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Aliphatic nitro compounds - 181 entries found

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  • Aliphatic nitro compounds

2005

CIS 06-1016
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
1,4-Dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzene
Conclusions of this criteria document (status October 2003): no data are available on the effects of 1,4-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzene in humans; animal experiments showed no skin or eye irritation; further investigations are not urgently needed.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. xiii, 44p. 31 ref. Price: EUR 36.00.

CIS 06-758 4-nitrotoluene
4-Nitrotolueno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for 4-nitrotoluene. Inhalation exposure to high concentrations of 4-nitrotoluene may cause effects on the central nervous system characterized by nausea, headache, dyspnoea, unconsciousness and coma. It may cause irritation of the respiratory tract. Skin contact causes irritation and skin absorption may result in toxic effects. Contact with the eyes may cause irritation and possible burns. Long-term effects may be delayed. ACGIH threshold limit value 2ppm (plus skin notation).
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Carrera 20, No.39-62, 6839 Bogotá, Colombia, 2005. 4p. Illus.

2003

CIS 03-1530 Davies L.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Nitrobenzene
Conclusions of this criteria document on nitrobenzene: nitrobenzene is toxic to humans when absorbed by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. The main systemic effect associated with human exposure to nitrobenzene is methaemoglobinaemia. Although no no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) could be derived from available toxicological studies, there is a seemingly low risk for non-neoplastic effects. If exposure values are low enough to avoid non-neoplastic effects, it is expected that carcinogenic effects will not occur.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. xxii, 265p. Approx. 700 ref. Price: CHF 54.00; USD 48.60 (CHF 37.80 in developing countries).
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc230.htm [in English]

CIS 03-1529 Kielhorn J., Mangelsdorf I.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Selected nitro- and nitro-oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Conclusions of this criteria document on selected nitro- and polycyclic nitro-aromatic hydrocarbons (nitroPAHs): data on the in vivo genotoxicity of nitroPAHs are available for 15 nitroPAHs; all nitroPAHs that gave positive results in vivo were also positive in vitro. However, four nitroPAHs that were positive in in vitro genotoxicity tests revealed inconsistent or inconclusive genotoxicity (2-nitronaphthalene, 5-nitroacenaphthene and 3-nitrofluoranthene) or negative genotoxicity (2,7-dinitrofluorene) results in vivo. There are no reports on the effects of individual nitroPAHs on humans. Since nitroPAHs occur in complex mixtures in the atmosphere and exhaust gases, the exact contribution of nitroPAHs to the adverse health consequences of exposure to polluted atmospheres and to exhaust cannot be determined.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. xxvi, 480p. Approx. 800 ref. Price: CHF 90.00; USD 81.00 (CHF 72.00 in developing countries).
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc229.htm [in English]

CIS 03-1740 Makhniashvili I.
Nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment
Nitrowe pochodne wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych w środowisku [in Polish]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro derivatives (nitro-PAHs) are present in the environment. They are derived from products of natural origin, and are also formed as a result of thermal processes. These compounds are classified as harmful, carcinogenic and mutagenic. They pollute the atmosphere, the workplace air and various other parts of the environment.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.17-20. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 03-1275 Letzel S., Göen T., Bader M., Angerer J., Kraus T.
Exposure to nitroaromatic explosives and health effects during disposal of military waste
The objective of this study was to investigate the exposure to dinitrotoluene (DNT) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) among the 82 workers of a heavy-weapon dismantling plant in Germany, 51 of whom were regularly exposed to ammunition containing TNT and DNT, 19 occasionally and 12 not at all. Air analyses yielded maximum concentrations of 20µg/m3 for 2,4-DNT and 3250µg/m3 for 2,4,6-TNT. The maximum concentrations in the urine of workers regularly exposed were 5.0µg/L for 2,4,6-TNT, 1464.0µg/L for 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 6693.0µg/L for 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2.1µg/L for 2,4-DNT, 95.0µg/L for 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid and 3.6µg/L for 2,6-DNT. Among the 63 persons for whom TNT, DNT or metabolite concentrations above the analytical detection limits were found in urine, there were more frequent reports of symptoms such as bitter taste, burning eyes and discoloration of the skin and hair than among persons without detectable TNT and/or DNT exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.60, No.7, p.483-488. Illus. 18 ref.

