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Diseases of other sense organs (other than the eye and the ears) - 59 entries found

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  • Diseases of other sense organs (other than the eye and the ears)

2011

CIS 11-0416 Rosen B., Bj÷rkman A., Lundborg G.
Improving hand sensibility in vibration induced neuropathy: A case-series
This study reports a long-term series of nine workers suffering from vibration-induced neuropathy after many years of exposure to hand-held vibrating tools at high or low frequency. They were treated with an anaesthetic skin cream on the forearm repeatedly for a period up to one year (in two cases four years). The aim was to improve their capacity to perceive touch and thereby improve hand function and diminish disability. All participants had sensory hand problems in terms of numbness and impaired hand function influencing. After one year, sensibility (touch thresholds and tactile discrimination) as well as hand function were improved in a majority of the cases. Seven of the participants choose to continue the treatment after the first year and two of them have continued at a regular basis for up to four years.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:13. 18p. 38 ref.
Improving_hand_sensibility.pdf [in English]

2010

CIS 10-0545 Pignatti P., Pala G., Pisati M., Perfetti L., Banchieri G., Moscato G.
Nasal blown secretion evaluation in specific occupational nasal challenges
The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of nasal blown secretion evaluation during specific nasal provocation tests (sNPT) in diagnosing occupational rhinitis (OR). To validate the method, nasal blown secretions from 103 healthy subjects and 30 allergic rhinitis patients were analysed. Furthermore, nasal blown secretions of 29 subjects with work-related rhinitis symptoms (WRRS) who underwent the diagnostic pathway for OR were collected before and after sNPT, and analysed. Rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score were used to define a positive sNPT. A total of 89.6% WRRS subjects provided suitable nasal secretions. Eosinophils significantly increased after positive sNPT compared to negative sNPT. Four percent and/or 1 Î 104 eosinophils/mL was the cut-off for a significant post-sNPT eosinophil increase. A total of 4/13 (33%) WRRS subjects with negative sNPT, assessed by rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score, presented a significant post-sNPT nasal eosinophil increase, and were identified as possible OR. It is concluded that eosinophil evaluation in nasal blown secretions is an important tool in monitoring the response to occupational specific nasal challenges.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.217-223. Illus. 30 ref.

2009

CIS 10-0064 Webb C.M., Bass J.M., Johnson D.M., Kelley A.M., Martin C.R., Wildzunas R.M.
Simulator sickness in a helicopter flight training school
Simulator sickness is a common problem during flight training and can affect both instructor pilots and student pilots. This study was conducted in response to complaints about a high incidence of simulator sickness associated with use of new simulators for rotary-wing aircraft. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 73 instructors and 129 students who used the new simulators. Based on analysis of these data, operator comments and a literature survey, it was recommended limiting simulator flights to 2h, removing unusual or unnatural manoeuvres, turning off the sidescreens to reduce the field-of-view, avoiding use of improperly calibrated simulators until repaired, and stressing proper rest and health discipline among the pilots. The success of these measures was evaluated one year later by collecting data from 25 instructors and 50 students. Implementation of the recommendations reduced simulator sickness in the new simulators, however at the cost of limiting session duration and shutting down some simulator features.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.80, No.6, p.541-545. 11 ref.

CIS 09-1270 Dżaman K., Wojdas A., Rapiejko P., Jurkiewicz D.
Taste and smell perception among sewage treatment and landfill workers
The study investigated the functioning of the taste and smell senses in workers employed at a sewage treatment plant and landfill in Poland. The study population was divided into three groups: sewage workers, landfill workers and laboratory workers. Taste disorders were noted in nearly 20% of subjects in each study group examined before work, and in 50% of sewage workers, 40% of landfill workers and 28% of laboratory workers examined after work. Before work, the smell disorders concerned 32% in the group of sewage workers, 6% of laboratory workers and 22% of landfill workers. After the working hours, these values increased to 40%, 8% and 38%, respectively.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.227-234. Illus. 29 ref.

2007

CIS 08-572 Michiels F.
Occupational diseases of the sensory organs
Affections d'origine professionnelles des organes des sens [in French]
Review of a conference on occupational diseases in the armed forces and in the ordinance industries held in Marseille, France, on 31 May and 1 June 2007. The conference included three sessions on occupational diseases of the sensory organs: hearing disorders; vision disorders; olfactory disorders. Each session included the findings of both research and field studies.
Documents pour le mÚdecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.112, p.543-552. Illus.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TD%20159/$File/TD159.pdf [in French]

