Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found
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Wang W., Qiu Y.L., Jiao J., Liu J., Ji F., Miao W.B., Zhu Y., Xia Z.L.
Genotoxicity in vinyl chloride-exposed workers and its implication for occupational exposure limit
In this case-control study, genetic damage in vinyl chloride monomer (VCM workers was evaluated in relation to their occupational cumulative exposure to VCM. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was conducted in 229 VCM workers and 138 controls to detect chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The cumulative exposure dose (CED) of VCM was calculated based on the job type and duration of each worker and the workplace VCM concentration. Dose-response relationships between VCM CED and micronucleus frequency or chromosomal damage were evaluated, and benchmark doses (BMDs) estimated. Dose-response relationships between VCM CED and chromosomal damage were obtained. It is concluded that VCM exposure may induce chromosomal damage at occupational exposure levels below the Chinese national occupational health standard. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.800-810. 55 ref.
Genotoxicity.pdf [in English]
Gerardo Ribeiro M., dos Reis Pedreira Filho W., Riederer E.E.
Qualitative evaluation of chemical hazards - Basic guidance for controlling exposures to chemicals in foundries
Avaliação qualitativa de riscos químicos - Orientações básicas para o controle da exposição a produtos químicos em fundições [in Portuguese]
The purpose of this publication is to help foundries to improve their practices with respect to the storage, handling and identification of chemicals. It offers a qualitative approach to assessing chemical risks, determine control measures, and implement and evaluate the proposed improvements. This approach allows estimating the expected exposure in specific situations and proposes control techniques appropriate for each case.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2011. 93p. Illus. 18 ref.
Avaliação_qualitativa_de_riscos_químicos_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Portuguese]
Démaret P., Donati P.
Integrating electromagnetic radiation hazard into the unique occupational risk management document
Intégrer le risque "rayonnements électromagnétiques" dans le document unique d'évaluation des risques professionnels [in French]
The number of industrial applications involving electromagnetic radiation has significantly increased in recent years. These applications are likely to expose operators to electromagnetic fields exceeding the limits laid down by European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/EC. A survey was carried out to identify the types of equipment emitting the most radiation, which were then classified into eight types: resistance welding, magnetization, induction heating, magnetoscopy, dielectric loss welding, electrolysis, magnetic resonance imagery and microwaves. The number of installations by type was estimated by a market survey, which specifically identified several tens of thousands of resistance welding or magnetization machines. This survey enabled the deduction that at least 100,000 operators in France are at risk of exposure to electromagnetic fields. An assessment of exposure levels for operators at their workstations was undertaken for each equipment type. Electromagnetic fields were measured at 635 workstations fitted with radiation emitting machinery. For each measurement, a severity index corresponding to the ratio of the measured value to the action-triggering value (ATV) recommended by Council Directive 2004/40/EC was calculated. The results show that, for seven equipment types out of the eight which were evaluated, 25-50% of measurements resulted in electromagnetic field values exceeding the corresponding ATV. These findings demonstrate the need for prevention. In most cases, exposure reduction is achieved by moving the workstation away from the radiation source. Technical solutions do exist for certain types of equipment, such as shielding for microwave ovens and high-frequency presses.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2011, No.225, p.45-53. Illus. 4 ref.
Intégrer_le_risque_rayonnements_électromagnétiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Bertrand N., Clerc F.
Overview of occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds between 2003 and 2010
Panorama des expositions professionnelles à des composés organiques volatils entre 2003 et 2010 [in French]
This article presents exposure data to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) subject to French Occupational Exposure Limit (OELs). Data was collected from the COLCHIC database for VOCs most frequently measured between 2003 and 2010. Firstly, the nine most commonly-measured carcinogenic-mutagenic-reprotoxic (CMR) agents were identified, namely toluene, styrene, formaldehyde, ethyl benzene, dichloromethane, n-hexane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and benzene. Ten other VOCs, subject to an OEL but not classified as CMRs, were next identified by breaking down the data into exposure scenarios. This enabled the study to highlight the specific characteristics of various French occupational contexts (activity sector, job or task). In both cases, the exposure indicators provided are common statistical descriptors complemented by the exposure index and the trend over the 8-year study period (2003-2010).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2011, No.225, p.31-44. Illus. 16 ref.
Panorama_des_expositions_professionnelles_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Zeleke Z.K., Moen B.E., Bråtveit M.
Excessive exposure to dust among cleaners in the Ethiopian cement industry
This study characterizes personal exposure to total and respirable dust among production workers in two cement factories in Ethiopia, with particular focus on cleaners. In Ethiopian cement plants, flow lines are partly open, and cleaning workers use brooms and shovels to remove dust that has settled on floors and machines. Personal full-shift samples of total and respirable dust were taken in the breathing zones of 105 workers in two cement plants. Samples of total and respirable dust were collected on 37-mm cellulose acetate filters of closed-face cassettes and in plastic respirable cyclones, respectively. In both factories, cleaners had significantly higher exposures to total and respirable dust than other production workers. Among cleaners, the geometric means for total and respirable dust exposure were 549 and 6.8 mg/m3 in one of the plants, and 153 and 2.8 mg/m3 in the other. Only 7% of the production workers used respiratory protective devices. Preventive measures are needed to reduce dust exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2011, Vol.8, No.9, p.544-550. Illus. 21 ref.
