Older workers - 297 entries found
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Tucker P., Folkard S., Ansiau D., Marquié J.C.
The effects of age and shiftwork on perceived sleep problems - Results of the VISAT combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study
With workforces in industrialized countries getting older, the study examined how shiftwork affects sleep in later life. Longitudinal data were collected in 1996, 2001, and 2006 from a large sample of employees who were 32, 42, 52, and 62 years old in 1996. Effects of shiftwork were most apparent in middle-aged participants, becoming less apparent in later years when people tended to leave shiftwork. Nevertheless, a group of younger former shift workers reported more sleep problems than those who had never worked shifts. Giving up shiftwork offset a trend for sleep problems to accumulate over time, with the net result of no change in sleep problems after cessation of shiftwork.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.794-798. Illus. 17 ref.
The_effects_of_age_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Leinonen T., Pietiläinen O., Laaksonen M., Rahkonen O., Lahelma E., Martikainen P.
Occupational social class and disability retirement among municipal employees - The contribution of health behaviors and working conditions
This study examined, on the one hand, the associations between occupational social class and disability retirement due to all causes, musculoskeletal diseases, and mental disorders and, on the other hand, the contribution of health behaviors and working conditions to these associations. A total of 6516 middle-aged municipal employees from the Helsinki Health Study cohort baseline surveys in 2000-2002 were followed up until the end of 2010 for disability retirement. Social class was categorized into managers and professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The risk of disability retirement was generally higher among those in lower social classes with a strong gradient for all causes, an even stronger gradient for musculoskeletal diseases, and a weaker non-linear association for mental disorders. These associations were largely mediated through physical workload among both women and men and hazardous exposures particularly among men. In mental disorders, job control also mediated the association. Strenuous desktop work and job demands widened the social class differences particularly among men and in mental disorders. The contribution of health behaviors was modest. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2011, Vol.37, No.6, p.464-472. 42 ref.
Occupational_social_class_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Hamazaki Y., Morikawa Y., Nakamura K., Sakurai M., Miura K., Ishizaki M., Kido T., Naruse Y., Suwazono Y., Nakagawa H.
The effects of sleep duration on the incidence of cardiovascular events among middle-aged male workers in Japan
This survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular events among male workers, accounting for occupational factors that might confound the true relationship. A total of 2282 male employees of a metalworking factory in Japan aged 35-54 years were followed for 14 years. The risk of cardiovascular events was compared among 4 groups stratified based on sleep duration at baseline. Cardiovascular events included stroke, coronary events and sudden cardiac death. The hazard ratios for events were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, with the 7-7.9-hour group serving as a reference. The model was adjusted for potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors and working characteristics. During 14 years of follow-up, 64 cardiovascular events were recorded including 30 strokes, 27 coronary events and 7 sudden cardiac deaths. After adjustment for possible confounders, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular and coronary events in the <6-hour group were 3.49 and 4.95, respectively. There was no significant increment in the risk of stroke for any sleep duration groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.37, No.5, p.411-417. 30 ref.
The_effects_of_sleep_duration_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Bielec P., Beaumont D., Knispel P., Lombart N., Velut P., Meyer J.P., Titon I., Fougerouze F., Claudon L.
Ageing well at work
Bien vieillir au travail [in French]
The objective of this booklet is to help enterprises adapt their working conditions so as to allow workers of all ages to work until their retirement under favourable conditions for their safety, health and well-being. Its purpose is also to help respond to regulatory requirements concerning the implementation of action plans for older workers. Furthermore, some elements presented aim to shed light on some of the economic, human and social issues resulting from a successful adapting of working conditions throughout the working life of employees.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2011. 23p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 4.30. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6097.pdf [in French]
Dement J.M., Welch L., Ringen K., Bingham E., Quinn P.
Airways obstruction among older construction and trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites
A study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among 7579 current and former workers participating in medical screening programs at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities through September 2008 was undertaken. Participants provided a detailed work and exposure history, and underwent a respiratory examination that included a respiratory history, respiratory symptoms, chest radiographs classified by International Labour Office (ILO) criteria, and spirometry. Statistical models were developed to generate group-level exposure estimates that were used in multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the risk of COPD in relation to exposures to asbestos, silica, cement dust, welding, paints, solvents, and dusts/fumes from paint removal. Risk for COPD in the study population was compared to risk for COPD in the general US population. Statistically significant associations were observed for COPD and exposures to asbestos, silica, welding, cement dusts and some tasks associated with exposures to paints, solvents and removal of paints. The study demonstrated increased COPD risk due to occupational exposures and was able to identify specific exposures increasing risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.224-240. Illus. 65 ref.
