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Cancer and carcinogens - 110 entries found

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  • Cancer and carcinogens

2012

CIS 12-0202 Betenia N., Costello S., Eisen E.A.
Risk of cervical cancer among female autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluids
Cervical cancer is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). However, only a small proportion of women infected with HPV, progress to cervical cancer. Other co-factors must therefore be necessary to cause cervical cancer. This study examined cervical cancer in relation to occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF), which are complex mixtures containing several known carcinogens. A cohort of 4374 female autoworkers was followed from 1985-2004 for cancer diagnosis, with a focus on cervical cancer. Pooled logistic regression was used to model the relationship between exposure to three different types of MWF, selected constituents, and incidence of cervical cancer. Based on 40 cases, SIRs were statistically significantly elevated for both race-specific subgroups: 3.30 and 2.43, respectively for Caucasian and African-American women. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) was also statistically significantly elevated for Caucasian women (3.44) based on seven observed deaths. However there was no association with oil-based straight fluid. Relative risks for soluble and synthetic MWF and nitrosamines were modestly elevated but not statistically significant.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Jan. 2012, Vol.38, No.1, p.78-83. 33 ref.
Risk_of_cervical_cancer_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

2011

CIS 12-0257 Bertrand N., Clerc F.
Overview of occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds between 2003 and 2010
Panorama des expositions professionnelles à des composés organiques volatils entre 2003 et 2010 [in French]
This article presents exposure data to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) subject to French Occupational Exposure Limit (OELs). Data was collected from the COLCHIC database for VOCs most frequently measured between 2003 and 2010. Firstly, the nine most commonly-measured carcinogenic-mutagenic-reprotoxic (CMR) agents were identified, namely toluene, styrene, formaldehyde, ethyl benzene, dichloromethane, n-hexane, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and benzene. Ten other VOCs, subject to an OEL but not classified as CMRs, were next identified by breaking down the data into exposure scenarios. This enabled the study to highlight the specific characteristics of various French occupational contexts (activity sector, job or task). In both cases, the exposure indicators provided are common statistical descriptors complemented by the exposure index and the trend over the 8-year study period (2003-2010).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2011, No.225, p.31-44. Illus. 16 ref.
Panorama_des_expositions_professionnelles_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0199 Nishio N., Tanaka H., Nishio J., Kouda K., Takeshita T.
Autopsy cases of lung cancer and liver cancer among Japanese dentists - A review of the annual of the pathology autopsy cases in Japan
Dentists are exposed to carcinogenic metals during their work. It has been speculated that dentists are also at high risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C, with possible increased risk of lung and liver cancer. This study was carried out to verify this hypothesis, by comparing the number of pathological diagnoses of lung cancer and liver cancer among autopsy cases of 225 male dentists with that among autopsy cases of 1296 male medical doctors. No difference between the dentist group and the medical doctor group was observed in the pathological diagnoses of lung cancer. Liver cancer was observed less often among dentists than among medical doctors.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.663-671. 65 ref.
Autopsy_cases_of_lung_cancer_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0198 Elshazley M., Shibata E., Hisanaga N., Ichihara G., Ewis A.A., Kamijima M., Ichihara S., Sakai K., Sato M., Kondo M., Hasegawa Y.
Pleural plaque profiles on the chest radiographs and CT scans of asbestos-exposed Japanese construction workers
Pleural plaques are asymptomatic focal thickenings of the pleura and considered the hallmark of asbestos exposure. However, it is often difficult to detect pleural plaques on chest x-rays (CXR). This retrospective study was based on chest CT scans of 140 Japanese asbestos-exposed construction workers who have probable or definite findings of pleural plaque on CXR. A plaque morphology-based classification for CXR was proposed and compared to interpretations of CT scans. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that chest radiography continues to be a suitable tool for screening asbestos-related pleural plaques considering its simplicity, wide availability and cost-effectiveness.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.49, No.5, p.626-633. Illus. 15 ref.
Pleural_plaque_profiles_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0171 Samson E., Telle-Lamberton M., Caër-Lorho S., Bard D., Giraud J.M., Metz-Flamant C., Neron M.O., Quesne B., Acker A., Tirmarche M., Hill C.
Cancer mortality among two different populations of French nuclear workers
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of external photon radiation on the mortality of two populations of French nuclear workers, those exposed only to external photon radiation and those potentially-exposed also to internal contaminations and to neutrons. External photon radiation was measured through individual dosimeters. Potential exposure to internal contamination or to neutrons was assessed by experts on the basis of quantitative measurements or of worksite and type of activity. The mortality observed in each population was compared with that expected from national mortality statistics, by computing standardized mortality ratios. Dose-effect relationships were analyzed through trend tests and log-linear Poisson regressions. A total of 14,796 workers were exposed only to external photon radiation, while 14,408 workers were also potentially exposed to internal radiation or to neutrons. Overall healthy worker effects were observed in both populations (SMR 0.59). However, an SMR of 2.41 was observed for malignant melanoma among workers of the second population. Significant dose-effect relationships were observed among workers exposed only to external photon radiation for leukemia, and in the other population, for cancers and other diseases related to tobacco or alcohol consumption.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.627-634. Illus. 9 ref.
Cancer_mortality_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0161 Guida F., Papadopoulos A., Menvielle G., Matrat M., Févotte J., Cénée S., Cyr D., Schmaus A., Carton M., Paget-Bailly S., Radoï L., Tarnaud C., Bara S., Trétarre B., Luce D., Stücker I.
Risk of lung cancer and occupational history - Results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study
The objective of this French population-based case-control study was to assess the risk of lung cancer associated with occupations and industries. It included 2923 cases and 3555 controls. Lifelong occupational history was collected. Two lists of occupations known (A) or suspected (B) to be associated with lung cancer were used. Among men, the smoking-adjusted odds ratio was 1.97 for list A (attributable fraction: 12.3%), 1.4 for list B (due especially to carpenters/joiners and transport workers). Among unlisted occupations, excess risks were found for welders, plumbers, and several construction crafts. Odds ratios among women were elevated for list A, list B (due especially to launderers/dry cleaners), cleaners and hairdressers. These results confirm the role of known occupations and give insight into new occupational risk factors among men and women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1068-1077. 43 ref.