Excessive_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Zhang L., Ye F.L., Chen T., Mei Y., Song S.Z.
Trans, trans-muconic acid as a biomarker of occupational exposure to high-level benzene in China
The work aimed to study the potential correlation between high-level benzene exposures and urinary benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) among Chinese shoe industry workers. Individual benzene-exposed levels were determined by gas chromatography analysis; urinary metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The concentration of benzene ranged from 2.57 to 146.11 mg/m3. The correlation between benzene and t,t-MA was significantly higher than that of SPMA at the postshift. It is concluded that t,t-MA is a more specific biomarker than SPMA at high-level benzene exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1194-1198. Illus. 41 ref.
Trans_trans-muconic_acid_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Deubner D.C., Sabey P., Huang W., Fernandez D., Rudd A., Johnson W.P., Storrs J., Larson R.
Solubility and chemistry of materials encountered by beryllium mine and ore extraction workers - Relation to risk
Beryllium mine and ore extraction mill workers have low rates of beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease relative to the level of beryllium exposure. The objective of this study was to relate these rates to the solubility and composition of the mine and mill materials. Medical surveillance and exposure data were summarized. Dissolution of beryllium oxide (BeO), ore materials and beryllium hydroxide (Be(OH)2) was measured in synthetic lung fluid. The ore materials were more soluble than BeO at pH 7.2 and similar at pH 4.5. Be(OH)2 was more soluble than BeO at both pH levels. Aluminium was also found to be dissolved along with beryllium from ore materials. The Higher solubility of beryllium ore materials and Be(OH)2at pH 7.2 might shorten particle longevity in the lung. The aluminum content of the ore materials might inhibit the cellular immune response to beryllium.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1187-1193. Illus. 22 ref.
Solubility_and_chemistry_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Bernstein J.A., Ghosh D., Sublett W.J., Wells H., Levin L.
Is trimellitic anhydride skin testing a sufficient screening tool for selectively identifying TMA-exposed workers with TMA-specific serum IgE antibodies?
Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) can elicit specific IgE-mediated immune responses leading to asthma. This single-blinded study investigated the ability of TMA skin testing to identify workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Forty TMA-exposed workers who were previously screened for the presence of TMA-IgG and/or IgE serum specific antibodies were skin tested to a TMA-human serum albumin reagent by nurses blinded to their antibody responses. Findings from skin-prick tests were positive in 8 of 11 workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. Intracutaneous testing, performed only on skin prick testing-negative workers, was positive in two additional workers with TMA-serum specific IgE antibodies. A significant correlation was found between serum and skin test dilutions eliciting positive responses. It is concluded that TMA skin testing provides an alternative and potentially more practical method for monitoring TMA-exposed workers at risk of developing IgE sensitization.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1122-1127. Illus. 20 ref.
Is_trimellitic_anhydride_skin_testing_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Scarselli A., Binazzi A., Di Marzio D.
Occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy: Findings from a national database
The aim of this study is to summarize data about occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy. Airborne concentrations of benzene were selected from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens in the period 1996-2007. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for the industrial sectors better characterized in the database. An analysis through linear mixed model was performed to determine factors affecting the exposure level. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.617-625. Illus. 38 ref.
Occupational_exposure_levels_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
The single document, ten years after
Le document unique, dix ans après [in French]
Since November 2001, all French enterprises are obliged to keep records of occupational hazards in a continuously-updated single document. This collection of articles takes stock of the situation ten years after the coming into force of this requirement. Topics addressed: degree of adoption by enterprises; interview of a specialized lawyer; experience of an SME in creating and updating their single document.
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2011, No.146, p.14-19. Illus.
Le_document_unique_dix_ans_après_(INFO)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Le_document_unique_dix_ans_après_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Binet S., Drais E., Chazelet S., Fontaine J.R., Radauceanu A., Reynier M., Ricaud M., Witschger O.
Hazards related to nanoparticles and nanomaterials
Risques liés aux nanoparticules et nanomatériaux [in French]
Report on a conference on the hazards related to nanoparticles and nanomaterials held in Nancy, France, 5-7 April 2011. The 56 presentations were grouped under the following sessions: evaluation of the health effects of nanoparticles; production and properties of nanoparticles; instrumentation and exposure evaluation; reducing emissions and personal protective equipment; hazard evaluation and management.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2011, No.224, p.29-41. 56 ref.
Risques_liés_aux_nanoparticules_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
A screening tool for identifying volatile organic compounds in a workplace atmosphere
Le 'screening', un outil pour l'identification des composés organiques volatils dans une atmosphère de travail [in French]
Evaluating workers' exposure to volatile chemicals at the workplace is an often complex issue. The objective of the method described in this article is to help occupational hygiene specialists identify the substances that are present in workplace atmospheres and to select those that warrant priority evaluation. The proposed technique consists of air sampling through tubes filled with successive layers of adsorbants known for their capacity to capture specific groups of chemicals. Validation was carried out in 23 enterprises.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2011, No.224, p.19-27. Illus. 28 ref.
Le_'screening'_un outil_pour_l'identification_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Sewage systems - Risky work
Réseaux d'assainissement - Des interventions à risques [in French]
Extension and renovation of sewage systems involve hazards, for which prevention requires hazard evaluation, safety and health plans, continuous monitoring of workplace atmospheres, training and the use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Sept. 2011, No.145, p.36-37. Illus.