Choi B., Schnall P.L., Yang H., Dobson M., Landsbergis P., Israel L., Karasek R., Baker D.
Psychosocial working conditions and active leisure-time physical activity in middle-aged US workers
The objective of this study was to examine whether psychosocial work characteristics such as job control, psychological job demands, and their combinations are associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in United States workers. It involved 2019 workers from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Job control and job demands were measured by standard questionnaire items. Active LTPA was defined as "moderate or vigorous" level of physical activity. After controlling for co-variates (age, race, education, income, physical effort at work, obesity, and alcohol consumption), high job control was associated with active LTPA. When compared to passive jobs (low control and low demands), active jobs (high control and low demands) and low-strain jobs (high control and high demands), increased the odds for active LTPA. It is concluded that having on-the-job learning opportunities and decision authority is conducive to active LTPA in middle-aged workers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.239-253. 52 ref.
Psychosocial_working_conditions.pdf [in English]
Marcinkiewicz A., Szosland D.
Selected risk factors of diabetes mellitus among road transport drivers
Road transport drivers are among the professional groups whose activities have a strong impact on public safety. In view of the nature of their professional activity, the drivers are at a higher risk of obesity and hypertension, and thus, indirectly, of carbohydrate metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus. This study on the prevalence of risk factors of diabetes mellitus among Polish road transport drivers used medical documentation accompanying the application for drivers' licence. Excessive body weight was recorded in 62.6% of the study population; 45.3% had overweight and 17.4% obesity. Hypertension was noted in 36.7% of the drivers, with increasing prevalence with age. Overweight was found to be a risk factor for hypertension. Hyperglycaemia was found in 47.5% of the drivers and was also increasing with age. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.2, p.175-180. 19 ref.
Selected_risk_factors.pdf [in English]
Duke J., Guest M., Boggess M.
Age-related safety in professional heavy vehicle drivers: A literature review
With Australia facing a looming shortage of heavy vehicle drivers, the question is raised as to whether it is desirable or prudent to encourage older professional heavy vehicle drivers to remain in the transport sector for longer, or to recruit drivers of a younger age. A limited number of studies reported age-specific accident rates for heavy vehicles for the spectrum of driver age that included drivers younger than 27 years and those over 60 years of age. Heavy vehicle drivers younger than 27 years of age demonstrated higher rates of accident/fatality involvement which decline and plateau until the age of 63 years where increased rates were again observed. Other contributing factors to heavy vehicle accidents include long hours and subsequent sleepiness and fatigue, employer safety culture, vehicle configuration, urbanization and road classification.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2010, Vol.42, No.2, p.364-371. 53 ref.
Volkoff. S., Buisset C., Mardon C.
Does intense time pressure at work make older employees more vulnerable? A statistical analysis based on a French survey "SVP50"
Two general trends, the tightening of time constraints and the ageing of the working population, are likely to raise sensitive issues implying adjustment of both work and workers' characteristics. The statistical studies presented in this article, referring to a French inter-professional survey conducted on health and work after fifty (sample of 11,213 employees), aim at verifying this assumption. The analyses presented are divided in four sub-questions: have part of the employees over fifty been removed from time pressure situations? Is time pressure difficult to deal with for older workers (from their point of view)? Does intense time pressure imply increased prevalence of certain health disorders among senior employees? Does pressure increase the desire to end one's professional life early? The results show that intense time pressure raises serious problems for most of the employees in their fifties who are exposed to them. 80% consider this constraint to be "difficult". They systematically show more frequent rates for most types of physical or psychological health disorders. "Sheltering from the job", which implies being shifted from work "under pressure" to a job "without pressure", is not uncommon but only solves a minority of situations. Lastly, the option of earlier retirement is not particularly developed in the age group in its fifties working "under pressure".
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2010, Vol.41, No.6, p.754-762. Illus. 34 ref.
Jędryka-Góral A., Bugajska J., Łastowiecka E., Najmiec A., Bownik I., Michalak J.M., Kochmański M.