Risk_of_lung_cancer_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0156 Lipworth L., Sonderman J.S., Mumma M.T., Tarone R.E., Marano D.E., Boice J.D, McLaughlin J.K.
Cancer mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers - An extended follow-up
In this extended cancer follow-up among 77,943 aircraft workers, comprehensive exposure information enabled detailed classification of trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), mixed solvents and chromate exposures. Exposure to TCE, PCE, mixed solvents or chromates was not associated with increased cancer risk overall or for most cancer sites. Elevated rates compared with the general population were seen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma for PCE exposure, and colon and testicular cancers and multiple myeloma for mixed solvents exposure. Internal cohort analyses, however, showed no significant trends of increasing risk for these cancers with increasing years of exposure to TCE, PCE or mixed solvents. This large, long-term cohort study with comprehensive exposure assessment found no consistent evidence of increased cancer risk overall or by site among aircraft workers, including those with long-term exposure to TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.992-1007. 33 ref.
Cancer_mortality_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0274 Barruyer C.
Radon, invisible but dangerous
Le radon, invisible mais dangereux [in French]
Radon is a lung carcinogen and a hazard for inhabitants of contaminated buildings. Construction industry workers are also exposed to radon, in particular when they work underground. This article presents an overview of hazards related to radon and the preventive measures on construction sites (monitoring, limitation of exposure by means of technical and organizational measures).
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2011, No.146, p.48-50. Illus.
Le radon_invisible_mais_dangereux_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Plan_d'actions_interministériel_2005-2008_(INFO)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Ionizing radiation_Radon_(WHO_INFO)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0132 Clin B., Morlais F., Launoy G., Guizard A.V., Dubois B., Bouvier V., Desoubeaux N., Marquignon M.F., Raffaelli C., Paris C., Galateau-Salle F., Guittet L., Letourneux M.
Cancer incidence within a cohort occupationally exposed to asbestos: A study of dose-response relationships
The aim of this study was to analyze the dose-response relationship between occupational asbestos exposure and risk of cancer. It was carried out in the form of a retrospective morbidity study based on 2024 subjects occupationally exposed to asbestos, conducted from 1978 to 2004. Analysis of the dose-response relationship between occupational asbestos exposure, as a time-dependant variable, and risk of cancer was performed using a Cox model. In order to account for the effect of latency, the analysis was conducted with a lag of 10 years. 285 cases of cancers were observed in the cohort. The relative risk of pleuro-peritoneal mesothelioma, lung cancer and colorectal cancer associated with asbestos exposure, adjusted for age as a time-dependant variable and for sex, was correlated with exposure intensity (or average exposure level, AEL). The risk of cancer, whatever the anatomical site, did not increase with the duration of exposure to asbestos. While confirming the established relationship between asbestos exposure and pleuropulmonary and peritoneal cancers, this study also suggests a causal relationship between asbestos exposure and colorectal cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2011, Vol.68, No.11, p.832-836. 29 ref.
Cancer_incidence_within_a_cohort_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0125 Seldén A.I., Ahlborg G
Cancer morbidity in Swedish dry-cleaners and laundry workers: Historically prospective cohort study
The objective of this study was to examine the possible associations between carcinogenic risks to humans and occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PER). A Swedish cohort of over 10,000 dry-cleaning and laundry workers assembled in 1984 was followed up for new cases of cancer by matching with the Swedish cancer register from 1985 to 2006 and the results were compared with expected frequencies derived from national reference data. Findings are discussed. Overall, there was no clear association between PER exposure and subsequent cancer morbidity among these workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.435-443. 42 ref.
Cancer_morbidity_in_Swedish_dry-cleaners_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0117 Zeka A., Gore R., Kriebel D.
The two-stage clonal expansion model in occupational cancer epidemiology: Results from three cohort studies
The objective of this work was to apply the two-stage clonal expansion model, with the intention to expand the literature on epidemiological applications of the model and demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating biologically based modelling methods into the widely used retrospective cohort study. The two-stage clonal expansion model was fitted to three occupational cohorts: textile workers exposed to asbestos and followed for lung cancer mortality; diatomaceous earth workers exposed to silica and also followed for lung cancer mortality; automotive manufacturing workers exposed to straight metalworking fluid (MWF) and followed for larynx cancer incidence. The model allowed estimating exposure effects in three stages: cancer initiation (early effects), promotion or malignant transformation (late effects). The findings for asbestos and silica were essentially confirmatory, supporting evidence for their early effects on lung cancer from a large body of literature. The effect of straight MWF on laryngeal cancer was less clear.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.618-624. Illus. 48 ref.
The_two-stage_clonal_expansion_model_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0116 Bhatti P., Newcomer L., Onstad L., Teschke K., Camp J., Morgan M., Vaughan T.L.
Wood dust exposure and risk of lung cancer
This study investigated whether a history of wood dust exposure through occupational and hobby-related activities was associated with increased lung cancer risk. It was conducted in the form of a population-based case-control study, with 440 cases and 845 age-matched controls. Using detailed work and personal histories, quantitative estimates of cumulative exposure to wood dust (thought to be primarily from softwood) were calculated for each participant. Using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and smoking status, risk of lung cancer was examined in relation to employment in wood-related occupations, working with wood as a hobby, as well as cumulative wood dust exposure that took into account both occupational and hobby-related sources. While an increased risk of lung cancer associated with working in a sawmill (odds ratio 5.1) was observed, there was no evidence of increased risks with other occupations, working with wood as a hobby or with estimated cumulative exposure to wood dust. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.68, No.8, p.599-604. 38 ref.
Wood_dust_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0807 Questel F.
Occupational malignant blood diseases
Hémopathies malignes d'origine professionnelle [in French]
Malignant blood diseases are rare pathologies for which occupational causes are probably underestimated. Benzene and ionizing radiation are the only causal agents which are recognized as having potential to cause leukaemia. Uncertainties concerning other agents remain, in particular for ethylene oxide, pesticides, electromagnetic fields and certain infectious agents, for which further epidemiological studies need to be continued.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 3rd quarter 2011, No.172, 12p. 101 ref.