Réseaux_d'assainissement_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Fell A.K., Notø H., Skogstad M., Nordby K.C., Eduard W., Svendsen M.V., Ovstebø R., Trøseid A.M., Kongerud J.
A cross-shift study of lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers in blood in Norwegian cement production workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate possible effects of aerosol exposure on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and inflammatory markers in blood from Norwegian cement production workers across one work shift (0 to 8 h) and again 32 h after the non-exposed baseline registration. It involved 95 workers from two cement plants in Norway. Assessment of lung function included spirometry and gas diffusion pre- and post-shift. FeNO concentrations were measured and blood samples collected at 0, 8 and 32 h. Blood analysis included cell counts of leucocytes and mediators of inflammation. Findings are discussed. Overall, small cross-shift changes were observed in lung function and inflammatory markers among cement production workers, indicating that inflammatory effects may occur at exposure levels well below 1 mg/m3. However, the associations between these acute changes and personal exposure measurements were weak.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2011, Vol.68, No.11, p.799-805. Illus. 36 ref.
A_cross-shift_study_of_lung_function_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Tomicic C., Vernez D., Belem T., Berode M.
Human mercury exposure associated with small-scale gold mining in Burkina Faso
In Burkina Faso, gold ore is one of the main sources of income for an important part of the active population. Artisan gold miners use mercury in the extraction, a toxic metal whose human health risks are well known. The aim of this study was to assess mercury exposure as well as to understand the exposure determinants of gold miners in small-scale mines. The study population was composed of 93 persons who were directly and indirectly related to gold mining activities on eight sites. Work-related exposures were evaluated based on the specific tasks carried out. Urinary samples were collected and participants were examined by a local medical team for possible symptoms related to the toxic effects of mercury. Mercury levels were high, with 69% of the measurements exceeding the ACGIH biological exposure index of 35 ¿g per g of creatinine (¿g/g-Cr) (prior to shift) while 16% even exceeded 350 ¿g/g-Cr. Various symptoms related to mercury toxicity were observed. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2011, Vol.84, No.5, p.539-546. Illus. 23 ref.
Human_mercury_exposure_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Gaudin R., Marsan P., Ndaw S., Robert A., Ducos P.
Biological monitoring of exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in six French factories: A field study
The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the flexible-PVC industry in France by means of biological monitoring. Over five days of pre-and post-shift sampling, three urinary metabolites of DEHP, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA) were quantified in 62 workers and 29 controls from six factories. Analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after on-line extraction. There is clear evidence of occupational exposure of workers in these factories. Values of 250 and 500 ¿g/l (100 and 280 ¿/g creatinine) for MEHP and 5cx-MEPP, respectively, are proposed as guidance values which should prevent high exposures in the flexible-PVC industry, particularly in factories where DEHP compounds or plastisols are employed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2011, Vol.84, No.5, p.523-531. Illus. 54 ref.
Biological_monitoring_of_exposure_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Vernez D., Wognin B., Tomicic C., Plateel G., Charrière N., Bruhin S.
Cyclododecane exposure in the field of conservation and restoration of art objects
Recent work practices in the conservation and restoration involve the use of cyclododecane (CDD) to protect fragile artifacts during their handling or transportation. Little is known about its toxicity, and no previous exposure has been reported. A short field investigation was conducted to characterize the exposure conditions to both CDD vapours and aerosols. Measurements were conducted in the laboratory of conservation and restoration of the archaeological service in Berne, Switzerland. Three indoor and four outdoor typical work situations, either during brush or spray gun applications, were investigated. Measurements were performed on charcoal adsorbent tube and analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Indoor exposures were of 0.75-15.5 mg/m3, while outdoor exposures were 19.5-53.9 mg/m3. Exposures appear to be extremely localized due to both physicochemical properties and application methods of the CDD. Vapour exposure increases dramatically with the confinement of the workplace. Preventive measures should be undertaken to limit as much as possible these exposures. Field work in confined areas (ditches, underground) is of particular concern. CDD-coated artifacts or materials should be stored in ventilated areas to avoid delayed exposures.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.371-374. Illus. 6 ref.
Cyclododecane_exposure_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Donnay C., Denis M.A., Magis R., Fevotte J., Massin N., Dumas O., Pin I., Choudat D., Kauffmann F., Le Moual N.
Under-estimation of self-reported occupational exposure by questionnaire in hospital workers
Occupational exposure to disinfecting and cleaning agents is common and high in hospitals. The aim of the study was to determine whether self-reported occupational exposure various cleaning and disinfecting agents among hospital workers is accurate, in comparison to expert assessment. Hospital workers were interviewed by questionnaire regarding tasks and use of cleaning and disinfecting agents. The expert assessment involved a standardised procedure to estimate intensity, frequency and probability of exposure for each job. The analysis focused on eight exposures: formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, bleach, alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds, ammonia, sprays and latex gloves. Agreement and differences between self-reported and expert estimates were subjected to statistical analysis. Underestimations of self-reported exposures compared to expert assessments were observed especially for formaldehyde (26.5% vs 32.7%), ammonia (7.4% vs 18.8%), alcohol (64.9% vs 93.0%) and quaternary ammonium compounds (16.6% vs 70.9%). A large underestimation of self-reported exposure and a lack of knowledge of product components were observed. Findings show the relevance of expert assessment in epidemiological studies to limit measurement bias. This work underlines the need for health education programmes on the occupational risks induced by these types of products.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.68, No.8, p.611-617. Illus. 28 ref.