Work ability in ageing workers suffering from chronic diseases
The aim of this study was to investigate the work ability in ageing workers suffering from osteoarthritis (OA), coronary heart disease (CHD) or hypertension (H). One hundred and sixty-six OA and 355 CHD/H outpatients were evaluated. The Work Ability Index (WAI) served for work ability assessment. Patients' results were compared with the results of a control group of 225 healthy young workers. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA tests. WAI in female and male CHD/H patients was higher than in OA patients; better work ability was related to better education, white-collar work and better recreation; subjective work ability was determined mostly by the objective health status. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.1, p.17-30. Illus. 25 ref.
Work_ability_in_ageing_workers.pdf [in English]
Heaton K., Azuero A., Reed D.
Obstructive sleep apnea indicators and injury in older farmers
This study explored the relationship between sleep apnea indicators and injury in 756 older farmers from Kentucky and South Carolina. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence of injuries related to farm work in the past year. Main explanatory variables of interest included snoring, gasping, snorting, or cessation of breathing while asleep; trouble sleeping; consumption of sleep medications; trouble staying awake during daytime; sleep quality. Simple logistic regressions established bivariate associations between explanatory and outcome variables. The results show that just over 10% of participants experienced a farm injury in the past year. Significant bivariate associations were detected between the occurrence of injuries and number of days of farm work (odds ratio - OR 1.003), number of hours of farm work during the previous week (OR 1.017), male gender (OR 2.48), arthritis or rheumatism conditions (OR 1.981), stopped breathing while sleeping (OR 2.338) and problems staying awake during the previous month (OR 2.561). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd quarter 2010, Vol.15, No.2, p.148-156. 37 ref.
Queiroz Barbeiro Lima C.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, eds.
Seminar on special retirement as an instrument for the protection of workers' safety and health
I Seminário sobre aposentadoria especial como um instrumento de proteção à segurança et saúde do trabalhador [in Portuguese]
Proceedings of a workshop on special retirement as an instrument for the protection of workers safety and health organized by the Fundacentro in 2008. The presentations mainly concern special retirement in the following types of activity or sectors: unhealthy work; civil engineering; subway workers; electricians.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2010. 62p.
New trends in work environment - New effects on safety
Europe has been subject to tremendous changes in terms of flexibility of work and labour in response to macro trends such as globalization and the resulting fierce market competition. Such changes in the world of work can give rise to new safety risks. Although the effects of the changing work environment are fairly documented in terms of their psychosocial and ergonomic risks, the subsequent effects on occupational safety are less investigated. This article sets a general framework on the changing work environment, presenting prominent descriptions by various institutes. It reviews existing evidence on the effects of the changing work environment on safety and occupational accidents. It further suggests an underlying mechanism explaining these effects, based on organizational factors. Finally it discusses safety prevention challenges to policy makers. In conclusion, a sustainable work system is suggested as an alternative to intensive systems.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.936-942. 57 ref.
ASHCA/NIOSH Conference - Be safe, be profitable: Protecting workers in agriculture
This full issue includes the papers presented at a conference on protecting workers in agriculture, held on January 27-28 2010 in Dallas-Fort Worth, USA. Contents: global view of issues affecting United States production agriculture; perspectives of hired workers; overview of safety and health in the United States; preventing heat-related illness; respiratory issues; minimizing worker injuries in livestock handling; overcoming language barriers; safe tractor operations; aging agricultural workers; safety performance metrics; minimizing exposures to pesticides; pre-harvest food safety; musculoskeletal disorders; preventing injuries to reduce cost; zoonotic influenza and its implications for agricultural workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.15, No.3, p.17-329 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Employment and social protection in the new demographic context
This report discusses the social and employment policy implications of the increase in life expectancy coupled with declining fertility, in both developing and developed countries. Topics addressed: overview of demographic and labour force trends; economic and social implications of the new demographic context; policy responses in the form of an integrated life cycle and intergenerational perspective; proposed integrated decent work framework to the demographic challenge.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2010. x, 175p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_policy/documents/publication/wcms_125308.pdf [in English]
Gender equality at the heart of decent work
L'égalité entre hommes et femmes au cœur du travail décent [in French]
This report was compiled for the delegates attending the 98th International Labour Conference held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 3 to 19 June 2009. The campaign entitled "Gender equality at the heart of decent work" is built around 12 topics related to decent work, some having a direct bearing on occupational safety and health: working during pregnancy; child labour; young workers; social protection of women; older workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. xii, 262p. Illus.
Rapport VI/FR.pdf [in French]
Rapport VI/EN.pdf [in English]
Strenuousness of paid employment
De la pénibilité du travail salarié [in French]
This article comments the legal aspects of strenuous work in France. Topics covered: definition, negotiations between employers' and employees' organizations, right to early retirement, differences between public and private sectors.
