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Silicon compounds - 61 entries found

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  • Silicon compounds

2011

CIS 11-0084 Lin M.H., Liou S.H., Chang C.W., Huang I.H., Strickland P.T., Lai C.H.
An engineering intervention resulting in improvement in lung function and change in urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine among foundry workers in Taiwan
The objective of this study was to assess changes in oxidative DNA damage and lung function in a group of foundry workers following an engineering intervention to reduce respirable dust in their working environment. All 22 workers from a typical small Taiwanese iron foundry plant were studied before and three months after improvements to air exhaust control. The effectiveness of the air exhaust intervention in reducing respirable dust and SiO2 was determined by personal breathing-zone air sampling. Initial baseline biomarker measurements were taken of lung function and urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in all of the workers, with follow-up measurements taken three months after the engineering control was put in place. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the effect of the intervention on lung function and oxidative DNA damage. Findings indicate that reductions in workplace respirable dust and SiO2 concentration can result in improved lung function amongst foundry workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.175-183. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0045 Jaakkola M.S., Sripaiboonkij P., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers
The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures in tile industry and lung function, and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.151-158. Illus. 36 ref.

2010

CIS 10-0847 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Milz S.A., Wagner C.D., Bisesi M.S., Ames A.L., Khuder S., Susi P., Akbar-Khanzadeh M.
Effectiveness of dust control methods for crystalline silica and respirable suspended particulate matter exposure during manual concrete surface grinding
Concrete grinding exposes workers to unacceptable levels of crystalline silica dust, known to cause diseases such as silicosis and possibly lung cancer. This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory. Air was monitored during 201 concrete grinding sessions while using a variety of grinders, accessories, and existing dust control methods, including general ventilation (GV), local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and wet grinding. Findings are discussed. No combination of factors or control methods reduced an 8-hr exposure level to below the recommended criterion of 0.025 mg/m³ for crystalline silica, requiring further refinement in engineering controls, administrative controls, or the use of respirators.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.700-711. Illus. 28 ref.

2007

CIS 09-1121 Søyseth V., Johnsen H.L., Benth J.S., Hetland S.M., Kongerud J.
Production of silicon metal and alloys is associated with accelerated decline in lung function
To investigate the association between decline in lung function and the production of alloys in the Norwegian smelting industry, all 3924 employees of the sector were examined annually for five years. The outcome variable was one-second forced expiratory volume in litres divided by the square of subjects' height in metres (FEV1/height2). In the sub-cohorts of the ferrosilicon/silicon metal and silicon carbide industries, the differences between oven operators and non-exposed workers were -2.3 (-4.3 to -0.3) and -5.6 (-10.4 to -0.7) mL/(m2) x year), respectively. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1020-1026. 27 ref.

2006

CIS 07-1006
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Triethoxy-2,4,4-trimethylpentylsilane
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge of July 2005: triethoxy-2,4,4-trimethylpentylsilane is a clear liquid used in the construction industry for the impregnation of concrete. It reacts with water and alcohols. Modes of entry include ingestion and skin absorption. Animal studies show very low toxicity (LD50 at over 2000mg/kg). In rats, target organs of chronic exposure are the forestomach, liver, bladder and kidney. No studies are available on toxic effects to reproduction. In vitro and in vivo studies show the product to be non-mutagenic. Although no experimental data are available, carcinogenicity is considered unlikely. .
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiii, 46p. 81 ref.

2000

CIS 97-34 Methyl trichlorosilane
Data sheet. Synonym: trichloromethylsilane. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. Corrosive effects on the eyes and the skin. Irritates the respiratory tract. May cause lung oedema.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1994, 2000. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/1296.pdf [in English]