Under-estimation_of_self-reported_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Griffith L.E., Wells R.P., Shannon H.S., Walter S.D., Cole D.C., Côté P., Frank J., Hogg-Johnson S., Langlois L.E.
Translation of mechanical exposure in the workplace into common metrics for meta-analysis: A reliability and validity study
Previous work assessed inter-rater reliability of expert raters using six scales to estimate the intensity of literature-based mechanical exposures. The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact on the inter-rater reliability of using non-expert (NE) raters and to assess the validity of rating scales. Expert and non-expert (students with training in biomechanics) rated reports from published articles that described mechanical exposure into a set of common metrics. Seven-point scales were used to represent three dimensions of mechanical exposures at work: trunk posture; weight lifted or force exerted; spinal loading. Findings support using NE raters to estimate the intensity of literature-based mechanical exposure metrics using a common set of scales which can be applied across epidemiologic studies. One would need to average the ratings of at least five NE raters to have an acceptable level of reliability.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.68, No.8, p.605-610. Illus. 42 ref.
Translation_of_mechanical_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Foresight of new and emerging risks to occupational safety and health associated with new technologies in green jobs by 2020
This report describes the work carried out in the first phase of a project aimed at identifying key contextual drivers of change that could contribute to creating new and emerging risks associated with new technologies in green jobs within ten years. The report serves as an interim report to the whole project, which has several phases.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2011. 55p. Illus. 21 ref.
Foresight_of_new_and_emerging_risks_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Summary of the Making Green Jobs Safe Workshop
This report summarizes the topics discussed at a workshop on making green jobs safe held in Washington DC, USA, 14-16 December 2009. Green jobs, which are defined broadly as jobs that help improve the environment and enhance sustainability, offer opportunities as well as challenges for workers. Examples of green jobs include manufacture, installation, and maintenance of solar panels and generators; construction and maintenance of wind energy turbines; jobs related to recycling; jobs related to the manufacture of green products; and jobs where green products are used in traditional fields such as agriculture, healthcare, and the service sector. In some instances, the hazards to workers may be similar to those in established industries. However, some green and sustainable practices may pose new health concerns for workers.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug. 2011. xi, 70p. 17 ref.
Summary_of_the_Making_green_jobs_safe_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Martin P., Galland B., Nicot T., Klingler J., Martin C., Vignaud M.C.
Exposure to organic solvents when placing electrodes for long-term electroencephalograms
Exposition aux solvants organiques lors de la pose d'électrodes pour électroencéphalogrammes de longue durée [in French]
Nurses responsible for placing and removing electrodes for long-term electroencephalograms use adhesives and adhesive removers which may contain varying proportions of volatile and unpleasant ethanol and diethyl ether. In this study, exposure to ethanol and diethyl ether was measured at several workplaces. Findings allowed to better understand the exposures of nursing personnel during specific tasks and to propose a number of preventive measures to be applied.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.397-408. Illus. 6 ref.
Exposition_aux_solvants_organiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Ostiguy C., Cordeiro R., Bensimon G., Baril M.
Portrait of the occupational lead exposure in Quebec and the blood lead levels from January 2001 to December 2008
Portrait de l'exposition professionnelle au plomb au Québec et niveaux de plombémie de janvier 2001 à décembre 2008 [in French]
The IRSST's laboratories regularly analyze air samples to determine the presence of lead in the air, with blood lead being the most common toxicological analysis. This study aims to provide information on occupational exposure to lead of workers in Quebec and covers the period from 2001 to 2008. It examines the profile of establishments which have implemented health programs and requested these types of lead-related analyses, by activity sector and administrative region. For the study period (2001 to 2008), 16,817 blood lead results are available and cover 6,717 workers in 500 companies. It is noted that the number of people with a high blood lead levels decreases steadily over time, suggesting improvement in the control of worker exposure. Other findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 45p. Illus. 4 ref.
Portrait_de_l'exposition_professionnelle_au_plomb_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Giguère M.C., Larivière P., Dion C., Van Tra H.
Determination of beryllium in workplace air - Development of a fluorescence analysis method
Détermination du béryllium dans l'air en milieu de travail - Mise au point d'une méthode d'analyse en fluorescence [in French]
Since the early 2000s, concern about the presence of beryllium (Be) in workplaces has continued to increase. Professionals who are part of the occupational health network use the IRSST's laboratories to document the presence of Be and worker exposure to this metal. Sample preparation requires many manipulations and an analysis lasts several days. The objective of this study was to develop a faster method for evaluating Be concentrations in the air and on work surfaces. As part of the program of monitoring and control of worker exposure to beryllium, this study led to the development of a specific analytical process by molecular fluorescence, faster and cheaper than the conventional method.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. x, 45p. Illus. Approx. 50 ref.
Détermination_du_béryllium_dans_l'air_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Roberge B., Aubin S., Cloutier Y.