2006

CIS 07-399 Paustenbach D.J., Gaffney S.H.
The role of odor and irritation, as well as risk perception, in the setting of occupational exposure limits
This literature survey reviewed current research regarding the relationship between odour perception or irritation and setting an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Special focus was directed at those settings where a small fraction of persons report unacceptable responses to concentrations well below the OEL. It was found that for some chemicals, even when airborne concentrations were below a particular OEL, this level of exposure may not be adequate to prevent all persons from reporting an appreciable adverse response. In some cases, a worker's pre-existing belief about the source of an odour may affect his or her response to that odour. In addition, detection of odours by workers may be influenced by the person's aversion to odour in general. In both situations, it is often necessary to address these specific issues through communications dealing directly with risk perception.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.79, No.4, p.339-342. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 07-398 Gobba F.
Olfactory toxicity: Long-term effects of occupational exposures
The objective of this literature survey was to review the results of research on olfactory function impairments related to chronic occupational exposure to industrial chemicals. The results of relevant studies are discussed. A problem in the evaluation of data is that different methods have been applied in different studies, affecting the comparability of results. To date, knowledge of the effect of chronic occupational exposure to industrial chemicals on olfactory function is largely incomplete, but supports the hypothesis that olfactory neuroepithelium is susceptible to environmental exposures to chemicals. Occupation-related olfactory impairment is usually sub-clinical, and can be only detected using adequate quantitative olfactory function testing procedures. The limited data underscore the need for further good quality research in this field.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.79, No.4, p.322-331. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 07-397 van Thriel C., et al.
From chemosensory thresholds to whole-body exposures - Experimental approaches for evaluating chemosensory effects of chemicals
The avoidance of adverse chemosensory effects is essential at workplaces where volatile chemicals are used. In the first part of this study, the odour (OT) and irritation thresholds (IT) of 15 irritants were determined in a random sample of 144 persons stratified for gender and age. Irritants exhibiting high chemosensory potency were selected for the second psychophysical part of the study, where 48 persons, again stratified for gender and age, rated the intensity of 13 trigeminal and olfactory perceptions elicited by nine ascending concentrations of the irritants. Across the investigated chemicals, the transition from concentrations eliciting pure olfactory stimulation (OT) to trigeminal stimulation (IT) differed markedly. Gender and age had only weak impact on the chemosensory thresholds.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.79, No.4, p.308-321. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 07-395 Arts J.H.E., de Heer C., Woutersen R.A.
Local effects in the respiratory tract: Relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits
Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration found to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans when compared to experimental animals need to be considered in the process of setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for such chemicals. This literature survey discusses to what extent subjectively-measured sensory irritation threshold levels can be used to establish OELs. Data on respiratory irritation of acetone, formaldehyde, furfural and sulfur dioxide were analysed. Findings are discussed. Objective measures of irritation yielded results that differed from subjective evaluations. Important factors modulating the reported levels of irritation and symptoms include the perception of odour intensity, exposure history and individual bias to report irritation on the basis of a person's prejudice or knowledge of the compound.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.79, No.4, p.283-298. Illus. 162 ref.

CIS 07-394 Doty R.L.
Olfactory dysfunction and its measurement in the clinic and workplace
The objectives of this literature survey were to provide an overview of practical means for quantitatively assessing the sense of smell in the clinic and workplace, to address basic measurement issues, including those of test sensitivity, specificity and reliability, and to describe factors that influence olfactory function, including airborne toxins commonly found in industrial settings. It was found that a number of well-validated practical tests are available for assessing smell function. The reliability, sensitivity and specificity of such techniques vary, being influenced by such factors as test length and type. Numerous subject factors, including age, sex, health, medications and exposure to environmental toxins, particularly heavy metals, influence the ability to smell.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.79, No.4, p.268-282. Illus. 99 ref.

2005

CIS 04-623 Falcy M., Malard S.
Comparison of olfactory detection thresholds of chemicals with safety indicators used in occupational settings
Comparaison des seuils olfactifs de substances chimiques avec des indicateurs de sÚcuritÚ utilisÚs en milieu professionnel [in French]
The smell detection threshold (or olfactory acuity) of 293 chemicals was compared to a number of hazard and toxicity criteria: lower explosibility limit; lowest lethal dose and toxic dose reported in humans; permissible concentrations in workplace air. Based on the ratios between olfactory acuity and the other criteria, a general classification was made for these substances according to whether or not olfactory detection could represent a safety factor in cases of chronic or acute exposures. However, the results need to take account of individual natural or acquired variations in olfactory acuity, together with various factors relating to the occupational or environmental ambient conditions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - HygiŔne et sÚcuritÚ du travail, 1st Quarter 2005, No.198, p.7-21. Illus. 32 ref.

2004

CIS 07-963 Overgaard E., Brandt L.P.A., Ellemann K., Mikkelsen S., Andersen J.H.
Tingling/numbness in the hands of computer users: Neurophysiological findings from the NUDATA study
The NUDATA (neck and upper extremity disorders among technical assistants) study is a one-year prospective cohort study of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users in Denmark. Within the NUDATA study, an investigation was carried out to determine whether tingling/numbness of the hands was associated with elevated vibration threshold as a sign of early nerve compression. Vibratory sensory testing with monitoring of the digital vibration detection threshold was performed on 20 cases with unilateral tingling and numbness in the hands and fingers, and 20 gender- and age-matched controls. The two groups had a similar amount of work with mouse and keyboard. The results show that tingling and numbness of the hands and fingers among computer users cannot be explained by nerve compression.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2004, Vol.77, No.7, p.521-525. 22 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/1emu33p6dwenvfhr/fulltext.pdf [in English]