1999

CIS 02-1084 Sodium hexafluorosilicate
Hexafluorosilicate de sodium [in French]
Hexafluorosilicato de disodio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; effects on the calcium metabolism, resulting in cardiac disorders and impaired function. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the bone, resulting in fluorosis. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization. Threshold limit value: 2.5mg/m3 (TWA) as fluorine (ACGIH 1998).
English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1243.html [in French]
http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1243.htm [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc12/icsc1243.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-1083 Potassium hexafluorosilicate
Hexafluorosilicate de potassium [in French]
Hexafluorosilicato de dipotasio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; effects on the calcium metabolism, resulting in cardiac disorders and impaired function. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the bone, resulting in fluorosis. Threshold limit value: 2.5mg/m3 (TWA) as fluorine (ACGIH 1997-1998).
English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1242.html [in French]
http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1242.htm [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc12/icsc1242.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-507 Bellmann B., Muhle H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Investigation of the in vivo solubility of fibrous vitreous silica dust samples
Untersuchung der in-vivo-Löslichkeit von glasigen silicatischen Faserstäuben [in German]
This research report examines the elimination of mineral fibres from the lungs of rats and the transposition of the results to man. Such fibres disappear either by chemical dissolution or through a macrophage-mediated lung-clearance process, the latter being however much slower in man than in the rat. The objective of this study was to establish whether by slowing down of the lung-clearance process through additional instillation of poorly soluble plastic (such as toner powder), one could alter the mineral fibre dissolution process. The elimination of ceramic fibres was delayed by the addition of plastic particles, while the elimination of rock fibres was not modified. It was observed that in the presence of plastic particles, glass fibres were eliminated more rapidly. This could be due to a slowing down of fibre phagocytosis by macrophages, which could favour a more rapid dissolution of the fibres, the pH inside the macrophages being less acidic. The application of this experimental model will enable a better understanding of the kinetics of lung elimination of different types of mineral fibres. Summaries in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. vii, 65p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-1020 Hobbesland Å., Kjuus H., Thelle D.S.
Study of cancer incidence among 8530 male workers in eight Norwegian plants producing ferrosilicon and silicon metal
To examine the association between cancer incidence and duration of work among employees in Norwegian plants producing ferrosilicon and silicon metal, cases of cancer were obtained from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The numbers of various cancers were compared with expected figures calculated from age and calendar time specific rates for Norwegian men during the same period. Internal comparisons of rates were performed with Poisson regression analysis. A total of 832 cases of cancer were observed against 786 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.06). Among the furnace workers an increased incidence of lung cancer (SIR 1.57) and testicular cancer (SIR 2.30) was found. Internal comparisons of rates among the rural furnace workers showed a positive trend between incidence of lung cancer and duration of work of 1.05/work-year. Excess cases of prostate and kidney cancer were found among blue collar non-furnace workers, in particular among the mechanics. Results suggest associations between furnace work and lung and testicular cancer, and between non-furnace work and prostate cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.56, No.9, p.625-631. 38 ref.

CIS 99-1646
Fire Protection Association
Propyltrichlorosilane
Topics: trichloropropylsilane; chlorosilanes; dangerous substances; data sheet; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; irritants; labelling; spills; storage tanks; storage; transfer of liquids; United Kingdom; warning notices.
Fire Prevention, Mar. 1999, No.318, 2p. Insert. 9 ref.

1997

CIS 97-1262
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Silica, some silicates, coal dust and para-aramid fibrils
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 15-22 October 1996. Overall evaluation: crystalline silica inhaled in the form of quartz or cristobalite from occupational sources is carcinogenic in humans; long palygorskite (attapulgite) fibres (>5µm) are possibly carcinogenic in humans; amorphous silica, para-aramid fibrils, coal dust, short palygorskite (attapulgite) fibres (<5µm), sepiolite, wollastonite, clinoptilote, phillipsite, mordenite, non-fibrous Japanese zeolite, and synthetic zeolites are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1997. iv, 506p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

1996

CIS 97-755 Trimethylchlorosilane
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Corrosive effects on the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause pulmonary oedema and permanent eye damage. It is a highly flammable and reactive liquid.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-736 Diphenyl dichlorosilane
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Corrosive effects on the eyes and skin. May cause permanent eye damage. Irritates the respiratory tract.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-422 Dimethyl dichlorosilane
Data sheet. Synonym: dichlorodimethylsilane. May enter the body when breathed in. May burn the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause lung oedema. It is a flammable liquid.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-68, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-537 Granados-Correa F., García-Sosa I., Iturbe-García J.L.
Exposure to total and respirable minerals in an abrasive manufacturing facility
Area and personal air sampling was carried out at a plant manufacturing abrasive materials. Samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of total and respirable dust were higher than their respective threshold limit values (TLVs). Of the individual elements present in the dust, only silicon exceeded the TLV. Other elements included aluminium, chromium, iron, magnesium, calcium, bromine, manganese, zinc, lead, nickel and vanadium. Use of respirators is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1996, Vol.57, No.8, p.753-755. 13 ref.