CIS 11-0801 Recommendations for the occupational health surveillance of workers exposed to the carcinogenic effect of wood dust
Recommandations pour la surveillance médico-professionnelle des travailleurs exposés à l'effet cancérogène des poussières de bois [in French]
Developed by the French society for occupational medicine, these recommendations for the occupational health surveillance of workers exposed to the carcinogenic effects of wood dust are presented in this article as a short version as well as in the form of a summary sheet. Appendices include a check-list for the medical surveillance of exposed workers and medical information to be provided prior to conducting a nasal fibroscopy for sinonasal adenocarcinoma screening.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.199-212. 3 ref.
TM_17.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0793 Frost G., Brown T., Harding A.H.
Mortality and cancer incidence among British agricultural pesticide users
The objective of this study was to compare mortality and cancer incidence experienced by a cohort of United Kingdom pesticide users to that of the general population. Altogether, 62,960 pesticide users (94% male) were followed up between 1987 and 2005. All-cause mortality was lower for both men (SMR 0.58) and women (SMR 0.71) compared to the general population. Mortality and incidence were below those expected for all cancers combined among men (SMR 0.71, SIR 0.85), particularly for cancers of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx, digestive organs and respiratory system. The incidence of testicular cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer and multiple myeloma were above expected. Mortality from injury by machinery was significantly above expected for men (SMR 4.21). This study suggests that pesticide users are generally healthier than the national population but may have excesses of non-melanoma skin cancer, testicular cancer and multiple myeloma.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61. p.303-310. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 11-0791 Langård S., Lee L.J.
Methods to recognize work-related cancer in workplaces, the general population, and by experts in the clinic, a Norwegian experience
Primarily based on practical experiences from Norway, methods to identify cases of possible work-related cancers in the general population and at workplaces, as well as methods to recognize more specific cases after referral to specialized clinics, are reviewed. Countries applying a number of the available methods to detect work-related cancer reach a reporting rate of 60 such cases per million, while other countries that do not employ such methods hardly identify any cases. As most subjects previously exposed to cancer-causing agents and substances at work are gradually recruited out of work, methods should be versatile for identification of cases in the general population, as well as at work. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, 6:24, 10p. Illus. 32 ref.
Methods.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0675 Boffetta P., Fontana L., Stewart P., Zaridze D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska N., Janout V., Bencko V., Foretova L., Jinga V., Matveev V., Kollarova H., Ferro G., Chow W.H., Rothman N., van Bemmel D., Karami S., Brennan P., Moore L.E.
Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel, and renal cell carcinoma: A case-control study from Central and Eastern Europe
The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Central and Eastern Europe in relation to exposure to known and suspected carcinogenic metals. During 1999-2003, a hospital-based study was conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia, including 1097 cases of RCC and 1476 controls. Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel was assessed by teams of local industrial hygiene experts, based on detailed occupational questionnaires. The odds ratios (ORs) for RCC were 1.55 for exposure to lead and 1.40 for exposure to cadmium. No clear monotonic exposure-response relation was apparent for either duration of exposure or cumulative exposure to either metal, although the OR for the highest category of cumulative exposure to lead was 2.25. Exposure to other metals did not entail an increased risk of RCC.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.723-728. 37 ref.

CIS 11-0674 Calvert G.M., Ruder A.M., Petersen M.R.
Mortality and end-stage renal disease incidence among dry cleaning workers
Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a known animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. Dry cleaning exposures, particularly PCE, are also associated with renal toxicity. The objective was to follow-up a cohort of dry cleaners to evaluate mortality and assess end-stage renal disease (ESRD) morbidity. This study adds eight years of mortality follow-up for 1704 dry cleaning workers in four United States cities. Employees eligible for inclusion worked for ≥1 year before 1960 in a shop using PCE as the primary solvent. Life table analyses for mortality and ESRD morbidity were conducted. Only employees alive on 1 January 1977 were included in ESRD analyses. Overall cancer deaths were in significant excess in this cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 1.22). Oesophageal, lung and tongue cancers had significant excesses of deaths. Oesophageal cancer risk was highest among those employed in a PCE-using shop for ≥5 years with ≥20 years' latency since first such employment. Deaths from non-malignant underlying diseases of the stomach and duodenum were in significant excess. Hypertensive ESRD morbidity was significantly elevated in the entire cohort (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.98), and among workers employed only in PCE-using dry cleaning shops for ≥5 years.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.709-716. 37 ref.