Characterization of dusts in the food seasoning sector
Caractérisation des poussières dans le secteur des assaisonnements alimentaires [in French]
The objective of this study was to define the characteristics of airborne dust in enterprises producing flavouring mixtures based on aromatic spices and herbs. The focus was mainly on the workplaces of operators assigned to grinding, mixing and packaging of food seasoning products. In a vast majority of cases, concentrations measured at fixed workplace environments were lower than the Quebec permissible exposure value of 10 mg/m3, although some were higher than the recommendations of the United Kingdom Seasoning and Spice Association (SSA), which is 3 mg mg/m3. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. x, 44p. Illus. Approx. 70 ref.
Caractérisation_des_poussières_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Baltrėnas P., Buckus R.
Research and assessment of safety distance of TV electromagnetic fields
The evaluation covers the strengths of electric field and magnetic flux density measured in frequency ranges of 5 Hz-2 kHz and 2-400 kHz of selected TV sets. The dependence of the electromagnetic field on the distance is addressed with reference to ergonomics and safety. Ten TV sets (5 tube and 5 LCD) were measured. There were 16 measurements for each TV set. The aim was to evaluate electric field and magnetic flux density versus the distance from the tested device with regard to exposure levels. In addition, the distance and the strengths of electric field and magnetic flux density emitted by tube and LCD TVs were compared. The results are presented in charts.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.1, p.33-39. Illus. 24 ref.
A screening tool for identifying volatile organic compounds in a workplace atmosphere
Le "screening", un outil pour l'identification des composés organiques volatils dans une atmosphère de travail [in French]
This article presents a method for identifying chemicals in workplace atmospheres. The proposed technique consists of air sampling through a tube containing successive layers of adsorbents known for their capacity to capture specific classes of chemicals. The behaviour of three commercial multi-layer tubes was studied using substances having various properties, in presence of humidity and for various volumes and sampling throughputs. The technique was validated in 23 enterprises. Sampling enabled the identification of volatile organic compounds in workplace air and more specific evaluations conducted jointly confirmed the findings.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2011, No.224, p.19-27. Illus. 28 ref.
Alexopoulos E.C., Bouros D., Dimadi M., Serbescu A., Bakoyannis G., Kokkinis F.P.
Comparative analysis of induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) profile in asbestos exposed workers
Induced sputum (IS) cellular profile was compared with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) profile in asbestos-exposed workers in order to assess its usefulness in monitoring workers exposed to asbestos for long periods of time. IS and BALF analyses were performed in 39 workers of a car brake and clutch plant using chrysotile asbestos. The type of cells, the existence of dust cells, of iron laden macrophages and of asbestos bodies were assessed and compared between IS and BALF samples. Findings are discussed. IS and BALF analyses showed a similar cellular profile indicating that IS sampling in exposed workers to asbestos, being a less invasive and expensive method, may be useful in providing an insight both for inhalation of dusts and inflammatory processes in the lung.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, 6:23, 7p. Illus. 22 ref.
Comparative_analysis.pdf [in English]
Hung P.C., Cheng S.F., Liou S.H., Tsai S.W.
Biological monitoring of low-level 2-butoxyethanol exposure in decal transfer workers in bicycle manufacturing factories
In this study, exposures to 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) in decal transfer workers in the Taiwan bicycle manufacturing industry were investigated. 80 workers in two bicycle factories completed a questionnaire. NIOSH method 1403 was adopted for air sampling and analysis of 2-BE. Pre-work and post-work urine samples were also collected for determination of total 2-butoxyacetic acid (BAA) after hydrolysis. Haemoglobin tests were performed using an automated haemoglobin analysis system. The 31 decal transfer workers whose hands were in direct contact with a dilute aqueous solution of 2-BE, were exposed to an average of 1.7 ppm of 2-BE in air. Correlation of 2-BE in air and postshift urinary BAA levels (after hydrolysis) was poor. Postshift total BAA levels in urine on Monday and Friday (446.8 and 619.4 mg/g creatinine) were around 223% and 310% of the ACGIH proposed Biological Exposure Index. Higher levels of total BAA were observed in the urine of subjects exposed to low-level 2-BE in air, presumably because of direct dermal contact. The mean pre-shift BAA on Friday was significantly higher than that on Monday, implying that the more days of exposures, the higher the accumulation. Since accumulation occurred with low-level exposure to 2-BE, it is recommended that urine samples be collected at the end of the working week.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.777-782. Illus. 36 ref.
Hohnen P., Hasle P.
Making work environment auditable - A "critical case" study of certified occupational health and safety management systems in Denmark
This article discusses the impact of certification on occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems. Most research in the field has focused on how well such systems comply with voluntary standards such as OHSAS 18001 or with national and international legislation. However, even in cases of compliance, the certified systems have problems dealing with a range of contemporary complex work environment issues. Furthermore, certification also transforms the kinds of topics addressed and the procedures and activities applied in the system. Using the development of certified OHSM system in a manufacturing company in Denmark as a critical case, it is shown how certified OHSM systems unintentionally yet actively create an environment of "measurable and auditable facts" shaped not only in response to legal and market demands for a safe work environment, but also as a consequence of the external demands for a visible and accountable work environment standard.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.49, p.1022-1029. 25 ref.
Making_work_environment_auditable.pdf [in English]
Report on endocrine disruptors, time for precaution
Rapport sur les perturbateurs endocriniens, le temps de la précaution [in French]
The increased incidence of certain hormone-dependant cancers (breast, prostate) and concerns with respect to human fertility are the subject of wide debate. Substances designated as being endocrine disruptors are strongly suspected of playing an important role. This report addresses the impact of these disruptors on the environment and on human health, as well as the means of managing these risks, both at the French and European levels, based on available scientific data.