2003

CIS 03-1750 Wibowo A., Van Doorn R., Zawierko J.
Definition of a danger perception index based on odour perception
Geurwaarneming: een acuut gezondheidsgevaar? Over het gebruik van de Gevaar Waarnemingsindex (GWI) [in Dutch]
The nose is often more sensitive than measuring instruments for detecting the presence of low concentrations of chemical substances in air. However, olfactory perception is subjective, and at best a semi-quantitative method. This article describes the development of a "danger perception index" (Gevaar Waarnemingsindex (GWI)) for substances having an odour perception threshold. The GWI is defined as a ratio between the intervention limit (or in its absence the 15min short-term exposure limit) and the odour detection threshold. Substances with high GWI have greater warning ability than those with a low GWI. Tables provide GWIs for around 100 commonly-used chemicals and their classification into one of three groups according to their GWI. (The contents of this article have also been published in Arbomagazine (ISSN 0929-0079), 2003, No.2, p.44-47).
MÚdecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2003, Vol.XL, No.1, p.25-31. 9 ref.

2001

CIS 02-845 Goyer N., Lavoie J.
Emissions of chemical compounds and bioaerosols during the secondary treatment of paper mill effluents
Measurements were taken in summer in 11 Canadian paper mills during a 2- to 3-day period in each mill and identified and quantified the main chemical compounds and the bioaerosols emitted during the biological treatment of paper mill effluents. Sulfur compounds had the highest concentrations in the air. Next were the carbon and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, some organic acids and terpenes, which come from wood. Odour perception thresholds for most of these substances are much lower than those established to protect the health of workers. Gram-negative bacteria were high at only one site, whereas the mould Aspergillus fumigatus was occasionally present at low concentration. The highest concentrations were measured where there was water or dust aerosolization. Emissions are managed by controlling the operations that lead to the dispersion of water and particles into the air and through the wearing of personal protective equipment. Stringent personal hygiene measures remain the best means of prevention for bioaerosols.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.330-341. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 01-837 Sunderman F.W.
Nasal toxicity, carcinogenicity, and olfactory uptake of metals
This review article discusses the impact of occupational exposures to metal dusts or aerosols, which can cause loss of olfactory acuity, atrophy of the nasal mucosa, mucosal ulcers, perforated nasal septum and sinonasal cancer. Anosmia and hyposmia have been observed in workers exposed to nickel- or cadmium-containing dusts in alkaline battery factories, nickel refineries, and cadmium industries. Ulcers of the nasal mucosa and perforated nasal septum have been reported in workers exposed to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating, or to As(III) in arsenic smelters. Cancers of the nose and nasal sinuses have been reported in workers exposed to Ni compounds in nickel refining, cutlery factories, and alkaline battery manufacture, or to Cr(VI) in chromate production and chrome plating. Possible molecular mechanisms responsible for olfactory loss are proposed, based on the findings of several animal experiments.
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 2001, Vol.31, No.1, p.3-24. 169 ref.

2000

CIS 03-183 Caccappolo E., Kipen H., Kelly-McNeil K., Knasko S., Hamer R.M., Natelson B., Fiedler N.
Odor perception: Multiple chemical sensitivities, chronic fatigue and asthma
Patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) often report heightened sensitivity to odours. Odour detection thresholds to phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) and pyridine (PYR) were evaluated for 33 MCS subjects, 13 chronic fatigue syndrome subjects, 16 asthmatic subjects and 27 healthy controls. Odour identification ability (based on University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification test results) and ratings in response to four supra-threshold concentrations of PEA and PYR were also assessed. Odour detection thresholds for PTA and PYR and odour identification ability were equivalent for all groups; however, when exposed to supra-threshold concentrations of PEA, MCS subjects reported significantly more trigeminal symptoms and lower aesthetic ratings for the substance. No group differences were found in response to supra-threshold concentrations of PYR.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.42, No.6, p.629-638. Illus. 28 ref.

1999

CIS 00-472 Hirsch A.R., Zavala G.
Long term effects on the olfactory system of exposure to hydrogen sulphide
Chronic effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on cranial nerve I (nervi olfactorii) have been only minimally described. In this study, chemosensations (smell and taste) were evaluated in eight men who complained of continuing dysfunction 2-3 years after the start of occupational exposure to H2S. Various bilateral (both nostrils) and unilateral (one nostril at a time) odour threshold tests with standard odorants as well as the Chicago smell test, a three-odour detection and identification test and the University of Pennsylvania smell identification test, and a series of 40 scratch and sniff odour identification tests were administered. Six of the eight patients showed deficits of various degrees. Two had normal scores on objective tests, but thought that they continued to have problems. H2S apparently can cause continuing, sometimes unrecognized olfactory deficits. Further exploration into the extent of such problems among workers exposed to H2S is warranted.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.56, No.4, p.284-287. 15 ref.