Préventique-Sécurité, July-Aug. 2010, No.106, p.76-78. Illus.
OHS risk management for an ageing workforce: Where does it fit within your organisation?
This article discusses the actions that employers need to undertake in Australia for the OSH risk management of older workers and explores how these need to be combined with a range of human resources initiatives such as health and wellbeing programmes, tailored to each organization as part of their age management plan. Such a risk management programme needs to include the following steps: hazard identification; risk assessment; risk control; monitoring and review.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2009, Vol.25, No.6, p.483-493. Illus. 25 ref.
Buffet A., Munar L.
Workforce diversity and risk assessment: Ensuring everyone is covered
This report highlights the need to carry out inclusive risk assessment to take into account the diversity of the workforce when assessing and managing risks. Its main aim is to describe why and how risk assessment can and should cover the whole workforce, and to increase awareness among those responsible for and affected by safety and health at work about the importance of assessing the risks of all workers. Main topics covered: legal background and aim of the report; groups of workers at increased risk (migrant, young, disabled, older and temporary workers, gender-sensitive approach to OSH); examples of good practices (workplace adaptation, development of training and information).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 115p. Illus. Price: EUR 15.00 (excluding VAT). Downloadable version free of charge.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE7809894ENC [in English]
Albin M., Jakobsson K.
Occupational health epidemiology in the Nordic countries - Status and trends
This review describes the current status and trends in occupational health research in the Nordic countries, which rank among the top five globally in terms of research output in this field. Issues discussed include the social aspects of workforce ageing, migration, mental ill-health among younger women, oxidative stress and genetic factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, No.7, Suppl.1, p.41-47. Illus. 52 ref.
Lidwall U., Bergendorff S., Voss M., Marklund S.
Long-term sickness absence: Changes in risk factors and the population at risk
The objective of this study was to investigate changes over time in factors associated with long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Sweden, and in the fraction of LTSA attributable to these risk factors in 1986-1989 and in 2002. Data from two earlier Swedish studies conducted before and after extensive socioeconomic changes in the labour market during the 1990s were analyzed. The results confirm consistent associations between LTSA and several established risk factors, namely female sex (odds ratio 1.84). They also reveal a change in the risk panorama. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.2, p.157-168. 41 ref.
Leigh J.P., Du J.
Hypertension and occupation among seniors
Little is known about associations between occupation and hypertension for persons more than age 65. This study analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2004 Health and Retirement Survey for 3645 men and 3644 women. Hypertension was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Logistic regressions controlled for demographic variables and risk factors including education, race, income, smoking, drinking and body mass. Occupations significantly likely to report hypertension among women were professionals, salespersons, private household cleaning service workers and personal service workers. Among men, these included salespersons, personal service workers, mechanics, construction workers, precision production workers and machine operators.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.661-671. Illus. 34 ref.
Naidoo S., Kromhout H., London L., Naidoo R.N., Burdorf A.
Musculoskeletal pain in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain in 911 women working in small-scale agriculture in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. In total, 67% of women reported chronic musculoskeletal pain. The 12-month prevalence of pain ranged from 63.9% to 73.3% and the prevalence of specific chronic pain lasting more than three months ranged from 42.8% to 48.3%. Older age, carrying heavy loads, working with hands above shoulder height, and frequently squatting and kneeling were associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Ergonomic interventions including improved and adapted work techniques and tools should be considered to reduce the prevalence of pain among these workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.202-209. 35 ref.
Myers J.R., Layne L.A., Marsh S.M.
Injuries and fatalities to U.S. farmers and farm workers 55 years and older
Data from two national surveillance systems were analyzed with respect to fatal and non-fatal injuries occurring to United States farmers aged 55 years and older. Older farmers and farm workers averaged more than 26,000 lost-time injuries annually, with an injury rate of 4.5 injuries/100 workers compared to an overall farming injury rate of 4.8 injuries/100 workers. Fatality data show that older farmers accounted for over half of all farming deaths between 1992 and 2004, and had a fatality rate of 45.8 deaths/100,000 workers compared to the overall farming fatality rate of 25.4 deaths/100,000 workers. Most common causes of fatal injury to older farmers were tractors (46%), trucks (7%) and animals (5%). Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.185-194. Illus. 78 ref.
Rajan P., Kelsey K.T., Schwartz J.D., Bellinger D.C., Weuve J., Spiro A., Sparrow D., Smith T.J., Nie H., Weisskopf M.G., Hu H., Wright R.O.