CIS 11-0371 Fedeli U., Mastrangelo G.
Vinyl chloride industry in the courtroom and corporate influences on the scientific literature
Pressure from the vinyl chloride (VC) industry on researchers involved in industry-sponsored studies and on regulatory agencies has been documented since the 1970s. This commentary describes the influence of a lawsuit pursued by workers of an Italian VC plant on the recent scientific debate on VC exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Original studies carried out by consultants of the public prosecutors and by independent researchers supported the above association. VC-industry consultants published two reviews during the lawsuit, claiming that liver angiosarcoma was the only VC-related cancer. The judges concluded that the evidence of the association between HCC and VC was still not convincing. After the trial, the risk of HCC was confirmed by a re-assessment of VC carcinogenicity from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, but other subsequent industry-funded reviews criticized the new evidence. Industry-funded authors cited each other, and rarely disclosed conflicts of interest. Based on a network of collaborating researchers, industrial interests can shape the literature enhancing the background noise surrounding the scientific evidence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.470-473. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0370 Richardson D.B., Wing S.
Evidence of confounding by smoking of associations between radiation and lung cancer mortality among workers at the Savannah River Site
This study investigates confounding by cigarette smoking in the associations between occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and lung cancer mortality among workers at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a facility in the United States involved in the production of basic materials used in the fabrication of nuclear weapons, primarily tritium and plutonium-239. Thirteen thousand two hundred sixty-five white males hired at SRS between 1950 and 1986 were followed through 2002 to ascertain causes of death. Estimates of radiation doses from external sources and internal tritium uptakes were derived from dosimetry records. Logistic regression methods were used to derive discrete-time estimates of rate ratios. Prior to adjustment for smoking, there was minimal evidence of association between lung cancer mortality and cumulative radiation dose under a 10-year lag assumption. Subsequent to indirect adjustment for smoking, the association between lung cancer mortality and cumulative radiation dose under a 10-year lag was positive.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.421-427. 25 ref.

CIS 11-0369 Bianchi C., Bianchi T.
Mesothelioma and aircraft industry
This letter to the editor comments an earlier article published in the journal concerning a case-control study conducted in France, showing a high risk of pleural mesothelioma for various occupations and industries, including the manufacture of aircraft parts. The authors of the letter confirm similar findings in the aircraft industry in Italy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.494. 5 ref.

CIS 11-0367 Friesen M.C., Costello S., Thurston S.W., Eisen E.A.
Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers
The various types of metalworking fluids (MWFs) have overlapping components. This study derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios for each cancer and cumulative exposures were estimated. For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH. Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. These findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.450-460. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 11-0410 Strauchen J.A.
Rarity of malignant mesothelioma prior to the widespread commercial introduction of asbestos: The Mount Sinai autopsy experience 1883-1910
Most malignant mesotheliomas are related to asbestos exposure. Whether malignant mesothelioma occurs in the absence of asbestos exposure remains unsettled. To address this question, a series of 2,025 autopsies performed at the Mount Sinai Hospital between 1883 and 1910 were reviewed, prior to the widespread commercial introduction of asbestos. No cases of malignant mesothelioma were identified in these autopsies. It is concluded that malignant mesothelioma was rare prior to the widespread commercial introduction of asbestos.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.467-469. 11 ref.

CIS 11-0361 Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., Świątkowska B., Szubert Z., Wilczyńska U.
Asbestos in Poland: Occupational health problems
The review addresses current problems of health risk and health effects associated with exposure to asbestos, including data on historical exposure and on currently valid occupational exposure limits. The quantity and types of the raw material used for the production of various asbestos products are also discussed in relation to the particular types of asbestos-induced occupational diseases. The article describes the medical care system for former asbestos workers and those currently exposed during removal of asbestos-containing products. The national system for medical certification of occupational asbestos-related diseases and the compensation procedure are outlined. According to the parliamentary Act of 1997, importing, manufacture and sale of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials are prohibited in Poland. Thus, the assessment of asbestos exposure and the monitoring of health conditions of workers at asbestos-processing plants have become irrelevant. However, the delayed health effects attributable to past exposure continue to be the matter of concern for public health. Likewise, the environmental pollution from asbestos waste landfills in the vicinity of asbestos-processing plants (where high levels of asbestos fibre in ambient air have been recorded) will continue to be a serious public health problem. Presently, two programmes aimed at minimising the adverse effects of asbestos on population health are underway. Both programmes are briefly described.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.2, p.142-152. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 11-0345 Goodman J.E.
Nickel metal not associated with lung cancer risk
This letter to the Editor consists of a critique to an article published in the journal in 2010 (see ISN 111556), which concluded that workers exposed to nickel, chromium and cadmium were at an increased risk of lung cancer. The letter focuses on nickel and contests the conclusions drawn concerning the carcinogenicity of the metallic form, citing various inconsistencies and lack of evidence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.419. 4 ref.

CIS 11-0336 Wang X.S., Armstrong M.E., Cairns B.J., Key T.J., Travis R.C.
Shift work and chronic disease: The epidemiological evidence
Shift work, including night work, has been hypothesized to increase the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent reviews of evidence relating to these hypotheses have focussed on specific diseases or potential mechanisms, but no general summary of the current data on shift work and chronic disease has been published. Systematic and critical reviews and recent original studies were retrieved. The main conclusions are presented in text and tables. Published evidence is suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer but limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined. Findings on shift work, in relation to risks of CVD, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse relationship.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.78-89. 77 ref.
Shift_work.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0329 Brown S.C., Alberts R., Schoenberg M.
Cancer incidence and mortality among workers exposed to benzidine
A historical cohort study was conducted among 997 individuals employed at a chemical production facility to investigate whether occupational exposures to benzidine and other arylamines were associated with the increased risk of cancer. Cancers were identified from cancer registries, death certificates and medical records. Exposures were evaluated using a job-exposure matrix. Workers were categorized into exposure groups to calculate cancer-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and perform survival analyses. SIRs for cancer of the bladder (SIR 3.5), small intestine (SIR 18.4) and soft tissue including heart (SIR 11.9) were elevated among workers with the highest exposures and risk increased with increasing exposures. SIRs for several additional cancers were also elevated. Results support previous findings of increased risk of bladder cancer among individuals exposed to benzidine and other arylamines. Workers may also have been at increased risk for cancers other than cancer of the bladder.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2011, Vol.54, No.4, p.300-306. 16 ref.