1995

CIS 96-832 Spain B.A., Cummings O., Garcia J.G.N.
Bronchiolitis obliterans in an animal feed worker
A case study is presented of a nonsmoking animal feed production worker who developed severe irreversible airflow obstruction during a 2-year occupational exposure to organic matter, microorganisms, proteolytic enzymes and both amorphous and synthetic silicates. Open lung biopsy demonstrated findings consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans; silicate particles in biopsy specimens suggested a potential link between silicate exposure and pathologic findings. Findings should be considered when evaluating symptomatic patients with occupational exposure to animal feed dusts, in particular amorphous and synthetic silicates.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.437-443. 18 ref.

CIS 96-150 Nuyts G.D., Van Vlem E., Thys J., De Leersnijder D., D'Haese P.C., Elseviers M.M., De Broe M.E.
New occupational risk factors for chronic renal failure
Occupational histories of 272 men and women with chronic renal failure were compared with those of 272 matched controls. Significantly increased risks of chronic renal failure were found for exposure to lead, copper, chromium, tin, mercury, welding fumes, silicon-containing compounds, grain dust and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The frequencies of various occupational exposures were high among patients with diabetic nephropathy. The study confirms previously identified risk factors and suggests that additional occupational exposures, for which there is some other experimental evidence, may be important in the development of chronic renal failure.
Lancet, 1 July 1995, Vol.346, No.8966, p.7-11. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 95-1432 Peltier A., Guillemin C., Elcabache J.M., Fabries J.F., Gorner P., Verelle B.
Study of the solubility of lead contained in lead silicates - Aerosols in the cold working shops in crystal glass manufactures
Solubilité du plomb contenu dans les silicates plombifères - Aérosols rencontrés dans les ateliers à froid des cristalleries [in French]
A survey was conducted in the cold working shops of crystal glass manufacturing plants in France. The following measurements were taken: dust sampling (personal or static); inspirable and alveolar fraction sampling; total dust in the workshops; sampling with Marple 298 cascade impactors; mass sampling; biological indicators. The results of these biological and atmospheric measurements merit further study in order to determine whether late signs of lead poisoning are likely to appear in the long term in crystal glass cutters, the lead being released in the body because of the metabolic disturbances that accompany ageing.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, Note No.1981-158-95, p.35-45. Illus. 15 ref.

1994

CIS 96-2157 Searl A.
A review of the durability of inhaled fibres and options for the design of safer fibres
The hazards associated with inhaled fibres are linked with fibre shape, size, composition and durability. In general the asbestos minerals are more durable than most man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF), although some ceramic fibres may be more durable than chrysotile. The most soluble of the MMVF have relatively high alkali (Na and K) and alkali earth (Ca, Mg) contents, and low alumina and boron contents. The least soluble MMVF are the high alumina silicate glasses (the ceramic fibres). The relative durability of different fibre types is governed by the physical and chemical environment which contains the fibres. The effective assessment of fibre durability is an important aspect in fibre safety and requires the development of better and more coordinated experimental design. It may ultimately be possible to design vitreous fibres which have low durabilities in the lung but are adequately durable in the intended environment of use.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1994, Vol.38, No.6, p.839-855. 67 ref.

CIS 95-669 Linear polydimethylsiloxanes (viscosity 10-10,000 centistokes) CAS No.63148-62-9
Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) of all viscosities have a very low acute toxicity. Irritancy to the eye is low and no skin sensitizing potential has been detected. Repeated dosage studies with PDMS of different viscosities demonstrated no significant adverse effects in a variety of mammalian species. No adverse effects have been observed in man following the use of PDMS for many years in a large number of consumer applications involving frequent dermal or oral exposure. Overall, available data indicate that PDMS do not present a health hazard for man.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte.6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1994. ii, 77p. 178 ref.