1998

CIS 99-1877 Chiappino G., Broich G., Mascagni P., Pacchi O.
Occupational olfactory alterations: Diagnostic procedures
Le alterazioni olfattive da causa professionale: Orientamenti per la diagnosi [in Italian]
There is evidence that occupational exposure to several, mainly neurotoxic, substances may result in olfactory damage. In this study, three different olfactory testing methods have been combined in one package in order to ensure a level of results to a forensic degree. The package consists of primary neuron function testing with a single olfactory stimulant; olfactory-trigeminal discrimination testing with regular sniff-test; and odour identification score by Doty's UPSIT test. Final judgement of a link between olfactory system impairment and occupational exposure to chemicals requires a good knowledge of present and past occupational exposures and of the general condition of the patient. It also requires collaboration between the occupational health specialist and the expert in olfactology and may be completed with endoscopy, radiography and other specific controls. It is suggested that a more extensive use of appropriate olfactory testing should be established, at least for those groups of workers at risk. Topics: cadmium and compounds; chemical products; chromium and compounds; diagnosis; loss of smell; mercury and compounds; nickel and compounds; olfaction; olfactometry; organic solvents; respirable dust; smoking.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1998, Vol.89, No.4, p.283-291. 29 ref.

CIS 99-1249 Rydzewski B., Sułkowski W., Miarzyńska M.
Olfactory disorders induced by cadmium exposure: A clinical study
The purpose of this study was to evaluate olfactory disorders in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. In addition to medical history and medical examinations, blood and urine tests were taken and olfactometry performed. The quantitative and qualitative olfactory disorders were evaluated on the basis of the established odour detection threshold and odour identification threshold. The examinations revealed numerous cases of hyposmia and parosmia and one case of anosmia. In the majority of people with olfactory disorders, hypertrophic changes in the nasal mucosa, dependant on the duration of employment, were identified. Statistically significant relationship between olfactory impairment and cadmium concentration in blood, urine and the workplace air was observed. However, such a relationship was not found in regard to the duration of employment. The results of these examinations could be the ground to perform certain preventive and therapeutic procedures. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; cadmium; determination in blood; determination in urine; long-term exposure; loss of smell; odour threshold; olfaction; olfactometry; smoking.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol. 11, No.3, p.235-245. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 98-1334 Kanerva L., Mikola H., Henriks-Eckermann M.L., Jolanki R., Estlander T.
Fingertip paresthesia and occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylics in a dental nurse
Topics: allergens; allergy tests; case study; dental services; dermatitis; eczema; fingers; Finland; list of chemical substances; methacrylates; nerve stimulation tests; paraesthesia; polyacrylates; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1998, Vol.38, No.2, p.114-116. 16 ref.

1997

CIS 97-1255 Muttray A., Schmitt B., Klimek L.
Effects of methyl methacrylate on the sense of smell
The prevalence of chronic smell disorders was studied in 175 acrylic sheet production workers exposed to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and in 88 non-exposed controls. Mean duration of exposure was 9.6 years; concentrations of MMA were up to 50ppm during the previous 6 years and up to 100ppm before then. Smell tests indicated no clinically relevant olfactory disorders in the exposed group. Data suggest that maintaining the current threshold limit value of 50ppm provides sufficient protection against irreversible olfactory disorders.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.1, p.58-66. Illus. 27 ref.

1995

CIS 96-695 Moen B.E., Hollund B.E., Torp S.
A descriptive study of health problems on car mechanics' hands
In a questionnaire survey of 172 car mechanics, 14% reported white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon), 24% reported paraesthesias in the hands or arms, 41% reported dry skin on the hands, 46% reported hand eczema, and 28% had experienced more than 20 cuts on the hands during the previous year. Hand eczema, white finger and cuts on the hands were all associated with employment for less than 14 years as a car mechanic. Further surveillance of the working environment of car mechanics is required.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1995, Vol.45, No.6, p.318-322. Illus. 14 ref.

1994

CIS 97-1378 Cometto-Mu˝iz J.E., Cain W.S.
Sensory reactions of nasal pungency and odor to volatile organic compounds: The alkylbenzenes
Nasal detection thresholds to alkylbenzenes, chlorobenzene, 1-octene and 1-octyne were measured in subjects clinically diagnosed as lacking a functional sense of smell (anosmics) and in matched normal controls (normosmics). There was a strong linear correlation between pungency thresholds and saturated vapour concentration for all tested compounds. Odour threshold generally failed to show this relationship. Results suggest that nasal pungency from these substances relies heavily on a broadly tuned physicochemical interaction with susceptible mucosal structure. Low levels of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds of low reactivity (as found in many polluted indoor spaces) could add their sensory impact to precipitate noticeable sensory irritation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1994, Vol.55, No.9, p.811-817. 45 ref.

CIS 96-802 Muttray A., Konietzko J.
Perturbations of the sense of smell caused by chemicals at work
St÷rungen des Riechverm÷gens durch und fŘr Arbeitsstoffe [in German]
The work and exposure histories and results of the medical examinations of three victims of anosmia (loss of smell) are described. The chemicals involved in causing the loss of smell were acetone, cyclohexanone, dichloromethane and tetrahydrofuran in the case of a plumber whose work involved installing and repairing plastic pipes in water treatment plants. Mixtures of organic solvents and non-occupational factors led to loss of smell in the case of a painter. Chromates or solvents were involved in the case of a worker in the chromium plating department of a shock-absorber manufacturing plant.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Oct. 1994, Vol.29, No.10, p.409-413. 43 ref.