CIS 11-0058 Verger P., Cabut S., Viau A., Souville M., Pardon C., Charrier D., De Labrusse B., Lehucher-Michel M.P., Arnaud S.
Use of imaging in the follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: Practices in occupational medicine and its determinants
Application de l'imagerie pour le suivi médical des travailleurs exposés aux cancérogènes pulmonaires: pratiques en médecine du travail et ses déterminants [in French]
Occupational physicians' (OPs) practices of referrals for the imaging of workers occupationally-exposed to lung/pleural carcinogens and their related factors were studied. This cross-sectional telephone survey of 379 OPs practicing in Southeastern France showed that 81% referred exposed patients for chest radiographs, 33.5% for computed tomography (CT), and 16.1% for neither. Making no referral was positively associated with believing cancer risks are lower in one's own geographic sector than elsewhere and negatively associated with keeping employee risk records up-to-date. Referrals for CT were positively associated with work at in-house occupational health services (OHS), and completing employee exposure histories often/always. Both the OHS type and factors that may shape OPs' awareness of cancer risks in their sector appear to influence imaging referral practices. Occupational physicians would benefit from guidelines clarifying benefits and risks associated with imaging in such patients. An effort to harmonize regulatory provisions and guidelines also appears necessary.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.71-79. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0093 Soskolne C.L., Jhangri G.S., Scott H.M., Brenner D.R., Siemiatycki J., Lakhani R., Gérin M., Dewar R., Miller A.B, Risch H.A.
A population-based case-control study of occupational exposure to acids and the risk of lung cancer: Evidence for specificity of association
Occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid has been recognized as a carcinogen (Group 1) since 1992. An augmented, secondary data analysis of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer was conducted to assess lung cancer-specific risks using 772 lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1981 and 1985. Individually matched controls on age, gender, and area of residence were identified. Lifetime exposure to 10 acidic agents, including strong inorganic acids and some gases, was assessed from complete lifetime occupational histories in terms of concentration, frequency, and reliability of the various exposure assessments. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined for overall and histology-categorized lung cancers using conditional logistic regression. No excess risk for overall lung cancer was associated with any of the acids, and effect modification by gender could not be identified.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.1-8. 24 ref.
A_population-based_case-control_study.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0044 Dab W., Rossignol M., Luce D., Bénichou J., Marconi A., Clément P., Aubier M., Zmirou-Navier D., Abenhaim L.
Cancer mortality study among French cement production workers
The objective of this study was to analyze the mortality and its causes, especially cancer, among French cement production workers. A cohort of all workers employed at least one year in one of the main four cement companies in France was assembled (9,118 workers, 122,124 person-years of follow-up between 1990 and 2005). Job titles classification were used to analyze occupational risk factors. A standardized mortality ratio analysis was conducted based on age, gender and calendar-period-specific national mortality rates and explored the combined effect of job titles and duration through an internal Cox regression analysis. Findings are discussed. Overall, the study does not support previous reports that cement workers are at higher risk of cancer mortality than the general population.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.167-173. 31 ref.

CIS 10-0807 Egilman D., Menéndez L.M.
A case of occupational peritoneal mesothelioma from exposure to tremolite-free chrysotile in Quebec, Canada: A black swan case
Tremolite contamination has been proposed as the cause of mesothelioma in workers exposed to commercial chrysotile. The asbestos industry and scientists it has sponsored, for example, have argued that commercial chrysotile does not cause peritoneal mesothelioma. This article reports a case of peritoneal mesothelioma in a mill worker from a tremolite-free Canadian mine. Reports from pathology and occupational health and safety panels conclude that this mill worker developed work-related peritoneal mesothelioma. Therefore chrysotile without tremolite can cause peritoneal mesothelioma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.153-156. 20 ref.

CIS 10-0806 Teschke K., Abanto Z., Arbour L., Beking K., Chow Y., Gallagher R.P., Jong B., Le N.D., Ratner P.A., Spinelli J.J., Dimich-Ward H.
Exposure to anesthetic gases and congenital anomalies in offspring of female registered nurses
This retrospective cohort study was carried out to examine associations between congenital anomalies in offspring and anesthetic gas exposure of mothers employed as nurses. A cohort of registered nurses in British Columbia, Canada, was linked to records of births and congenital anomalies from 1990 to 2000. Exposures were assessed via a survey of anesthetic gas use in all hospitals in the province and records of nurses' jobs, departments, and hospitals. Departments most frequently reporting anesthetic gas use were operating rooms, post-anesthetic recovery rooms and maternity units. In the cohort of 15,317 live-borne children of 9,433 mothers, 1,079 had congenital anomalies. Anomalies were associated with proven and probable maternal exposure to halogenated gases and to nitrous oxide.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.118-127. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 10-0819 Robinson C.F., Sullivan P.A., Li J., Walker J.T.
Occupational lung cancer in US women, 1984-1998
Population-based mortality data for women who died between 1984 and 1998 in the United States were used to evaluate lung cancer proportionate mortality over time by the usual occupation and industry reported on death certificates. Lung cancer proportionate mortality ratios were adjusted for smoking, using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II. Analyses revealed that 194,382 white, 18,225 Black and 1,515 Hispanic women died 1984-1998 with lung cancer reported as the underlying cause of death. Following adjustment for smoking, significant excess proportionate lung cancer mortality was observed among women working in manufacturing, transportation, retail trade, agriculture and health care.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.102-117. Illus. Approx. 75 ref.