Interaction of the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and lead burden on cognitive function: The VA normative ageing study
This study evaluated the modifying influence of a δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene polymorphism on the relation between lead burden and cognition among older men. Information on ALAD genotype, lead measurements, potential confounders and cognitive testing was collected from 982 veterans. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. With higher levels of tibia lead, ALAD 1-2/2-2 carriers exhibited worse performance on a spatial copying test in comparison with ALAD 1-1 carriers. However, there was no consistent pattern of an ALAD genotype-lead interaction for the other tests.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1053-1061. 36 ref.
Allen H., Woock C., Barrington L., Bunn W.
Age, overtime, and employee health, safety and productivity outcomes: A case study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of overtime on employee health, safety, and productivity, comparing older versus younger workers. Secondary analyses of a longitudinal panel of 2746 workers of various heavy industry manufacturing sites in the United States were carried out for the years 2001 and 2002. The results show that when employees work overtime, there is no general increase of adverse outcomes with advancing age. Where rates of adverse outcomes do increase, they are confined to certain subgroups of employees doing certain types of work.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug 2008, Vol.50, No.8, p.873-894. Illus. 18 ref.
Ebbehøj N.E., Hein H.O., Suadicani P., Gyntelberg F.
Occupational organic solvent exposure, smoking, and prevalence of chronic bronchitis - An epidemiological study of 3387 men
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction between smoking and long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB). Data on 3387 men aged 63 ±10 years were collected by means of a questionnaire on health, lifestyle, working conditions and exposure to solvents, together with a clinical examination including measurements of height, weight, and peak-flow. CB was observed in 461 subjects (14.4%). Current smoking and the interaction of smoking and occupational exposure to organic solvents for five years or more were the factors most strongly associated with prevalence of CB. In the solvent-exposed group, odds ratio for CB was 7.0 for current smokers compared to non-smokers, while it was only 3.7 in the unexposed group. Possible reasons for this increased risk are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.730-735. 16 ref.
Alavinia S.M., Burdorf A.
Unemployment and retirement and ill-health: A cross-sectional analysis across European countries
The objective of this study was to determine the associations between various measures of state of health and employment status across ten European countries. Study subjects were 11,462 participants of the Survey on Health and Ageing in Europe (SHARE) who were 50-64 years old. Logistic regression was used to calculate the associations between the state of health and other determinants and being employed, retired, unemployed or a homemaker. A large variation across European countries was observed for the proportion of persons 50-65 years with paid employment, varying among men from 42% in Austria to 75% in Sweden and among women from 22% in Italy to 69% in Sweden. Among employed workers 18% reported a poor health, whereas this proportion was 37% in retirees, 39% in unemployed persons, and 35% in homemakers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.39-45. 27 ref.
Fragar L., Pollock K., Morton C.
The changing profile of Australian farm injury deaths
This article discusses statistical trends in injury deaths in the Australian agricultural sector between a recent study for the years 2001-2004 and earlier studies. Compared to a study for the years 1982-1984, the recent study shows a 46% reduction overall in tractor-related deaths and a 74% reduction in the number of deaths associated with tractor rollovers. However, all-terrain vehicle deaths have increased strongly from four deaths in 1989-1992 to 51 deaths in the recent study period. Drowning deaths of children under five years old on farms have significantly declined, but remain a significant cause of toddler deaths on farms across Australia. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2008, Vol.24, No.5, p.425-433. 9 ref.
Maguire P., Raphael B., Martinek N.
Health workforce: Challenges for occupational mental health
Nursing personnel, which constitutes the bulk of the health workforce, is exposed to many risk factors for their mental health and wellbeing. These include burnout, long hours, violence, feelings of helplessness, stress associated with increasing and new demands, an ageing workforce and high expectations from the public. A range of issues also confront medical practitioners, both in general practice and hospital-based care sectors. This article proposes key principles for protecting the mental health of health workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.519-530. 61 ref.
Lee K., Lim H.S.