1993

CIS 94-2056 Matsuda T.
Dust explosibility of fine ceramic powders
Fain seramikkusu ko no funjin bakuhatsu kikensei [in Japanese]
"Fine" in "fine ceramic powders" refers both to their quality and their granulation (1-10µm). They have many uses, including abrasives, lubricants and additives to confer strength on various products. Of 29 kinds tested for explosibility in air at atmospheric pressure, 22 were capable of explosion when dispersed in the presence of an ignition source. Carbides of titanium, vanadium, zirconium and niobium gave violent explosions. Tungsten silicide and boride could not be ignited, but the carbide exploded in a test using a pyrotechnical ignitor. Molybdenum boride and silicide and the nitrides of niobium, tantalum and silicon also resisted ignition.
Specific Research Reports of the Research Institute of Industrial Safety, 31 Mar. 1993, No.12, p.49-55. Illus. 9 ref.

1992

CIS 92-923 Peltier A., Guillemin C., Gendre J.C., Stempfer J.C., Pellé-Duporté D., Schmitt J.P.
Study of the solubility of lead compounds used in glazing workshops
Etude de la solubilité des composés du plomb utilisés dans les ateliers d'émaillage [in French]
This document assesses the state of research into the toxicity of industrial products containing lead compounds (lead silicates or "lead frits" as used in ceramic glazes, for example). Present findings are insufficient for any significant conclusions regarding the danger of these products. It is possible, however, to envisage the development of a large-scale toxicological study.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1870-146-92, p.43-50. Illus. 14 ref.

1991

CIS 00-350 Hexafluorosilicic acid
Acido hexafluorosilícico [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 1233. International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: corrosive for the skin, eyes and respiratory tract as well as by ingestion; inhalation may cause pulmonary oedema; effects may be delayed. Long-term exposure effects: skeletal and dental fluorosis. Threshold limit value: 2.5mg/m3 (as fluorine).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus.

CIS 99-747 Trichloromethylsilane
Tricloro(metil)silano [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 5-0301. International Chemical Safety Card. Topics: trichloromethylsilane; caustic substances; chemical hazards; data sheet; elimination of spills; environmental pollution; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; IPCS; labelling; physical hazards; pulmonary oedema; Spain; storage; translation; waste disposal.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-396 Sodium metasilicate, anhydrous
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: very corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; corrosive on ingestion; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-52 Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-45 Methyl trichlorosilane
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1819 Methyl dichlorosilane
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive; risk of pulmonary oedema.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

1989

CIS 91-744
National Board of Labour Protection (Finland)
Ammonium hexafluorosilicate
Translation into English of the chemical safety information sheet described in CIS 89-395. Exposure limit: TLV = 2.5mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation and corrosion of the eyes and respiratory tract; emphysema and pneumonia from exposure to high concentrations; renal and hepatic damage; fluorosis. Mandatory European labelling: T, R23, R24, R25, S1, S2, S26, S44.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 2p.

CIS 90-532 Osterman J.W., Greaves I.A., Smith T.J., Hammond S.K., Robins J.M., Thériault G.
Respiratory symptoms associated with low sulphur dioxide exposure in silicon carbide production workers
Relations between pulmonary symptoms and exposure to respirable dust and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for 145 silicon carbide (SiC) production workers with an average of 13.9 (range 3-41) years of experience in this industry. Eight-hour time-weighted average exposures to SO2 were 1.5ppm or less with momentary peaks up to 4ppm. Cumulative SO2 exposure averaged 1.94ppm-years. Low level respirable dust exposures also occurred. Highly significant, dose dependent relations were found between cumulative and average exposure to SO2 and symptoms of usual and chronic phlegm, usual and chronic wheeze, and mild exertional dyspnoea. Mild and moderate dyspnoea were also associated with most recent exposure to SO2. Cough was not associated with SO2. No pulmonary symptoms were associated with exposure to respirable dust nor were any symptoms attributable to an interaction between dust and SO2. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with cough, phlegm, and wheezing, but not dyspnoea. A greater than additive (synergistic) effect between smoking and exposure to SO2 was present for most symptoms. These findings suggest that current threshold limits for SO2 may not adequately protect workers in this industry.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1989, Vol.46, No.9, p.629-635. 36 ref.