Direction de l'information législative et administrative (DILA), Edition La Documentation française, 29 quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris, France, July 2011, Internet document.
Perturbateurs_endocriniens.pdf [in French]
Yamaguchi-Sekino S., Ojima J., Sekino M., Hojo M., Saito H., Okuno T.
Measuring exposed magnetic fields of welders in working time
The assessment of the electromagnetic field exposure of welders is of great importance, especially in shielded-arc welding which uses relatively strong electric currents of up to several hundred amperes. This study measured the magnetic field exposure level of welders during their work. A 3-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to the subjects' wrists in order to place the sensor probe as close as possible to the magnetic source. Data was acquired every 5s. The maximum exposed field was 0.35-3.35 mT and the average value per day was 0.04-0.12 mT. Finite element analyses of human hand tissue were conducted for electromagnetic field dosimetry. Magnetic fields associated with grinders, air hammers and electromagnetic drills were also measured, but were found to be much lower than those generated during the welding process.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.274-279. Illus. 20 ref.
Measuring.pdf [in English]
Occupational hygiene and risk prevention: A complementary science to occupational medicine
Hygiène du travail et prévention des risques: une science complémentaire à la médecine du travail [in French]
The purpose of occupational health is to ensure healthy working conditions and healthy workers. Occupational hygiene focuses on the working environment in order to manage the hazards and thus protect workers from disease. This review article presents this branch of activity with its specific aspects, highlighting its complementarity with occupational medicine.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2011, No.171, 10p. Illus. 25 ref.
Hecht C., Jargot D.
Workers' exposure evaluation during the processing of epoxy resins
Evaluer l'exposition des salariés lors de la mise en œuvre de résines époxydiques [in French]
Following several requests from automotive component manufacturers, aerospace enterprises and ski manufacturers wishing to evaluate and characterize occupational exposures to epoxy resins, IRNS undertook a sampling campaign between 2005 and 2007. All the substances contained in the products used were identified, after which atmospheric and surface samplings were carried out within the enterprises and analyzed for monomers, amines, acid anhydrides and glycidic esters. It is concluded that inhalation exposures to monomers are very low or non-existent, even under hot processing conditions. The little exposures that do exist concern airborne hardeners or skin contact with monomers.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2011, No.125, p.49-60. Illus. 34 ref.
TF_190.pdf [in French]
Schoonover T., Conroy L., Lacey S., Plavka J.
Personal exposure to metal fume, NO2, and O3 among production welders and non-welders
The objective of this study was to characterize personal exposures to welding-related metals and gases for production welders and non-welders in a large manufacturing facility. Welding fume metals and irritant gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and ozone (O3) were sampled for 38 workers. Personal exposure air samples for welding fume metals were collected on open-face cassettes and nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposure samples were collected with diffusive passive samplers. Samples were analyzed for metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and welding fume metal exposure concentrations were defined as the sum of welding-related metals mass per volume of air sampled. Welding fume metal exposures were highly variable among similar types of welding while NO2 and O3 exposure were less variable. Welding fume metal exposures were significantly higher (474 μg/m3) for welders than non-welders (60 μg/m3). Welders were exposed to higher concentrations NO2 and O3 than non-welders but the differences were not statistically significant. Welding fume metal exposure concentrations for welders performing gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) were higher than welders performing gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Non-welders experienced exposures similar to GTAW welders despite a curtain wall barrier separating welding and non-welding work areas.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.63-72. 44 ref.
Personal_exposure_to_metal_fume.pdf [in English]
Eng A., 't Mannetje A., Ellison-Loschmann L., McLean D., Cheng S., Pearce N.
Ethnic differences in patterns of occupational exposure in New Zealand
The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in occupational exposure between Māori (New Zealand's indigenous people) and non-Māori. Participants were randomly selected from the Electoral Roll. Exposure to occupational risk factors was assessed through telephone interviews and exposure prevalences of 273 Māori and 2724 non-Māori workers were compared. Subsequently, Māori were matched with non-Māori on current occupation to assess whether ethnic differences also exist within occupations. Māori were more likely to report exposure to physical strain. Part of these differences remained when Māori were compared with non-Māori in the same job. In addition, Māori women were twice as likely to categorize their job as very or extremely stressful than non-Māori women in the same job, while Māori men were twice as likely to report exposure to dust. Marked ethnic differences exist in risk factors for occupational ill-health, due to both occupational distribution and the distribution of tasks within occupations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.410-418. Illus. 40 ref.
Henn S.A., Sussell A.L., Lin J.T., Shire J.D., Alarcon W.A., Tak S.
Characterization of lead in US workplaces using data from OSHA's integrated management information system
Lead hazards continue to be encountered in the workplace. OSHA's Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) is the largest available database containing sampling results at United States workplaces. Personal airborne lead sampling results in IMIS were extracted for the years 1979 to 2008. Descriptive analyses, geographical mapping and regression modeling of results were performed. Seventy-nine percent of lead samples were in the manufacturing sector. Lead sample results were highest in the construction sector (median=0.03mg/m3). Lead hazards have been most prevalent in the north and northeastern regions of the United States. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.356-365. Illus. 30 ref.