Work-related injuries and diseases of farmers in Korea
Korean farmers are the victims of various work-related injuries and diseases, including injuries from farming machinery and tools, pesticide poisoning, peasant syndrome, vinyl house disease, respiratory diseases, infectious and skin diseases. Zoonoses including brucellosis and tsutsugamushi disease are on the increase, as well as musculoskeletal problems due to awkward postures, repetitive work and long working hours. Moreover Korean farmers themselves do not pay much attention to these problems and farmers are not considered a priority by health care facilities since the number of people involved in farming has strongly declined during the last few decades and the average age of this population has dramatically increased. This article reviews the current status of work-related injuries and diseases among Korean farmers and provides basic data for future studies.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.424-434. 95 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_424.pdf [in English]
Ageing issues and agricultural health and safety
Full issue on ageing of farmers in the United States. Topics: report on a conference on the ageing of the farming community; study on the use of medical and dental services by the forming community in two States; state of health and work capacity of older farmers; economic and social implications of the ageing farm population; occupational safety and health implications of the ageing farm population.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.2, p.65-131 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Oldenburg M., Jensen H.J., Latza U., Baur X.
Coronary risks among seafarers aboard German-flagged ships
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of coronary risk factors among male seafarers on vessels sailing under the German flag and to assess their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Data were collected from 161 participants by means of interviews, blood sampling and blood pressure measurements. In the total sample, 55 seamen (34.2%) had at least three CHD risk factors. The most prominent risk factors were hypertension (49.7%), high triglycerides (41.6%), older age (39.8%) and smoking (37.3%). Compared with non-Europeans, European seafarers were significantly more likely to have more than three CHD risk factors after adjusting for age (OR 2.4). German seamen showed a similar predicted 10-year CHD risk as the German population working ashore. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.735-741. Illus. 27 ref.
Wilson J.R., Parsons K.C.
Contemporary research findings in shift work
This special issue contains 15 articles from an international symposium on shift work and working time held in August 2007, in Yeppoon, Australia. Topics covered: ageing workforce; review of studies that have used the Standard Shiftwork Index; impact of shiftwork on work and non-work indicators; sleep and its impact on fatigue and performance; impact of free-time activities on sleep, recovery and well-being; injury patterns by time of day among adolescents.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 2008, Vol.39, No.5, p.539-670 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Faurie I., Fraccaroli F., Le Blanc A.
Age and working: From studies on ageing at work to a psychosocial approach to the end of working life
Âge et travail: des études sur le vieillissement au travail à une approche psychosociale de la fin de la carrière professionnelle [in French]
The long-predicted problem of pension funding, together with the issue of workforce ageing, have given rise to many studies analysing psychological and social processes marking the later stages of occupational activity. In this framework, the objectives of this article are firstly to conduct a critical review of the main studies on ageing within organizations and, more generally, on the relationships between age and work, and secondly to provide evidence on the relevance of a psychosocial approach to the issue of older workers, which cannot simply be limited to ageing at work. This approach involves an analysis of socialization and identity restructuring processes that characterise the transition during the final years of occupational activity.
Travail humain, Apr. 2008, Vol.71, No.2, p.137-172. Approx 150 ref.
Prevention of epicondylitis: Keep it at arm's length
Prévenir l'épicondylite: pour garder les coudées franches [in French]
Epicondylitis is a frequent occupational disease in the construction sector. It mostly affects manual labourers who carry out repetitive movements or movements that require grip, hand or arm strength. Woodworkers and masons who often handle heavy loads are particularly affected. Office workers, who spend too much time at their computer, as well as musicians, may also be affected. This article reviews risk factors, symptoms and prevention of epicondylitis. It includes the account of an occupational physician on the risk factors (repetitive movements, age, work in cold environments), treatment and preventive measures. Rest is a must to avoid the inflammation from becoming chronic.
Prévention BTP, May 2008, No.107, p.48-50. Illus.
Kenny G.P., Yardley J.E., Martineau L., Jay O.
Physical work capacity in older adults: Implications for the aging worker
The purpose of this literature survey was to examine the physiological adaptations to aging, the impact of aging on performance and the benefits of physical fitness in improving functional work capacity in aging individuals. An average decline of 20% in physical work capacity has been reported between the ages of 40 and 60 years, due to decreases in aerobic and musculoskeletal capacity. These declines can contribute to decreased work capacity, and consequential increases in work-related injuries and illness. However, differences in habitual physical activity greatly influence the variability seen in individual physical work capacity. Well-organized, management-supported, work-site health interventions encouraging physical activity during work hours could potentially decrease the incidence of age-related injury and illness.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51 No.8, p.610-625. Approx 150 ref.
Landau K., Rademacher H., Meschke H., Winter G., Schaub K., Grasmueck M., Moelbert I., Sommer M., Schulze J.