CIS 90-172 Osterman J.W., Greaves I.A., Smith T.J., Hammond S.K., Robins J.M., Thériault G.
Work related decrement in pulmonary function in silicon carbide production workers
The relation between pulmonary function, cigarette smoking, and exposure to mixed respirable dust containing silicon carbide (SiC), hydrocarbons, and small quantities of other particles was evaluated in 156 SiC production workers using linear regression models on the difference between measured and predicted FEV1 and FVC. Workers had an average of 16 years of employment and 9.5mg-year/m3 cumulative respirable dust exposure. Significant decrements in FEV1 (8.2mL) and FVC (9.4mL) were related to each year of employment for the entire group. Never smokers lost 17.8mL and 17.0mL, respectively, whereas corresponding decrements of 9.1mL and 14.4mL, respectively, were found in current smokers. Similar losses in FEV1 and FVC were related to each mg-year/m3 of cumulative dust exposure for 138 workers with complete exposure information; these findings, however, were generally not significant. Never smokers had large decrements in FEV1 (40.7mL) and FVC (32.9mL) per mg-year/m3 of cumulative dust exposure and non-significant decrements were found in current smokers. A non-significant decrement in lung function was also related to average dust exposure while employed. These findings suggest that current permissible exposure limits for dusts may not adequately protect workers in this industry.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.46, No.10, p.708-716. Illus. 36 ref.

1988

CIS 90-970 Alber F., Altmann G., Pfeiffer R.
Fire behaviour of fluid-containing transformers
Brandverhalten flüssigkeitsgefüllter Verteilungstransformatoren [in German]
Exposure of transformers to a simulated fire in its environment revealed that fire resistance lasts only as long as no insulating fluid leaks out. This usually takes only a few minutes. The insulating fluids used such as mineral oil, silicon or ester, ignited on the hot surface of the transformer and escalated the fire.
Elektro-Anzeiger, Oct. 1988, Vol.41, No.10, p.51-54. Illus.

1987

CIS 90-143 Vasin Ju.P., Bortnikov M.M., Krjukova I.V., Gurlev V.G.
Using a modified water-glass binder to improve working conditions of casting knockout workers
Primenenie modificirovannogo židkostekol'nogo svjazujuščego v celjah ulučšenija uslovij truda vybivščikov [in Russian]
The working environment in a casting knockout operation was studied in order to improve the safety and health of workers. The results were computer processed and a mathematical model was developed. By way of improvement it was suggested that the additives ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfite be used, which improve the strength of water-glass (sodium silicate) mixtures and facilitate knocking out. This measure decreases the physical work load of the operation and helps to bring down dust levels in the workplace air.
Litejnoe proizvodstvo, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.29-30. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 88-412 Silicas, non-crystalline
Silices non cristallines [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Covers: diatomaceous earth, silica gel, precipitated, fused and fumed silica. Toxicity: lung scarring after long-term exposure (fibrosis). Exposure limits (ACGIH, 1986-1987): diatomaceous earth (uncalcined), precipitated silica and silica gel containing <1% quartz, TLV = 10mg/m3 (total dust); fused silica, TLV = 0.1mg/m3 as respirable dust; for calcined diatomaceous earth the individual exposure limits for crystalline silicas (quartz, crystobalite, tridymite) should be used.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 10p. 21 ref.

CIS 88-411 Silicas, non-crystalline
Silices non cristallines [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet (Chemical infogram). One page summary of CCOHS Chemical Hazard Summary No.27.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 2p.

1986

CIS 86-1001 Fluosilicic acid
Aspects covered in this data sheet: properties and uses (ceramics industry); basic health hazards (extremely corrosive to eyes, skin and mucous membranes); exposure limits (ACGIH-TLV = 2.5mg/m3 for fluorides as fluorine); shipping, storage and handling; personal protective equipment; ventilation; emergency and first aid procedures; fire protection; waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 4p. 18 ref.

