposure values); carcinogens and other harmful exposures (carcinogenic nitrosamines, benzo(a)pyrene and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, passive smoking at the workplace, asbestos, mutagens, substances toxic for reproduction, artificial mineral fibres, organic peroxides, inert substances, dust and gases); definition of the biological exposure indices (BEI); biological monitoring of harmful substances; list of BEIs; BEI of carcinogens; admissible threshold values for physical agents at the workplace (ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, noise and vibration, compressed air, infrared radiation). Replaces CIS 05-409.
Suva, Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2007. 148p. Illus.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/01903_f.pdf [in French]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/01903_d.pdf [in German]

CIS 07-672 Occupational exposure limits for chemicals in Spain - 2007
Límites de exposición profesional para agentes químicos en España 2007 [in Spanish]
This booklet provides a list of chemical substances and their environmental and biological exposure limits in Spain. Includes separate lists of carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, sensitizers and exposure limits currently being revised. Also provides explanations of the different types of limits and methods of sampling and analysis. Replaces CIS 06-1183.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2007. 234p. 13 ref.

2006

CIS 08-1140 Otto D.
Dangerous substances 2006
Gefahrstoffe 2006 [in German]
This manual offers basic information and practical guidance for the effective management of dangerous substances. It explains the main new provisions of the Hazardous Substances Ordinance which came into effect at the beginning of 2005. It lists the threshold limit concentrations and biological threshold limits at the place of work in Germany (TRGS 900 and TRGS 903), together with several technical rules. Other contents include: carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances; new regulations concerning carcinogens (TRGS 906); regulations applying to specific sectors; preventive measures when working with dangerous substances; medical surveillance requirements.
UniversumVerlag Gmbh & Co KG, 65175 Wiesbaden, Germany, 2006, 208p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: EUR 5.35.

CIS 08-905 Oltmanns J., Schneider K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Examination of the limit dose for the classification of substances as toxic for reproduction
Überprüfung der Grenzdosis zur Einstufung reproduktionstoxischer Stoffe [in German]
A dose of 1000mg/kg body weight/day is generally cited in EU directives and OECD guidelines as a maximum dose for studies on reproductive toxicity. This project investigated whether this limit remained valid in cases of high levels of workplace exposure. To this end, published exposure data together with data from the MEGA database of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association were evaluated. It was noted that exposures to ambient concentrations of volatile substances were in the 500 to 2000mg/m3 range (time weighted averages), while the inhalation exposures to aerosols and skin exposures were low. By using the appropriate extrapolation factors, the corresponding doses were calculated for animal experiments. For volatile substances, these doses were found to be considerably higher than 1000mg/kg/day. The analysis of the results together with other findings shows that the general concept of a limit dose of 1000mg/kg/day for the classification of substances that are toxic for reproduction is not suited to all chemicals.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 65p. Illus. 70 ref. Price: EUR 10.50.

CIS 07-1381 Cohen H., White E.M.
Metalworking fluid mist occupational exposure limits: A discussion of alternative methods
Industrial users of metalworking fluids (MWFs) need to have guidance, such as an occupational exposure limit, to determine when either engineering or administrative controls must be implemented, or whether employees require personal protective equipment. The purpose of this article is to explore various approaches that might be taken to result either in a single or in multiple limits for exposures to MWFs and their components. Approaches such as control banding are discussed in terms of an alternative to the use of an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Since MWFs vary in composition and no single OEL is likely to be appropriate for all such fluids, control banding places all MWF operations into a single band using similar (if not identical) controls. OSHA has published a best practice manual on this topic, which incorporates information from the 1998 NIOSH MWF criteria document.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2006, Vol.3, No.9, p.501-507. 32 ref.

CIS 07-916 Perez M.
Main consequences of the lowering of noise exposure thresholds
Bruit au travail: nouveaux seuils d'exposition sonore [in French]
This article comments on the main consequences of the new lower noise exposure threshold levels in France. When noise levels exceed 80dB, hearing protection must be supplied to workers and noise-exposed workers have the right to hearing tests. The steps to be followed to comply with the revised regulations are summarized: evaluation of noise levels within the enterprise; evaluation of exposure to noise while wearing hearing protection; implementation of prevention measures.
Santé et Sécurité au Travail Actualités, Nov.-Dec. 2006, No.95, p.10-11. 1 ref.