2002

CIS 03-286 Fernández Sánchez C., Jiménez Jado N.E.
Electrochemical recycling of acid solutions of aromatic nitro compounds
Reciclado electroquímico de compuestos nitroaromáticos disueltos en medios ácidos [in Spanish]
Aromatic nitro compounds are among the most common industrial pollutants. They are used in inks and dyes, in the pharmaceutical industry and cosmetics, and in explosives. In this article, an experimental electrochemical method for the recycling of effluents contaminated with aromatic nitro compounds is proposed, and the influence of various parameters (temperature, current density, electrolyte concentration) and their interactions on the decomposition of these compounds are studied. A comparative study indicated that these parameters do not influence their degradation in sulfuric acid, while the best results are obtained in sulfuric acid concentrations of 96%. Electrochemical methods represent a viable alternative to biodegradation.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.87, p.9-15. Illus. 6 ref.

2001

CIS 02-301 Page E.H., Pajeau A.K., Arnold T.C., Fincher A.R., Goddard M.J.
Peripheral neuropathy in workers exposed to nitromethane
Two workers from a headlight subassembly plant developed severe peripheral neuropathy. These workers had extensive, but brief (1-2 months), dermal and inhalation exposure to nitromethane, a solvent. Environmental sampling was performed for nitromethane and ethyl cyanoacrylate. Medical records, including electrodiagnostic studies, were reviewed. Literature on nitromethane, ethyl cyanoacrylate, and other exposures in the workplace was reviewed. Electromyography and nerve conduction studies performed on these patients were consistent with a severe, axonal neuropathy. No aetiology was discovered despite an extensive medical evaluation. Environmental sampling revealed exposure to nitromethane at the threshold limit value. The history of acute onset of severe peripheral neuropathy temporally associated with exposure to nitromethane is suggestive of a toxic neuropathy. While it cannot be definitively concluded that these two workers developed peripheral neuropathy secondary to exposures at work, occupational exposure to nitromethane appears to be the most likely aetiology.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.107-113. 33 ref.

2000

CIS 02-1103 2-Nitropropane
2-Nitropropane [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1598. Synonyms: dimethylnitromethane, nitroisopropane. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; neurological effects; liver damage. Chronic toxicity: headache; disturbances of coordination; digestive disorders; irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Exposure limits (USA, ACGIH 1987): TWA = 35mg/m3 (10ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (2000), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 28 ref.

CIS 97-32 4-Nitrobiphenyl
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. Irritates the skin and eyes. May damage the liver and nervous system. Other health effects are not well known.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993, 2000. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0229.pdf [in English]

1999

CIS 02-1093 Nitromethane
Nitrométhane [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-1643. Acute toxicity: methaemoglobinaemia and haemolysis (one single case reported). Chronic toxicity: skin irritation. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 250mg/m3 (100ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.609-036-00-7; Xn, R5, R10, R22, S41, 200-876-6. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 3p. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 00-1089
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS)
2-Nitropropane - Health-based calculated occupational cancer risk values
Additional lifetime cancer risk for 2-nitropropane amounts to 4 x 10-5 for 40 years of occupational exposure to 0.036mg/m3, and 4 x 10-3 for 40 years of occupational exposure to 3.6mg/m3. Main topics covered: carcinogenicity studies and selection of the study suitable for risk estimation in occupational situations; carcinogenic activity in experimental animals, life-time low-dose exposure; health risk to humans; health risk to workers, calculation of the health-based calculated occupational cancer risk values; existing occupational exposure limits; toxicity profile (accidental exposure: liver damage; daily exposure: headache, nausea, anorexia). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 1999. 34p. 25 ref.