1985

CIS 88-127 Silane,(4-aminobutyl)diethoxymethyl-
Chemical safety information sheet. No established exposure limit. Toxicity: LD50 (oral, rat) = 6500mg/kg; LD50 (dermal, rat, mouse, rabbit) = 45mg/kg; is absorbed through the skin; highly toxic to skin; skin irritant.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-1232 Trichloro(chloromethyl)silane
Chemical safety information sheet. No established exposure limit. Toxicity: LC50 (inhalation, mouse) = 0.003mg/L/2h; inhalation may be harmful; contact may cause burns to the skin and the eyes.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-1227 Phenylsilatrane
Chemical safety information sheet. No established exposure limit. Only toxicity data available: lowest published lethal dose (oral, rat) = 1mg/kg.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1878 Dichloromethylphenylsilane
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physiochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1636 Trichloroethylsilane
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1601 Trichlorophenylsilane
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1347 Dimethyldichlorosilane
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1346 Methyltrichlorosilane
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1332 Trimethylchlorosilane
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

1984

CIS 86-955 Oshima S., Takahama M.
Studies on anthracosis of human lung - Wave-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of particulate pollutants in the lung
In order to estimate lung pollution, elemental analysis of the mineral material in particulate pollutants (PP) in the lung was carried out. The PP were extrcted by alkali digestion from 14 autopsy cases and one lobectomized lung cancer case and were analyzed with a wave-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyzer. High levels of Si (14.6% of the mineral material), Ca (10.8%), Fe (7.4%), Al (4.6%) and trace amounts of several heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, Ti) were found. They were probably attributable to soil-derived pollutants in the air. Alkali digestion and X-ray fluorescence techniques have advantages over other methods in the easiness of the procedure.
Saitama Ika Daigaku Zasshi (Journal of the Saitama Medical School), Oct. 1984, Vol.11, No.4, p.349-357. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 85-1551 Perdrix A., Morin B., Reynaud, Brambilla C., Chinal A.
Risk of pneumoconiosis in 2 silicon manufacturing plants
Risques de pneumoconiose dans 2 usines de fabrication de silicium [in French]
Dust analysis was done in 2 silicon-manufacturing plants. In one of the plants, among 14 workers posted at the silicon-manufacturing furnaces and having radiographic anomalies, 6 were subjected to an examination involving clinical, respiratory function, anatomopathological and mineralogic tests. Droplets composed of amorphous silica and oxygen were observed at the alveolar macrophage level. It is suggested that amorphous silica might be responsible for the development of a particular type of pneumoconiosis. The need is shown for dust monitoring and medical surveillance of people working with silicon furnaces. Discussion of control measures and of compensation of this kind of pneumoconiosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.292-296. Illus.

CIS 85-953 Kádas I., Szende B., Csikós A., Szendröi M.
Extrapulmonary localisation of carbon and silica particles in anthracosilicosis
Silicon and aluminium ions were detected by x-ray microanalysis in the cytoplasmic deposits of Kupffer cells in the liver of an old retired coalminer with severe pneumoconiosis, showing evidence that inhaled particles can be deposited in the liver.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Vol.75, No.5, p.404-406. Illus. 4 ref.

1982

CIS 89-395 Ammonium hexafluorosilicate
Ammoniumheksafluorisilikaatti [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit: TLV = 2.5mg/m3. Toxicity: irritation and corrosion of the eyes and respiratory tract; emphysema and pneumonia from exposure to high concentrations; renal and hapatic damage; fluorosis. Mandatory European labelling: T, R23, R24, R25, S1, S2, S26, S44.
Register of Safety Information on Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Dec. 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 89-81 Fluosilicic acid
Fluoripiihappo, väkevyys > 25% [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: silicohydrofluoric acid. Exposure limit: 2.5mg/m3. Acute toxicity: the vapour corrodes the eyes, the mucous membranes and the respiratory tract. The liquid causes chemical burns; long-term exposure can damage the eyes and corrode the nasal wall. Mandatory European labelling: C, R34, S26, S27.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.

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