CIS 07-919 Karpowicz J., Hietanen M., Gryz K.
EU Directive, ICNIRP guidelines and Polish legislation on electromagnetic fields
This review article describes the general provisions of and the philosophy behind European Directive 2004/40/EC (CIS 03-1039) and ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines. As an example of national legislation on the protection of workers against excessive electromagnetic field exposure, regulations established in Poland are summarized. The problems of the practical implementation of the EU Directive's provisions are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.125-136. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 07-644 Skowroń J.
2-Methylnaphthalene: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
2-Metylonaftalen: Dokumentacja dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
2-Methylnaphthalene (2-MN) is a white solid that evaporates easily. It is used with 1-methylnaphthalene to make other chemicals such as dyes, resins, leather tanning agents and insecticides. It is also a component of many commonly used commercial solvent mixtures. 2-MN can enter the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and mucous membranes. In animal experiments, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) was set at 87.5 mg/kg and a maximum exposure limit (MAC) for humans was established as 25 mg/m3. Because of the irritant effect, the MAC-STEL value was established at 50 mg/m3. The notations I (irritation) and Sk (skin absorption) should also be included.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2006, Vol.47, No.1, p.185-204. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 07-423 Toxicological data sheets
CD-ROM including the complete collection of 261 data sheets published by the Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS). These data sheets provide a technical and regulatory synthesis of information on hazards related to a product or a group of products. This electronic media allows several query modes: by product name, CAS registry number, regulatory identification number (EINECS and Index) and data sheet number. It also contains labelling pictograms in colour. Topics covered by each data sheet: uses; physical and chemical properties; methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards; pathology and toxicology; current French occupational safety and health regulations in areas of occupational safety and hygiene, protection of the environment and transport; technical and medical recommendations. Replaces CIS 06-1430.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2006. CD-ROM readable on Macintosh or PC. Price: EUR 20.00.

CIS 07-391 Trainor M.T., Ridgway P., Macbeth R.W., Wilday A.J., Balmforth H.F.
Substance prioritisation for the development of EU acute exposure toxicity thresholds (AETLs)
The aim of the EU Acute Exposure project, ACUTEX, is to develop a methodology for establishing European acute exposure threshold levels (AETLs), for substances that present inhalation toxicity. The development of AETLs is initially in the context of the risks of major accidents from chemical sites and in particular their regulation through the "Seveso II" Directive (see CIS 97-1079). It is intended that AETLs can be used within Member States, where appropriate, to inform decisions on land-use planning and emergency planning. AETLs will not have a regulatory status. This paper describes the selection of 21 preliminary substances to use as case studies in the development and testing of the AETL methodology and the development of a methodology for the selection of substances to be considered in priority.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 2006, Vol.133, No.1-3. p.16-23. 19 ref.

CIS 07-390 Wood M., Pichard A., Gundert-Remy U., de Rooij C., Tissot S.M.
The AETL methodology as a potential solution to current challenges associated with the development and use of acute exposure levels in Seveso II applications
This article analyses current trends in the development and use of acute threshold exposure levels (AETLs) in Europe for the implementation of the Seveso II Directive on the control of major-accidents hazards involving dangerous substances (Council Directive 96/82/EC, see CIS 97-1079). It also describes a new initiative to develop a European methodology for deriving acute exposure threshold levels that responds to emerging needs in this area. The ACUTEX project is an EU-funded research project aimed at furthering scientific exchange and collaboration in support of the development of acute exposure levels for toxic substances in Europe. Its goal is to develop a European methodology for deriving AETLs. In particular, it provides the possibility for a common European platform in this field.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 2006, Vol.133, No.1-3. p.8-15. 22 ref.

CIS 07-251 Methyl ethyl ketone
Metil etil cetona [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for methyl ethyl ketone (butanone), The liquid and vapour of this substance are extremely flammable. Inhalation causes irritation of the nose and throat; inhalation of very high concentrations may cause depression of the central nervous system. Ingestion causes abdominal pain and aspiration into the lungs may cause severe lung damage. Contact with the skin causes irritation; the substance may be absorbed by the skin with possible systemic effects. The vapour causes eye irritation and contact with the liquid may cause painful irritation and damage to the eyes. Prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis and prolonged exposure may result in effects on the central nervous system. Persons with pre-existing skin, eye or functional respiratory problems may be more susceptible to the effects of this substance.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2006]. 4p. Illus.