CIS 10-0880 Wang X.S., Armstrong M.E., Cairns B.J., Key T.J., Travis R.C.
Shift work and chronic disease: The epidemiological evidence
Shift work, including night work, has been hypothesized to increase the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The objective of this literature survey was to review recent published data on shift work and chronic disease. Published evidence is suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer but limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined. Findings on shift work, in relation to risks of CVD, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also suggestive but not conclusive.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.78-89. 77 ref.
Shift_work_and_chronic_disease.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0802 Corbin M., McLean D., Mannetje A., Dryson E., Walls C., McKenzie F., Maule M., Cheng S., Cunningham C., Kromhout H., Blair A., Pearce N.
Lung cancer and occupation: A New Zealand cancer registry-based case-control study
This study on the relationship between occupation and lung cancer in New Zealand involved interviews of 457 cases aged 20-75 years notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2007-2008, and 792 population controls. Information was collected on demographic details, potential confounders and employment history. Associations were estimated using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic status. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for sawmill, wood panel and related wood-processing plant operators (OR 4.63), butchers (OR 8.77), rubber and plastics products machine operators (4.27), heavy truck drivers (OR 2.24) and workers in petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (OR 1.80); non-significantly elevated risks were also observed for loggers, welders and flame-cutters, pressers and electric and electronic equipment assemblers. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2011, Vol.54, No.2, p.89-101. 65 ref.

2010

CIS 12-0189 Orsi L., Monnereau A., Dananche B., Berthou C., Fenaux P., Marit G., Soubeyran P., Huguet F., Milpied N., Leporrier M., Hemon D., Troussard X., Clavel J.
Occupational exposure to organic solvents and lymphoid neoplasms in men: Results of a French case-control study
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of occupational exposure to solvents in the occurrence of lymphoid neoplasms (LNs) in men. The data were generated by a French hospital-based case-control study, conducted in six centres in 2000-2004. The cases were incident cases aged 18-75 years with a diagnosis of LN. During the same period, controls of the same age and gender as the cases were recruited in the same hospitals, mainly in the orthopaedic and rheumatological departments. Exposure to solvents was assessed using standardized occupational questionnaires and case-by-case expert assessment. Specific quantification of benzene exposure was attempted. The analyses included 491 male patients (244 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 87 of Hodgkin's lymphoma, 104 of lymphoproliferative syndrome and 56 of multiple myeloma) and 456 male controls. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Solvent exposure, all solvents considered together, was marginally associated with NHL (odds ratio OR 1.4), but not with other LNs. No association with the main chemical series of solvents was observed. There was no trend with the average intensity or frequency of exposure. Exposure to pure benzene was not significantly related to NHL (OR 3). The highest maximum intensities of benzene exposure were associated with diffuse large cell lymphoma (OR 2). Findings provide estimates compatible with the hypothesis that exposures to pure benzene and high benzene intensities may play a role in some NHL. There was no evidence for a role of other organic solvents in the occurrence of LN.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.67, No.10, p.664-672. 42 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_organic_solvents_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0136 Chan C., Hughes T.S., Muldoon S., Aldrich T., Rice C., Hornung R., Brion G., Tollerud D.J.
Mortality patterns among Paducah gaseous diffusion plant workers
The objective of this study was to determine whether workers of a uranium diffusion plant in the United States had mortality patterns that differed from the general population and to investigate whether mortality patterns were associated with job title or workplace exposures. A retrospective occupational cohort mortality study was conducted on 6759 workers. Standardized mortality ratio analyses compared the cohort with the referent United States population. Internal comparisons producing standardized rate ratios were conducted by job title, metal exposure, and cumulative internal and external radiation exposures. Overall mortality and cancer rates were lower than the referent population, reflecting a strong healthy worker effect. Individual not significant standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios were noted for cancers of the lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.52, No.7, p.725-732. 26 ref.
Mortality_patterns_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0808 Loomis D., Dement J., Richardson D., Wolf S.
Asbestos fibre dimensions and lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to chrysotile
The objective of this study was to estimate exposures to asbestos fibres of specific sizes among asbestos textile manufacturing workers exposed to chrysotile using data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to evaluate the extent to which the risk of lung cancer varies with fibre length and diameter. A total of 3803 workers employed between 1950 and 1973 at one of three plants that produced asbestos textile products were followed for vital status until 31 December 2003. Historical exposures to asbestos fibres were estimated from work histories and 3578 industrial hygiene measurements taken in 1935-1986. Exposure-response relationships for lung cancer were examined within the cohort using Poisson regression. Indicators of fibre length and diameter obtained by TEM were positively and significantly associated with increasing risk of lung cancer. Exposures to longer and thinner fibres tended to be most strongly associated with lung cancer, and models for these fibres fit the data best. Simultaneously modelling indicators of cumulative mean fibre length and diameter yielded a positive coefficient for fibre length and a negative coefficient for fibre diameter.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.67, No.9, p.580-584. 25 ref.

CIS 11-0822 Use of ceramic fibres at BASF
L'utilisation de fibres céramiques chez BASF [in French]
In 1997, European regulations classified ceramic fibres as being "probably carcinogenic". This required enterprises operating ovens to totally review their procedures. This article presents the methods and prevention methods adopted by a Belgian chemical company operating a large number of ovens lined with refractory materials based on ceramic fibres.
Prevent Focus, Sep. 2010, p.12-15. Illus.