CIS 99-1979 Brüning T., Chronz C., Thier R., Havelka J., Ko Y., Bolt H.M.
Occurrence of urinary tract tumours in miners highly exposed to dinitrotoluene
Higher than expected incidences of urothelial and renal cell tumours were found in a group of underground copper miners with high exposures to explosives containing dinitrotoluene. Categorization of the renal cell tumour cases by exposure revealed no dose-dependency concerning explosives and was similar to that of a representative group of formerly dinitrotoluene-exposed workers, whereas the urothelial tumour cases were predominantly confined to the high-exposure categories. These results along with results of genotyping indicate the possibility of human carcinogenicity of dinitrotoluene with regard to urothelium as the target tissue. Topics: bladder tumour; dinitrotoluene; copper mining; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; explosives; genito-urinary system diseases; latency; length of exposure; neoplasms; renal cancer; skin absorption.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.41, No.3, p.144-149. 33 ref.

1998

CIS 99-1988
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene: Update
Topics: 2,4-dinitrotoluene; 2,6-dinitrotoluene; antifertility effects; carcinogenic effects; cardiovascular disorders; criteria document; exposure evaluation; glossary; haematotoxic effects; health hazards; limitation of exposure; literature survey; neurological effects; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA; vomiting.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1998. xix, 195p. Illus. approx. 380 ref.

CIS 99-936
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
2-Nitrotoluene - Evaluation of the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity
Summary in Dutch. Topics: carcinogenic effects; o-nitrotoluene; criteria document; mutagenic effects; Netherlands; toxicity evaluation; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 1236, 2280 CE Rijswijk, Netherlands, 1998. 37p. 14 ref.

CIS 99-187 McKenzie R.M., Kim Y.Y., Bishop R.W., Gaffney R.J.
The collection and analysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane vapor
Topics: 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane; chemical analysis; description of technique; determination in air; explosive atmosphere detection; explosives; gas chromatography; sampling and analysis; USA; volatile substances.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1998, Vol.59, No.6, p.388-392. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 98-1168 Dinitrobenzene (all isomers)
Dinitrobenceno (todos los isómeros) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: anaemia; dinitrobenzene; data sheet; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; gastric disorders; health hazards; hepatic damage; hypoxia; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; methaemoglobinaemia; personal protective equipment; respirators; respiratory impairment; skin absorption; unconsciousness; USA; visual function disorders; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 1998, Vol.60, No.11. 4p. Insert.

1997

CIS 01-1358
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 4, Part 1
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of acetone cyanohydrine, L-ascorbic acid, methylene butanedioic acid (synonym: itaconic acid) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, Nov. 1997. viii, 327p. Bibl.ref.
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/volume4/tcontent.html [in English]

CIS 01-985 Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Serre P., de Ceaurriz J.
Nitrobenzene
Nitrobenzène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of eye and respiratory membranes and of the skin; burning sensation of the mouth and throat (ingestion); nausea, vomiting; disturbances of the coordination; tachycardia; low blood pressure; unconsciousness; methaemoglobinaemia; haemolytic anaemia; encephalopathy. Chronic toxicity: nausea; headache; haemolytic anaemia; neurologic disorders. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 5mg/m3 (1ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.609-003-00-7; T, N, R23/24/25, R40, R48/23/24, R62, R51/53, S28, S36/37, S45, S61, 202-716-0. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 5p. Illus. 37 ref.

1996

CIS 99-1997 Leichnitz K.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update (38th) to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases, abstracted under CIS 90-955. This issue includes a revised description of the official analytical methods for airborne carcinogens of the Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations Berufsgenossenschaften (directive ZH 1/120; CIS 95-268), a revision of the analytical methods of the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), the latest version of the Chemicals Prohibition Ordinance (Chemikalien-Verbotsverordnung; included in CIS 95-812) and new paragraphs of the Hazardous Substances Ordinance (Gefahrstoffverordnung; CIS 94-771). Topics: aromatic nitro compounds; atmospheric pollution; chemical safety; compendium; dangerous substances; data sheet; determination in air; directive; exhaust gases; Germany; law; legislation; manuals; neighbourhood protection; prohibition of use; standard; threshold limit values.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 38. Ergänzungslieferung, Sep. 1996. 254p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-1585 Priante E., et al.
Exposure of traffic police to urban air pollutants
Esposizione agli inquinanti dell'aria urbana dei vigili municipali [in Italian]
Exposure to dusts and benzene was investigated in 65 non-smoking traffic policemen in the city of Padua (Italy). The mean personal exposure of the policemen to total dust was 0.44mg/m3. The atmospheric concentration of 1-nitropyrene (the principal component of diesel engine emissions) was 0.28ng/m3. The mean concentration of benzene in the breathing zone was 41µg/m3, a level similar to what the city population at large is exposed to. The mean values of urinary benzene before and after the work shift were similar. Levels of exposure of the traffic policemen to dust and 1-nitropyrene was comparable to other occupational groups with this type of risk. Traffic police exposure to benzene is much lower than that of certain other occupational categories, e.g. those engaged in the distribution of hydrocarbon fuels.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.314-322. 30 ref.