CIS 07-377 Kupczewska-Dobecka M., Soćko R., Czerczak S.
RD50 as the criterion for setting maximum admissible levels of occupational exposure to irritants in Poland
The aim of this project was to analyse Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) values that were proposed for irritants by the Group of Experts for Chemical Agents in Poland, based on the RD50 values (concentrations which elicits a 50% decrease in respiratory rate). Between 1994 and 2004, MAC values for irritants based on RD50 values were set for 17 chemicals. The determined MAC values were found to be within 0.01-0.09 of the RD50 values. The RD50 value was found to be a good rough criterion to set MAC values for irritants, making it possible to make a quick estimation of permissible exposure levels. However, simply setting the MAC value for an irritant at the level of 0.03 RD50 is insufficient to determine precisely the possible hazard to workers' health. Other available toxicological data, such as NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) and LOAEL (Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level) should always be considered as well.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1st quarter 2006, Vol.12, No.1, p.95-99. 17 ref.

CIS 07-158 Borak J.
The beryllium occupational exposure limit: Historical origin and current inadequacy
This review article discusses the historical development of the occupational exposure limit for beryllium and argues in favour of its lowering from the current level of 2µg/m3 at which instances of chronic beryllium disease continue to be reported.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.109-116. Illus. 70 ref.

CIS 06-1414 Carrier G., Bouchard M., Noisel N., Bonvalot Y., Fradet S.
Impact of lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Health impact of an occupational exposure to formaldehyde
This study provides an updated evaluation of the dose-response relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and the incidence of health effects reported in literature. Findings indicate that exposure to formaldehyde concentrations below 0.75ppm is unlikely to cause severe or moderate irritation of the eyes, nose or throat. Between 0.75 and 1ppm, 6.3% of the subjects may present signs of moderate eye irritation. At formaldehyde concentrations between 1 and 2ppm, this proportion increases to 10.1%, while between 2 and 3ppm, it increases to 12.5%. There are limited data on the carcinogenic effects of formaldehyde. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde from 2ppm to 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, as a maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average value (see CIS 04-642 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Jan. 2006. iii, 113p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 8.48. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA13-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1157 Schneider O., Brondeau M.T.
Biological exposure indices
Indices biologiques d'exposition [in French]
Biological exposure indices are reference values corresponding to concentrations of chemical substances, chemical metabolites in biological fluids or exhaled air, and to biological response to a specific chemical substance. These indices can be used to assess worker exposure to chemical substances and should be considered complementary to threshold limit values in air. This article provides definitions of biological exposure indices proposed by ACGIH in the United States (BEI) and DFG in Germany (BAT). It discusses the advantages and the limitations of each of these indices, whose 2005 limit values are provided in tabular form. Replaces CIS 04-152.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.202, p.49-66. 5 ref.

CIS 06-1187 Occupational exposure limits for chemicals in France
Valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle aux agents chimiques en France. [in French]
This document presents a table listing all substances, including carcinogenic substances, for which the ministry in charge of Labour has published occupational exposure limit values (VLEPs), whether they are guidance values or mandatory. Includes an introductory section on monitoring of workplace atmospheres (sampling and analysis, aerosols), permitted values (definitions and objectives, additivity convention, elements and compounds, limitations of occupational exposure values, carcinogens), mandatory values and values recommended by the health insurance fund (CNAM). Replaces Note ND 2098 (CIS 06-167).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2006. 19p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/5462CE3DF935FAFBC12571B20023D726/$FILE/ed984.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1186
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
List of MAK and BAT values 2006
This report lists maximum permissible workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values of chemical substances in Germany. Contents of the 2006 edition: significance, use and derivation of MAK values (maximum concentrations - maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration); lists of substances with MAK values; carcinogenic substances; sensitizing substances; aerosols; limitation of exposure peaks; skin absorption; MAK values and pregnancy; germ cell mutagens; substances requiring special consideration; significance and use of biological tolerance (BAT) values; list of substances with BAT values; biological guideline values (Biologischer Arbeitsstoff-Toleranz-Wert - BLW). (Replaces CIS 06-679).
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006. 251p. Illus. Includes CD-ROM.

CIS 06-1183 Occupational exposure limits for chemicals in Spain 2006
Límites de exposición profesional para agentes químicos en España 2006 [in Spanish]
Following an introduction reviewing current Spanish and European regulations, this booklet contains the following sections: objectives and scope; definitions; different types of exposure limits; list of substances and their exposure limits; carcinogenic or mutagenic chemicals; sensitizing agents; exposure limits currently being currently revised; general considerations concerning biological threshold limits; biological threshold limits; biological threshold limits currently being revised; methods of sampling an analysis. Appendices include: list of chemicals by CAS number; risk phrases; notes to tables. Replaces CIS 05-398.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 203p. 13 ref.
http://www.mtas.es/insht/practice/vlas.htm [in Spanish]

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