Widner T.E., Gaffney S.H., Panko J.M., Unice K.M., Burns A.M., Kreider M., Marshall J.R., Booher L.E., Gelat R.H., Paustenbach D.J.
Airborne concentrations of benzene for dock workers at the ExxonMobil refinery and chemical plant, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (1977-2005)
Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. In this study, historical samples of airborne benzene collected from 1977-2005 at the docks of a large refinery and petrochemical plant in the United States were evaluated. Workers were categorized into 11 job titles for which benzene concentrations were assessed. Approximately 800 personal air samples were analyzed. Findings are discussed. Samples for specific job categories showed that concentrations have decreased over the past 30 years. Recognizing the potential for benzene exposure, this facility has required workers to use respiratory protective equipment during selected tasks and activities; thus, the concentrations measured were likely to be greater than those that the employees actually experienced.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.147-158. Illus. 43 ref.
Airborne_concentrations.pdf [in English]
Harris C., Eisen E.A., Goldberg R., Krause N., Rempel D.
1st place, PREMUS best paper competition: Workplace and individual factors in wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers -The San Francisco study
This study reports findings from a prospective study of right wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers. It involved 413 workers in four industries, who were followed for 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every four months to identify incident cases of right wrist tendinosis. Exposure assessment of force and repetition were based on field measurements and video analysis to determine repetition rate and the percent time in heavy pinch or power grip. All exposure variables were measured at the level of the individual and task. For workers responsible for more than one task, a time-weighted average exposure was calculated based on task hours per week. A proportional hazards model was used to assess the relationship between exposures and incidence of wrist tendinosis. During the 481 person-years of follow-up, there were 26 incident cases of right wrist tendinosis. Adjusting for age, gender and repetition, wrist tendinoses were associated with percent time spent in heavy pinch tasks. An exposure-response relationship was observed for the percent time spent in heavy pinch. The percent time spent in power grip was not a significant predictor, nor were any measures of repetition.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.85-98. Illus. 23 ref.
MacFarlane E., Simpson P., Benke G., Sim M.R.
Suicide in Australian pesticide-exposed workers
Epidemiological research has observed that workers with exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides, and particularly those with a history of acute overexposure, may be at increased risk of depression. However, there is little published research about the risk of suicide in relation to pesticide exposure. A nested case-control study was performed within a retrospective cohort study of pesticide-exposed workers. Ninety male suicide deaths and 270 male controls were matched by age bands, state of residence and live status. Cholinesterase inhibition was determined using subject-specific biomonitoring records collected at the time of exposure. This study did not find an elevated suicide risk associated with use of any major class of pesticide and there was little evidence that overexposure was associated with increased risk of suicide.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.259-264. 29 ref.
Jaakkola M.S., Sripaiboonkij P., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers
The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures in tile industry and lung function, and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.151-158. Illus. 36 ref.
Yokel R.A., Macphail R.C.
Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention
The understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates that the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards, including fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness of some of these controls are also included. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Mar. 2011, 6:7, 27p. Illus. 229 ref.
Engineered_nanomaterials.pdf [in English]
Svendsen K., Hilt B.
The agreement between workers and within workers in regard to occupational exposure to mercury in dental practice assessed from a questionnaire and an interview
In epidemiological studies, the validity of exposure data obtained from questionnaires is seldom evaluated. When conducting a study on the possible health effects from mercury exposure in dental practice, this study compared answers on exposure from a job-specific questionnaire with answers to the same questions given at an interview 6 to 18 months later. The concordance between workers was evaluated by comparing answers to the questionnaire given by persons working in the same clinics during the same time spans and the agreement within workers by comparing answers to the same questions from a questionnaire and from an interview. Other aims were to see if there was a difference in the answers to the questionnaire across job titles and to study the impact of missing information on the response rate in a detailed questionnaire. The results of this study indicate that a mailed questionnaire will cause misclassification of exposure. The observed occurrence of false positive exposure classifications from the questionnaire compared to the interview was higher than for false negative. This is important and may result in serious bias if the prevalence of exposure is low. Due to missing information, detailed questionnaires may also be inefficient if the goal is to construct exposure measures from combinations of several answers in the questionnaire.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Mar. 2011, 22p. 12 ref.
The_agreement_between_workers.pdf [in English]
Lavoué J., Gérin M., Vincent R.
Comparison of formaldehyde exposure levels in two multi-industry occupational exposure databanks using multimodel inference
This study compared formaldehyde measurements in the French (COLCHIC) and United States (IMIS) occupational exposure databases for 1986-2001 using multimodel inference. Modeled variables included data source, industry, year and sample type. The model set included 72 models corresponding to testing all variables and five interactions and estimation of 93 coefficients. Respectively, 3143 and 2646 IMIS and COLCHIC data, spread across 28 common industries, were analyzed. The full model explained 21% of the total variability. All fixed effects and the source-industry interaction were shown as strong predictors of exposure. The temporal trend (5% yearly decrease) and difference between short-term and long-term data (short-term greater than long-term by two-fold) were similar across the two databanks. Overall, the analysis showed that both databanks provide a similar multi-industry portrait of formaldehyde exposure despite a potential for very different occupational settings. The results offer encouraging insight about extrapolation of exposure data across countries.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.38-48. Illus. 42 ref.
Day G., LeBouf R., Grote A., Pendergrass S., Cummings K., Kreiss K., Kullman G.