Musculoskeletal disorders in assembly jobs in the automotive industry with special reference to age management aspects
Production planners in the automotive industry are confronted with the problem of steadily increasing age of workers performing assembly jobs which involve highly repetitive short-cycle operations. A total of 256 work stations on an automobile assembly line were studied. Older workers were found mainly in jobs with favourable expert ratings, while younger workers were mainly found in jobs with unfavourable ratings. Accordingly, age and job strain are not independent variables. Older workers still complain of lumbar spine symptoms despite low demands imposed by their present jobs. This seems to indicate long-term cumulative effects. Neck and shoulder symptoms occur more frequently in older workers working under unfavourable conditions. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July-Aug. 2008, Vol.38, No.7-8, p.561-576. Illus. 46 ref.
Meeting the challenges of an aging workforce
The percentage of workers 55 years and older in the United States is increasing. These workers are often the most skilled and productive employees, but in some respects also the most vulnerable. The literature on aging and work was reviewed, including that concerning demographic trends, physical and cognitive changes, safety and performance, work ability and retirement patterns. Older workers have more serious, but less frequent, workplace injuries and illnesses than younger ones. There is evidence that many of these problems can be prevented and their consequences reduced by anticipating the physical and cognitive changes of age. Many employers are aware that such efforts are necessary, but most have not yet addressed them. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.51, No.4, p.269-280. Illus. 51 ref.
Ravallec C., Vaudoux D.
Older workers - From management by age to a management of age
Seniors - D'une gestion par l'âge à une gestion des âges [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on the employment of workers aged over 55 years: proportion of the working population among persons aged over 55 years in various European countries; causes of work inaptitude among persons over 55 years old (musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disorders, depression); adapting workplaces and working conditions to older workers; measures adopted by certain French enterprises (aerospace industry, food processing industry); policies adopted by Finland which has among the highest proportion of employment of older workers in Europe.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2008, No.680, p.14-27. Illus. 7 ref.
Kumar R., Kumar S.
Musculoskeletal risk factors in cleaning occupation - A literature review
The objective of this literature survey on risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among cleaners was to identify recommended practices, problems, and unresolved issues. The most frequently-cited factors were found to be the high physical and psychosocial workloads. Recommended ergonomic interventions are summarized in a model to present a systematic overview, useful for research and practical applications.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.158-170. Illus. Approx. 100 ref.
Tobiasz-Adamczyk B., Bartoszewska E., Brzyski P., Kopacz M.
Long-term consequences of education, working conditions, and health-related behaviors on mortality patterns in older age. A 17-year observational study in Kraków, Poland
The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the influence of education, occupational status and health-related behaviour on mortality patterns in older age. Data were derived from a study performed in 1986-1987 on a population sample of 2580 individuals (1703 women and 877 men) randomly selected from 8055 persons aged over 65 years who were residents of the Old Town area in Kraków, Poland. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire regarding education, occupational status, profession, importance attached to work and other life values, early retirement/disability pension due to health condition as well as sociodemographic data and medical history. Mortality data compiled from death records for a 17-year period of time were analyzed. Cox multivariate proportional hazard models were used to analyze independent predictors and estimate mortality risk. The risk tended to significantly increase with a decreasing level of education. Working conditions were found to have a significant influence on mortality risk in older age. Different patterns of mortality risk were noted for men and women.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.3, p.247-256. 22 ref.
Schneider C.A., Herold G., Gysan D., Albus C., Bjarnason-Wehrens B., Predel H.G.
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged type 2 diabetic automobile employees assessed at the workplace - The Praeford study
The purpose of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk factors among employees of German automotive plants who identified themselves as having type two diabetes mellitus. The proportion of subjects exceeding the target values for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was identified. Among 4234 employees, 91 employees with diabetes were identified (mean age 52 years). Only seven of these diabetic employees met all three recommended target values: blood pressure target values were achieved by 26%, HbA1c target values by 54% and LDL target values by 31% of employees. These findings call for new treatment and monitoring strategies for employees with diabetes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.481-483. Illus. 6 ref.
The ageing workforce: Implications for occupational hygienists
This article reviews some of the classic hazards and controls that occupational hygienists are faced with, in the specific context of the different physical and cognitive function characteristics of an ageing workforce. With an ageing workforce, exposure standards for mechanical, physical and chemical hazards will need re-evaluation, reliance on personal protective equipment will need to be reduced, and surveillance of the workforce will become increasingly important.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2007, Vol.23, No.3, p.233-239. 46 ref.
Peullet J.P., Rouilleault H., Mandinaud V., Trouiller G., Sarazin B., Roux C., Lecot S., Lepley B., Guerniou B.