CIS 95-630 Rousselin X., Bosio E., Falcy E.
Comparison of olfactory detection thresholds of chemical substances with danger and toxicity criteria used in the work environment
Comparaison des seuils olfactifs de substances chimiques avec des indicateurs de sÚcuritÚ utilisÚs en milieu professionnel [in French]
The olfactory detection thresholds of more than 250 chemical substances are compared with certain danger and toxicity criteria: lower explosive limit, lowest lethal and toxic doses determined in human, and workplace exposure limits. On the basis of safety ratios relating olfactory acuity with these other criteria, a general classification is drawn up to identify the substances olfactory detection may or may not be a safety factor in an acute or chronic risk situation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - HygiŔne et sÚcuritÚ du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.156, Note No.1967-156-94, p.315-328. 29 ref.

1993

CIS 98-256 Arenaz Erburu J.C.
Odour thresholds and safety of dangerous chemical substances
Umbrales olfativos y seguridad de sustancias quÝmicas peligrosas [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical products; compliance with exposure limits; dangerous substances; data sheet; hazard evaluation; odour threshold; olfactory signalling; Spain; TLV list.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 8p. 17 ref.

1992

CIS 94-196 Shusterman D.J., Sheedy J.E.
Occupational and environmental disorders of the special senses
Workplace hazards affecting vision, hearing, equilibrium, olfaction and taste are reviewed. These include chemical hazards (irritant chemicals, pharmacologic/toxicologic agents), physical hazards (microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet radiation, visible light, vibration, rapid ambient pressure changes), ergonomic hazards (task-related symptoms, workers with pre-existing vision disorders, ergonomic factors), biological hazards, use of contact lenses in industry.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.7, No.3, p.515-542. Illus. 269 ref.

CIS 93-909 Rose C.S., Heywood P.G., Costanzo R.M.
Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure
Fifty-five workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation were examined. Cadmium body burden was estimated and cadmium-induced renal damage was assessed. Olfactory function was quantified using a standardised test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odour identification, and workers were compared with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic; 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odour detection threshold. The findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1992, Vol.34, No.6, p.600-605. Illus. 25 ref.

1991

CIS 97-1377 Mott A.E., Leopold D.A.
Disorders in taste and smell
This literature survey covers disorders of chemosensation (perception of smells, perception of taste, common chemical sense (irritation or pungency)). Topics covered: anatomy and physiology of the oral/nasal chemosensory systems; definition of chemosensory terms; initial evaluation of patient; diagnosis and treatment of the causes of chemosensory disorders (nasal/sinus disease, post upper respiratory tract infection, head trauma). Tables list other conditions and medications associated with disorders of taste and smell.
Medical Clinics of North America, Nov. 1991, Vol.75, No.6, p.1321-1353. Illus. 248 ref.

1990

CIS 91-1226 Schwartz B.S., Ford D.P., Bolla K.I., Agnew J., Rothman N., Bleecker M.L.
Solvent-associated decrements in olfactory function in paint manufacturing workers
To assess the effects of low-level organic solvent exposure on olfactory function, 187 workers in two paint manufacturing facilities were tested using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a standardised, quantitative test of olfactory function. Industrial hygiene air samples over the past 13-15 years revealed that average solvent exposures in these plants were 2-40% of the existing threshold limit values for the three chemicals measured. The results showed that solvents may cause nervous system dysfunction at lower levels than previously suspected, and that the olfactory system may be a critical target organ for the neurotoxic effects of solvents and other chemicals.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.18, No.6, p.697-706. Illus. 28 ref.

1989

CIS 91-178 B÷cker H.
Subjective perception of harmful substances and its importance to occupational safety
Subjektive Wahrnehmung von Gefahrstoffen und ihre Bedeutung fŘr den Arbeitsschutz [in German]
Odour thresholds and exposure limits of a selection of carcinogens, organic solvents and chlorinated hydrocarbons frequently occurring at workplaces are presented. Odour perception is not necessarily related with the health hazard of a substance. With some harmful substances the odour threshold coincides with occupational exposure limits. Not smelling these substances is not an indication of harmless levels.
Die BG, Oct. 1989, No.10, p.672-675. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 90-1738 Fikentscher R., Seeber H.
Occupation and the sense of smell
Beruf und Riechen [in German]
Olfactometric fitness examinations are required since the sense of smell is important in many activities. Smelling disorders result from trauma, hypersensitivity, acute and chronic intoxications, but most frequently from chemical and physical agents. They show different symptoms (slight hyposmia to anosmia, parosmia), latency, localisation, and combinations with other disorders. This report presents problems, the present state of knowledge and results obtained by research work. Since it is assumed that an increasing number of work-related smell disorders will manifest themselves and have to be assessed, recommendations for the performance of further examinations and research are provided.
Zeitschrift fŘr die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Feb. 1989, Vol.35, No.2, p.78-81. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-833 Sandmark B., Broms I., L÷fgren L., Ohlson C.G.
Olfactory function in painters exposed to organic solvents
The olfactory function of 54 painters exposed to organic solvents was compared with that of 42 unexposed referents. A new clinical test validated for the sense of smell was used, i.e. the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Age, smoking habits, exposure to organic solvents, and medical disorders of importance for the sense of smell were recorded. The painters had a somewhat lower test score than the referents. However, the influence of the exposure variable was not statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis including age and smoking habits. The exposure to organic solvents was low, and therefore an effect of high exposure on olfactory function cannot be ruled out. Since some of the painters had earlier been highly exposed, the effects of high exposure are likely to be reversible.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.60-63. 20 ref.