CIS 11-0657 Liu S.H., Liu Y.F., Liou S.H., Lin Y.L., Hsiao Y.C., Chen C.C., Li C.Y., Wu T.N.
Mortality and cancer incidence among physicians of traditional Chinese medicine: A 20-year national follow-up study
The objective of this study was to assess the risks of mortality and cancer incidence in physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan who had frequent exposure to herbal medicine. A population-based cohort design was conducted in which a total of 7675 certified physicians of TCM who ever practised between 1985 and 2005 were compared with the age-, sex- and calendar year-specific mortalities and cancer incidence rates of the general population of Taiwan. The age-, sex- and calendar year-standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and standardised cancer incidence ratio (SIR) were calculated to estimate the relative risks of all causes and site-specific mortality and cancer incidence. Findings are discussed. Physicians of TCM had significantly reduced risks of all-causes mortality and cancer incidence. However, they were exposed to significantly increased risks of liver and bladder neoplasms, the reasons for which warrant further investigations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.67, No.3, p.166-169. 12 ref.

CIS 11-0648 Girschik J., Glass D., Ambrosini G.L., Fritschi L.
Could mining be protective against prostate cancer? A study and literature review
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly-diagnosed cancers, with one in three Australian men developing this cancer before the age of 75. Currently, only increasing age, race and family history have been well established as risk factors. Mining employs a significant proportion of the work force in Western Australia. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of miners in the Western Australian Prostate Health Study, investigate mining as a risk factor for prostate cancer, to conduct a systematic search of the literature for studies that have investigated mining as an occupational risk factor for prostate cancer and to compare and contrast their methodologies and results. Data were obtained from a population-based case-control study conducted from 1 January 2001 to 20 August 2002 at The University of Western Australia. After controlling for age, family history and military service in Vietnam, miners had a statistically significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio 0.35). The systematic literature search of studies examining mining and prostate cancer found a reasonably consistent trend of a decreased risk of prostate cancer among miners. None of the published articles discussed their results regarding mining and prostate cancer in detail, and a biological mechanism to support these results has not previously been suggested. The relationship between mining and prostate cancer deserves further investigation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2010, Vol.67, No.6, p.365-374. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 11-0528 Labrèche F., Goldberg M.S., Valois M.F., Nadon L.
Postmenopausal breast cancer and occupational exposures
The objective of this study was to determine whether exposures in the workplace to organic solvents and to other agents, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are associated with increased risks of developing postmenopausal breast cancer. It was conducted in the form of a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Cases comprised 556 women, aged 50-75 years, with incident malignant breast cancer, while controls were 613 women with other cancers, frequency-matched for age and time of diagnosis. An expert team of chemists and industrial hygienists translated their job histories into exposure to about 300 agents. Increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for each 10-year increment in duration of exposure, before age 36 years (OR(<36)), to acrylic fibres (OR(<36) 7.69) and to nylon fibres (OR(<36) 1.99). For oestrogen-positive and progesterone-negative tumours, the OR doubled or more for each 10-year increase in exposure to mono-aromatic hydrocarbons, and to acrylic and rayon fibres. The OR(<36) also doubled for exposure to organic solvents that metabolise into reactive oxygen species, and to acrylic fibres. A threefold increase was found for oestrogen- and progesterone-positive tumours, with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum sources. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that breast tissue is more sensitive to adverse effects if exposure occurs when breast cells are still proliferating.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.67, No.4. p.263-269. 47 ref.

CIS 11-0506 Heck J.E., Charbotel B., Moore L.E., Karami S., Zaridze D.G., Matveev V., Janout V., Kollárová H., Foretova L., Bencko V., Szeszenia-Dabrowska N., Lissowska J., Mates D., Ferro G., Chow W.H., Rothman N., Stewart P., Brennan P., Boffetta P.
Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer aetiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. From 1999 to 2003, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. A total of 992 histologically-confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1459 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labour and animal husbandry (OR 1.43), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR 2.73). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR 1.89), and mechanical engineers (OR 1.71).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, vol.67, No.1, p.47-53. 42 ref.