Managing age: Exclusive survey of 10,000 managers
Gestion des âges: enquête exclusive auprès de 10.000 dirigeants [in French]
Collection of articles on age management. Topics addressed: summary of the findings from a survey of 10,000 enterprises on age management; the Finnish model of age management; opinions of managers of various government agencies; approach adopted in two French regions, in a medical laboratory and a textile enterprise; main points to consider with respect to age management; further reading.
Travail & changement, Jan.-Feb. 2007, No.312, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC312.pdf [in French]
Brun E., Milczarek M.
Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health
Significant changes which are taking place in the world of work lead to emerging psychosocial risks. Such risks, which are linked to the way work is designed, organized and managed, as well as to the economic and social context of work, result in an increased level of stress and can lead to serious deterioration of mental and physical health. In 2005, more than 20% of workers from the EU believed that their health is at risk because of work-related stress. This report presents the findings of an expert group on emerging psychosocial risks, supplemented by an analysis of the scientific research on key topics identified by the experts. A summary of the report is also available as a factsheet (CIS 08-250).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007.127p. Illus. 277 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/7807118 [in English]
Safety roundtable: Looking inside the EHS crystal ball
A panel of industry leaders was asked to give a forecast of future trends in workplace safety. The discussion revealed a variety of emerging trends that could impact the practice of safety in the future. Some were familiar themes, such as globalization, the aging workforce, nanotechnology and OSHA's role in worker safety. Other predictions were less expected, including the possibility that human resource departments might play a big role in defining safety culture, that the greening movement could attract young talent to the field or the selection of protective equipment of known brands may encourage their use among workers. All respondents agreed on the need for safety professionals to broaden their focus and adapt to a changing and expanding field.
Occupational Hazards, Dec. 2007, p.24-26. Illus.
Designing the age-friendly workplace
There are growing numbers of older workers at work. The trend toward earlier and earlier retirement seems to have ended, with more workers intending to stay employed, either full or part time, often well past the traditional retirement age. As a result, the number and percentage of older workers will increase for the next 20 years. In the United States, the median age of the civilian labour force is expected to rise from 35 in 1984 to 41.6 by 2014. This article discusses the issues of ageing and working longer, including physical and mental capacity, cognitive performance, experience and motivation. It presents the key aspects of successful programmes for employing older workers, including work environment, work organization, health promotion and social measures.
Occupational Hazards, Dec. 2007, p.29-32. Illus. 6 ref.
Hämäläinen R.M., Dijkmann A., Ásgeirsdóttir Á.G., Van den Broek K., Haratau T., Kuhn K., Masanotti G., Pyżalski J., van Scheppingen A., Solé M.D., Ylikoski M.
Value of partnership for workplace health promotion - Guideline for partnership building
The concept of workplace health promotion (WHP) includes all the processes and structures in an organization that are directed at improving and developing work environment in order to optimize workers' health, work ability, and well-being. This guide to WHP explores the various aspects of partnership and partnership building between employers and employees. It provides a description of nine examples of partnership development processes in European countries, on topics such as disability management, assessment of physical work capacity, ageing of the workforce, information dissemination on health and safety at work, developing a health plan, implementation of integrated health management for small and medium sized enterprises, and training of occupational health practitioners.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 64p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: EUR 19.00.
Working in the construction industry past the age of 50
Travailler dans le BTP après 50 ans [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on work in the construction industry past the age of 50 in France: numbers of workers employed in the construction industry by age group; proportion of older workers having taken early retirement on health grounds; wear of the articulations caused by the physical workload; diseases affecting older workers in the construction industry (musculoskeletal diseases and lung, heart and digestive tract problems); retaining older workers in the workforce by improving ergonomics and work organization; training and improved occupational health surveillance; efforts undertaken by a construction enterprise to improve working conditions and reduce the strenuousness of certain jobs; presentation of a website on occupational safety and health in the construction sector.
Prévention BTP, June 2007, No.97, p.38-47. Illus. 2 ref.
Age, work and health
Travail, âge et santé [in French]
Topics addressed in this review article on age, social level, state of health and work aptitude: social inequalities with respect to health; socioeconomic status and life expectancy; increased risk of disease among less-qualified workers; stress; work organization; age and conditions of work; managing an ageing workforce; examples of approaches adopted by older workers aimed at maintaining their work efficiency; strenuousness; positions adopted by enterprises with respect to the employment of older workers.
Prevent Focus, Mar. 2007. p.8-11. Illus. 3 réf.
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