Identification and measurement of diacetyl substitutes in dry bakery mix production
In 2008, a company using multiple buttermilk flavorings in the production of dry bakery mixes replaced one liquid flavoring containing 15-20% diacetyl with a proprietary substitute meant to lower occupational risk for diacetyl-related bronchiolitis obliterans. Subsequently, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated buttermilk flavoring-related exposures at this company's facility, with a focus on measuring ketones by several methods. Of five flavorings from five different flavorings manufacturers, diacetyl was present in four. Other products found share the same functional μ-diketone group as diacetyl, so they may also share diacetyl's mechanism of toxicity. Until more is known about 2,3-pentanedione and other μ-diketone compounds, they should not be assumed to be safe. Companies using artificial buttermilk flavorings should use a precautionary approach that assumes that these flavorings pose a health risk and limit exposures through engineering and administrative controls and use of personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2011, Vol.8, p.93-103. Illus. 19 ref.
Verma D.K., Vacek P.M., des Tombe K., Finkelstein M., Branch B., Gibbs G.W., Graham W.G.
Silica exposure assessment in a mortality study of Vermont granite workers
A study of past silica and respirable dust exposures in the Vermont granite industry was conducted to develop a job exposure matrix (JEM) that used 5204 industrial hygiene measurements made from 1924-2004. Percent free silica (μ-quartz) in respirable dust was estimated to be 11.0% based on previous published studies in Vermont and on data in the current database. This JEM has been used in a recent epidemiologic study to assess mortality in Vermont granite workers and to examine the relationships among mortality from silicosis, lung cancer, and other nonmalignant respiratory diseases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2011, Vol.8, p.71-79. Illus. 24 ref.
Potts J.D., Reed W.R., Colinet J.F.
Evaluation of face dust concentrations at mines using deep-cutting practices
In this study, dust surveys were conducted at six underground mines in the United States to determine if deep-cut mining practices expose face workers to higher levels of respirable dust by comparing levels during the first 20ft of advance (regular-cut depth), during the deep cut to levels and during the final 10 to 20ft of advance (deep-cut depth). In general, all of the selected mines exercised good dust control practices by maintaining water sprays, scrubber airflows, proper curtain setback distances and providing sufficient airflow to the active faces. All of the operations surveyed for this study were able to successfully implement deep-cutting methods without significantly increasing the dust exposures of face workers during the cutting and bolting cycles. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Jan. 2011. Internet document, PDF format, 94p. Illus. 15 ref.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-131.pdf [in English]
Locations and limits for atmospheric and biological sample collection and for regulatory values and associated indicators
Places et limites des prélèvements atmosphériques et biologiques et des valeurs réglementaires et indicateurs associés [in French]
This review article addresses the evaluation of occupational exposures, and more specifically the scientific criteria for fixing occupational exposure limits, and atmospheric and biological sampling strategies.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 1st Quarter 2011, No.170, 10p. Illus. 36 ref.
Methner M., Hodson L., Dames A., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part B: Results from 12 field studies
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted field studies at 12 sites using the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT, see ISN 112474)) to characterize emissions during processes where engineered nanomaterials were produced or used. Field studies were conducted in research and development laboratories, pilot plants, and manufacturing facilities handling carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multi-walled), carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, carbon nanopearls, metal oxides, electrospun nylon, and quantum dots. The results demonstrated that the NEAT was useful in evaluating emissions and that readily available engineering controls can be applied to minimize nanomaterial emissions.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, p.163-176. Illus. 18 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_assessment_technique_Part-B_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Methner M., Hodson L., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part A
There are currently no exposure limits specific to engineered nanomaterials, nor any national or international consensus standards on measurement techniques for nanomaterials in the workplace. However, facilities engaged in the production and use of engineered nanomaterials have expressed an interest in learning whether the potential for worker exposure exists. Some of the existing techniques lack specificity and field portability, and are difficult to use and expensive when applied to routine exposure assessment. This article describes the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) that uses a combination of measurement techniques and instruments to assess potential inhalation exposures in facilities that handle or produce engineered nanomaterials. It uses portable direct-reading instrumentation supplemented by a pair of filter-based air samples (source-specific and personal breathing zone). The use of the filter-based samples are crucial for identification purposes because particle counters are generally insensitive to particle source or composition and make it difficult to differentiate between incidental and process-related nanomaterials using number concentration alone. Results from using the NEAT at 12 facilities are presented in the companion article (see ISN 112475).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, p.127-132. Illus. 15 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_assessment_technique_Part-A_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
WHO human health risk assessment toolkit: Chemical hazards
Aimed at for public health and environmental professionals, regulators, industrial managers and other decision-makers, this WHO manual provides users with guidance to identify, acquire and use the information needed to assess chemical hazards, exposures and the corresponding health risks in their given health risk assessment contexts at local or national levels. It contains road maps for conducting a human health risk assessment, identifies information that must be gathered to complete an assessment and lists electronic links to international resources from which the user can obtain information and methods essential for conducting the human health risk assessment. Contents: description of human health risk assessment of chemicals; description of the toolkit; international risk assessment resources; case studies (drinking water, PM10 respirable particulate matter, pesticides).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2010, xv, 87p. Illus. Approx. 100 ref.
WHO_human_health_risk_assessment_toolkit_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
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