1988

CIS 89-1951 Rick D.L., McCarty L.P.
The determination of the odor threshold of Telone II soil fumigant by a new method
A method has been developed for the determination of the olfactory threshold of vapours and gases. It involves the dilution of a concentrated vapour or gas by a metering pump into an odour-free stream of air and an odour-free sampling system. Its advantage over other methods is the speed and accuracy with which odour thresholds can be determined. This method has been used to determine the odour of Telone II Soil Fumigant in air. In a population of 22 persons, the concentration at which odour was detected was 4.4 ▒ 3.1ppm (mean ▒ S.D.). This level is slightly above the current threshold limit value time-weighted average of 1.0ppm but below the short-term exposure limit of 10ppm.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Nov. 1988, Vol.3, No.11, p.299-302. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 89-1593 Abe K.
Determination of olfactory threshold values of organic solvents for the control of the working environment
Sagyō kankyō kanri ni okeru yūkiyōzai no kyūkaku shikiichi [in Japanese]
Olfactory threshold values of organic solvents were determined by means of a triangle olfactory test using one bag containing each odorant and 2 other bags containing clean air. Solvents and their thresholds (in ppm) were: toluene 4.2; o-xylene 0,6; trichloroethylene 8.4; hexane 13; butyl acetate 5.0; methanol 2.0.
Journal of Working Environment, July 1988, Vol.9, No.4, p.57-62. Illus. 7 ref.

1987

CIS 89-272 Hagberg M., Jacobsson B., Landstr÷m U., Thomasson L., Widman L.
Arbetsmilj÷institutet
Prevalence of and relative risks for musculoskeletal and neurological symptoms involving the hands of concrete workers
F÷rekomst av och relativa risker f÷r muskuloskeletala besvńr och neurologiska symptom i hńnderna hos betongarbetare [in Swedish]
Questionnaire survey of 103 Swedish concrete workers and of 125 safety engineers who served as a reference group, concerning neurological symptoms involving the hands and musculoskeletal complaints. Nocturnal numbness was experienced by 37% of the concrete workers. The relative risk (odds ratio) for this was 10. The workers also reported poor grip strength (24%) and a tendency to drop objects (19%), corresponding to relative risks of 6.2 and 3.6, respectively. White fingers were reported by 28% (relative risk 3.6). One third of the concrete workers reported current symptoms in the shoulder/neck, glenohumeral joint, wrist/hand and lower back (relative risks ranging from 4 to 6.6, the highest risk concerning the glenohumeral joint). Dose was calculated as number of years of exposure to vibration. Dose-response relationships were found for most symptoms when relative risks for the concrete workers were high.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 24p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 88-1978 Inatome K., Iga T., Seo S.
Symptoms of exposure to o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile no bakuro ni yoru shōjō ni tsuite [in Japanese]
o-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (OCMB) is a riot-control agent. Containers contaminated with the compound can be included in metal scrap. Industrial injury patients showed abnormality in smelling, nasal respiratory resistance, or other symptoms believed to be caused by exposure during work with OCMB. In 1 case (2 episodes), the subject was exposed and continued to work for more than 2 hours in spite of obvious and strong symptoms in the eyes, nose, throat and chest. Slight reddening of the nasal and laryngeal mucosae, and elevation of nasal respiratory resistance and lower airway resistance were observed. Taste was normal but olfactory sensitivity was reduced and a slight reddening of the trachea and bronchial mucosa were noted by bronchoscope. In about six months, recovery was essentially complete. In 1 case (1 episode), the subject was exposed, and stopped working immediately when symptoms appeared. In this patient, all findings were almost normal. Scrap metal workers and others who may be exposed to OCMB should always wear protective gear.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.35, No.9, p.625-631. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 88-975 Stevens J.C., Cain W.S., Weinstein D.E., Pierce J.B.
Aging impairs the ability to detect gas odor
Weakened smelling is common in age. Two studies here show that this phenomenon frequently reveals itself in an inability to detect ethyl mercaptan, the warning agent most commonly added to propane (LP-gas). The first study compared 21 young (18-25yrs) with 21 old (70-85yrs) persons for (a) detection threshold (average 10 times higher in the elderly), (b) suprathreshold odour strength (weaker for the elderly at all levels), and (c) ability to identify common odours (the elderly did worse). Seven of the 21 elderly failed to detect ethyl mercaptan at or above a concentration associated with the boundary between acceptable and unacceptable levels of propane. Three of these failed to detect the odorant at a concentration where accompanying propane could explode. In the second study 50 of 110 persons over 60yrs failed to detect odour reliably in commercial odorised propane diluted to the Department of Transportation's safety standard (one-fifth of the lower explosive limit). Six of 52 persons under 40 also failed. The elderly person would seem to be at high risk of LP-gas fires.
Fire Technology, Aug. 1987, Vol.23, No.3, p.198-204. Illus. 19 ref.