CIS 11-0503 Aguilar-Madrid G., Robles-Pérez E., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Alvarado-Cabrero I., Rico-Méndez F.G., Javier K.G.
Case-control study of pleural mesothelioma in workers with social security in Mexico
Environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in Mexico in the past has been a cause of deaths and health damages. Its magnitude is unknown to date. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) that can be attributed to and occupational exposure to asbestos. It was conducted in the form of a case-control study of MPM in 472 workers insured by the Mexican Institute of Social Security, with 119 incident cases and 353 controls. Cases were histologically confirmed. Participants were questioned concerning their occupational history and socio-demographic data. Assignment to one of the four exposures was performed qualitatively by an expert hygienist. Odds ratios (ORs) and attributable risks (ARs) were calculated using a non-conditional logistic regression model. A total of 80.6% of cases and 31.5% of controls had occupational exposure to asbestos. ORs were adjusted for age and gender and by exposure category, and exhibited an increase with probability of exposure. These results show that the industrial uses of all forms of asbestos is generating an increase in mesothelioma-related diseases and deaths among Mexican workers. As a public health policy, Mexico should prohibit the use of asbestos in all production processes with the aim of controlling the epidemic and preventing the occurrence of new cases of MPM.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.241-251. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 11-0365 Euzenat D.
Exposure of workers to occupational diseases in 2007
L'exposition des salariés aux maladies professionnelles en 2007 [in French]
In 2007 in France, there were 44,000 cases of compensated occupational disease. Four out of five of these cases were musculoskeletal diseases. These pathologies are particularly frequent in the meat, clothing, home appliance, laundry and construction industries. Blue-collar workers are the most affected, and this is particularly true of women. Occupational diseases caused by asbestos represent 15% of occupational diseases but constitute the vast majority of occupational cancers; they affect almost exclusively men. Hearing loss affects mainly blue-collar male workers, while young female hairdressers are the most affected by skin diseases.
Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la santé, Délégation à l'information et à la communication - DICOM, 14 Avenue Duquesne, 75350 Paris 07 SP, France, Sep. 2010. 11p. Illus. 13 ref.
DARES_Analyses_No.56.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0352 Massari S., Bianchi A.R., Binazzi A., Branchi C., di Marzio D., Marinaccio A., Scano P., Scarselli A., Iavicoli S.
Occupational cancer registry: The ISPESL experience
Il registro dei tumori di sospetta origine professionale: l'esperienza dell'ISPESL [in Italian]
In Italy, legislation governing the collection of data on occupational cancer cases has been recently updated. The data collected by the Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL) has been recoded to match the new requirements. For the period 1994-2007, 1042 cases of occupational cancer were notified to the ISPESL, mainly regarding men. The most frequent cancer sites were the lung, pleura and nasal cavity. The most affected activity sectors were basic metals and the metal industry, construction, and health care and social services. The most represented carcinogenic agents were asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silica.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-June 2010, Vol.6, No.1/2, p.43-59. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 11-0437 Härmä M., Kecklund G., eds.
Shift work and health - How to proceed?
In Europe, only a quarter of the workforce is engaged in regular day work. The rest of employees and over 90% of the self-employed have irregular or flexible working hours. This editorial introduces a special issue of the journal focusing on shift work and health, in particular cardiovascular disease, cancer, eating habits and gastrointestinal cancers. Other topics include countermeasures to the negative effects of shift work and night work, and ergonomic shift scheduling to reduce sleep disturbances.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.81-84. 26 ref.
Shift_work.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0387 Mehta A.J., Malloy E.J., Applebaum K.M., Schwartz J., Christiani D.C., Eisen E.A.
Reduced lung cancer mortality and exposure to synthetic fluids and biocide in the auto manufacturing industry
Water-based soluble and synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs) used in automotive industry may be contaminated by endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, a possible anti-carcinogen. This study investigated whether an inverse relationship between lung cancer and synthetic MWF and biocide persisted in an extended follow-up of autoworkers. A nested case-control analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort study of 46,399 automotive industry workers. Follow-up began in 1941 and was extended from 1985-1995. Mortality rate ratios for lung cancer were estimated in Cox regression models. Results suggest a non-linear inverse exposure-response for lung cancer mortality with increasing endotoxin exposure. Overall, the greatest reduction in mortality was observed among those with the highest exposure. Effect modification by biocides was marginally significant. The protective effect of synthetic MWFs against lung cancer mortality persisted through the extended period of follow-up, although attenuated, and was observed only among workers with co-exposure to biocide and synthetic MWFs.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.36, No.6, p.499-508. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0216 Ha-Vinh P., Régnard P., Sauzse L.
Absence from work due to cancer among self-employed workers
Arrêts de travail pour cancer dans une population de travailleurs indépendants [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of cancer by occupation among self-employed workers in France, based on data from the French occupational health insurance system for self-employed workers (Régime social des indépendants, RSI). It involved a total of 287,156 male artisans and traders, aged 50 to 59. The rate of work stoppages due to cancer by year of employment was 160 cases/100,000 person-years. Car repairs and construction ranked first for hematopoietic cancers, hotels and restaurants for colorectal cancers and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, transportation for bladder cancer, industry for lung cancer and commerce for prostate cancer. These findings support the establishment of a prevention and compensation system covering occupational cancers among self-employed workers.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2010, No.124, p.413-422. Illus. 32 ref.
TF_188.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0239 Grimsrud T.K., Andersen A.
Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans of water-soluble nickel salts
Respiratory cancer risks in Welsh, Finnish and Norwegian nickel refiners add to the evidence of carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel. In Norwegian refiners, the first epidemiological study in 1973 identified high risks of lung cancer and nasal cancer among long-term electrolysis workers. Risk analyses based on exposure estimates developed in the 1980s supported the view that water-soluble nickel compounds were central in the development of cancer. Recently, new exposure estimates were worked out for the same cohort based on personal monitoring of total nickel and chemical determination of four forms of nickel. Additional data have been collected on life-time smoking habits and on exposure to arsenic, asbestos, sulphuric acid mists, cobalt, and occupational lung carcinogens outside the refinery. After adjustment for these potential confounding exposures in case-control analyses, the risk pattern added to the evidence of an important role of water-soluble nickel compounds as causes of lung cancer. These Norwegian cancer studies rely on national Cancer Registry data, considered close to complete from 1953 onwards and on National Population Register data continuously updated with mortality and emigration. Canadian mortality studies, perceived to offer the strongest support to the industry position not to recognise carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel, appear to suffer from limitations in follow-up time, loss to follow-up, absence of risk analysis with individual exposure estimates, no confounder control, and a likely underestimation of cancer mortality. Rejection to recognise water-soluble nickel as a human carcinogen seems to contradict material epidemiological evidence that demonstrates a strong association between water-soluble nickel compounds and risks of lung cancer and nasal cancer. Independent international scientific bodies have classified nickel compounds as carcinogenic to humans, inclusive of water-soluble nickel.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:7. 6p. 38 ref.
Evidence_of_carcinogenicity.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0232 Beveridge R., Pintos J., Parent M.E., Asselin J., Siemiatycki J.
Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal
Nickel, chromium VI and cadmium have been identified as lung carcinogens in highly exposed cohorts. The purpose of this study was to examine the etiological link between lung cancer and these metals in occupations that usually entail lower levels of exposure than those seen in historical cohorts. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal, from 1979 to 1986 and from 1996 to 2001, comprising 1,598 cases and 1,965 controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate lifetime occupational exposure to many agents, including nickel, chromium VI and cadmium compounds. Lung cancer odds ratios were increased only among former or non-smokers: 2.5 for nickel exposure, 2.4 for chromium VI and 4.7 for cadmium. The metals did not increase risk among smokers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.476-485. 45 ref.

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