1986

CIS 87-680 Ahlstr÷m R., Berglund B., Berglund U., Lindvall T., Wennberg A.
Impaired odor perception in tank cleaners
The olfactory perception of 20 tank cleaners exposed to petroleum products was estimated. Office workers and watchmen were used as referents (N = 20 + 20). Odour detection thresholds and the perceived odour intensity of 4 odorous stimuli, pyridine, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), n-butanol, and heating oil vapour (gas phase of heating oil heated to + 40░C) were determined. The tank cleaners had higher absolute odour thresholds for n-butanol and oil vapour than the referents. The psychophysical function of the tank cleaners and referents differed for all the tested substances in respect to odour intensity. The tank cleaners displayed normal perception of strong stimuli but impaired perception of weak stimuli. This odour deficit was therefore named "odour intensity recruitment" and seems, in tank cleners, to be associated with exposure to oil vapour.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.12, No.6, p.574-581. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 87-233 Rousselin X., Falcy M.
The nose, chemical products and safety
Le nez, les produits chimiques et la sÚcuritÚ [in French]
The olfactory detection thresholds for 217 chemical substances are compared with danger and toxicity criteria: lower explosive limits, lowest lethal and toxic doses observed in man and for TLVs exposure in the working environment. On the basis of the calculation of "safety ratios" relating odour thresholds to these other criteria, a general classification is drawn up showing the substances for which olfactory detection could or could not be considered as an aid in safety in situations involving acute chronic risk. However, results thus obtained can only be meaningfully analysed if natural or acquired olfactory variations from one individual to another and different environmental factors inside and outside work are taken into consideration.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - SÚcuritÚ et hygiŔne du travail, 3rd quarter 1986, No.124, Note No.1590-124-86, p.331-344. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 86-713 Ruth J.H.
Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: A review
A collection of odour threshold data for approximately 450 chemical substances is presented. The range of threshold reported in the literature is shown along twith any reported thresholds of irritation to humans. These data can assist industrial hygienists in determining when an odour may be in excess of exposure limits, when an organic vapour respirator is not acceptable due to the lack of an odour warning at the end of a carridge life, and where odour may not indicate a hazard due to extremely low odour thresholds which may be well below the respective exposure limits.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1986, Vol.47, No.3, p.A142-A151. 28 ref.

1985

CIS 86-1596 Makaruk M.I., Vagonova L.V.
Toxicological assessment of acetylanisole
Toksikologičeskaja harakteristika acetilanizola [in Russian]
Exposure of animals to acetylanisole showed slight toxic effects of the substance. It is absorbed by the skin and inhibits central nervous system activity. Medical examination of workers engaged in drying and packing of acetylanisole revealed cardiovascular function changes including increases of dynamic blood pressure and pulse rate, and a pronounced increase of the sense of smell, which demonstrates the strong olfactory inhibition properties of acetylanisole. A tentative safe exposure level for acetylanisole of 3mg/m3 is proposed. It falls in hazard class III.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1985, No.4, p.86-87. 8 ref.

CIS 85-1964 Flannigan S.A., Tucker S.B., Key M.M., Ross C.E., Fairchild E.J., Grimes B.A., Harrist R.B.
Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: a dermatological evaluation
This study evaluated the skin sensations of people exposed to field-strength (0.13mg/cm2) fenvalerate and permethrin, both powerful insecticides belonging to the synthetic pyrethroids. Both substances produced paraesthesia lasting 24-28h, with markedly stronger response to fenvalerate, while the inert ingredients used in both insecticides produced no response at all. When skin sensation was tested against the concentration of these insecticides, sensation intensity increased linearly with the logarithm of concentration. Topical application of vitamin E acetate was found to have very high therapeutic value, eliminating almost 100% of the skin pain.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1985, Vol.42, No.6, p.363-372. Illus. 30 ref.

1984

CIS 85-1662 Ahlstr÷m R., Berglund B., Berglund U., Lindvall T., Nyberg L., Petterson S., Wallin M., Wennberg A., ┼str÷m H.
Olfactory deficits in tank cleaners
Luktnedsńttning hos tankreng÷rare [in Swedish]
The olfactory perception of 20 workers exposed to petroleum products (while cleaning oil tanks) was examined. Office workers and watchmen were used as controls. They were matched with regard to sex, age and smoking habits. Odour detection thresholds and the perceived odour strength of pyridine, dimethyl disulphide (DMDS), n-butanol and heating oil fume were determined. The petroleum workers had higher absolute thresholds for n-butanol and oil fumes than the controls. Petroleum workers displayed an odour deficit analogous to the hearing loss known as "loudness recruitment", i.e., normal perception of loud stimuli but impaired perception of soft stimuli. This odour deficit was therefore designated "odour strength recruitment". The petroleum workers were subdivided into 3 groups according to the number of exposure-free days before examination of their odour sense. The greatest odour deficit was found in the group with not more than one exposure-free day. This suggests that the effect of exposure may be wholly or partially acute (i.e., transient).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 38p. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 84-1658 Crawford G.N., Garrisson R.R., McFee D.R.
Odor threshold determination for 2-nitropropane
Previous determinations had indicated that the odour threshold of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) (80ppm) could not be used as a warning for air concentrations above the exposure limit. However, recent tests have shown that the odour threshold of 2-NP is at about 5ppm, which is well below the 25ppm ACGIH "ceiling" limit. The odour of 2-NP could therefore provide a warning, at least to workers who are familiar with the odour itself.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.B.7-B.8. 12 ref.

1982

CIS 83-459 Nauš A.
Olfactory thresholds of certain industrial substances
ČichovÚ prahy některřch průmyslovřch lßtek [in Czech]
Olfactory thresholds of 46 chemical substances: (1) the absolute threshold where the substance is detected by smell but not identified; (2) the threshold where the substance is identified; (3) the relative threshold where the substance is recognised against an active olfactory background. The data are given in mg/m3 and compared with irritation and toxic effect thresholds. They were obtained from olfactometric tests using normal persons or are based on the previous research.
PracovnÝ lÚkařstvÝ, Aug. 1982, Vol.34, No.6-7, p.217-218. 14 ref.

CIS 82-1114 Regnier V.
Anosmia of occupational origin
Les anosmies d'origine professionnelle [in French]
This medical thesis covers: anatomical and physiological review of the sense of smell, means of investigation and main causes of impaired sense of smell, survey of forms of persistent loss of smell of post-traumatic occupational origin (following a trauma to the face) or due to toxic exposure (heavy metals, solvent, sugar dust, flour, tobacco and wood). Analysis of causes of partial loss of sense of smell due to olfactory fatigue; difficulties of differential diagnosis and medicolegal aspects. The occupational physician's job is to detect, at the pre-employment medical examinations, sense of smell disorders and "spontaneous olfactory scotomas", and to monitor olfactory function in workers exposed to substances suspected of toxicity.
UniversitÚ de Paris VI, FacultÚ de mÚdecine PitiÚ-SalpŕtriŔre, Paris, France, 1982. 71p. 70 ref.

1981

CIS 83-1635 Mihajluc A.P., Oževskaja I.O.
Effect of inorganic irritants on sensory functions
Vlijanie razdražajuščih neorganičeskih soedinenij na funkcional'noe sostojanie analizatorov [in Russian]
Thresholds of smell (valerian), vision (red light) and taste (quinine) were determined at the beginning and end of a shift in a population of women who work in an industrial zone where the ambient airborne levels of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid are as much as 22-fold higher than maximum allowable concentrations. Half of the women were healthy; the other half suffered from various respiratory disorders. When exposed for 4h to the highest pollution levels, both groups of subjects showed elevated thresholds of sensitivity and prolonged latent periods of response to all 3 stimuli.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1981, No.7, p.11-13. 6 ref.

CIS 82-165 Billings C.E., Jonas L.C.
Odor thresholds in air as compared to threshold limit values
A table of odour threshold values and comparable threshold limit values is presented for 57 commonly encountered chemicals. It will be of value for recognition of exposures in field surveys and in the education of workers and industrial hygiene students.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1981, Vol.42, No.6, p.479-480.

1980

CIS 82-175 Gusejn-Zade K.M.
The effect of diesel fuel on skin sensitivity
O vlijanii dizel'nogo topliva na čuvstvitel'nye funkcii koži [in Russian]
Tests involving an electrothermic aesthesiometer were performed on the hands and forearms of 320 engine attendants who came into contact with diesel fuel at work in an oil field. This type of exposure resulted in a reduction of their skin sensitivity to heat and pain.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.39-41. 8 ref.

CIS 80-1942 Mutz G.
Olfactory threshold concentration values from the literature - Criteria for assessment of olfactory disturbance
Literaturwerte von Geruchsschwellenkonzentrationen reiner Stoffe - Masszahlen zur Beurteilung von Geruchsbelństigungen? [in German]
The causes of the large differences between the olfactory thresholds quoted in the literature (individual sensitivity, environmental factors, methodology, conversion errors) are reviewed. The example of pyridine is given (range 0.04 to 71mg/m3). Conditions for obtaining comparable thresholds are set out, and a distinction is drawn between perception threshold, identification threshold, attention threshold, and disturbance threshold. Olfactory thresholds are of little practical value.
Staub, Feb. 1980, Vol.40, No.2, p.69-72. Illus. 53 ref.

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