CIS 97-423 Dinitrobenzene
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. It is a teratogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause methaemoglobinaemia; yellowing of the skin, eyes and hair; hearing loss; changes in vision; liver damage; anaemia. It is a highly reactive chemical.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-68, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 96-1764 Robert A., Ducos P., Dieudonné M., Protois J.C.
Exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in an explosives factory
Exposition au 2,4,6-trinitrotoluène dans une fabrique d'explosifs [in French]
Exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) at work was assessed in a plant manufacturing explosives in France. In addition to personal and ambient samples, pre- and post-shift urine samples were taken to estimate total uptake of TNT by workers, by inhalation and/or skin exposure. The atmospheric concentrations for personal samples were all below the French mean exposure limit value of 0.5mg/m3. However, the post-shift urine concentrations of 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), the main urinary metabolite, showed that skin absorption can be considered as a significant exposure route at some workplaces: for 17 post-shift samples the mean concentrations were of the order of 2mg/L, with a range of 0.30 to 8.50mg/L. Analysis of 4-ADNT in urine proved to be a convenient biological method for monitoring individual exposure to TNT as well as the effects of preventive measures, particularly in the field of personal protection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.164, Note No.2024-164-96, p.293-300. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 96-1791
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, chloromethane, o-nitroanisole, p-nitroanisole, m-/p-chloronitrobenzene, dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, dibutylphthalate, chlorotoluene, N-ethylaniline, dioxane
This report contains supplementary data to 11 earlier BUA Reports: di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BUA Report No. 4), chloromethane (BUA 7, see CIS 96-906), o-nitroanisole (1-methoxy-2-nitrobenzene) (BUA 9, CIS 94-636), p-nitroanisole (BUA 10, CIS 94-997), m-/p-chloronitrobenzene (BUA 11), dinitrotoluene (BUA 12), diphenylamine (BUA 15, CIS 95-572), dibutyl phthalate (BUA 22, CIS 94-998), chlorotoluene (BUA 38), N-ethylaniline (BUA 51) and dioxane (BUA 80). The supplements are translations of reports finalized between December 1992 and June 1993.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. 221p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 96.00.

CIS 96-903
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Supplementary reports II - m-Dichlorobenzene; Bromomethane; 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene; N,N-Diethylaniline; Styrene; Biphenyl; o/m-Chloroaniline; Nitrobenzene
This document comprises translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1993 and April 1994, relating to eight substances evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. No human effects are reported.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. xxiv, 157p. Bibl.ref.

1995

CIS 99-1294
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for 1,3-dinitrobenzene/1,3,5-trinitrobenzene
Topics: 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene; antifertility effects; m-dinitrobenzene; criteria document; cyanogenic effects; exposure evaluation; glossary; health hazards; limitation of exposure; literature survey; methaemoglobinaemia; neurotoxic effects; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, June 1995. 139p. Illus. Approx. 240 ref.

CIS 99-606 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVI
Vetenskapligt Underlag för Hygieniska Gränsvärden 16 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1994 and June 1995. Topics: 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane; 2-nitropropane; aluminium; butoxyethoxyethyl acetate; diethylaminoethanol; isopropoxyethanol; propyl acetate; diethylenetriamine; diethylene glycol butyl ether; dimethyl ether; pentaerythritol; diphenylamine; diethylene glycol isobutyl ether; ethylene glycol monoisopropyl ether acetate; trimethylolpropane; criteria document; determination of exposure limits; gallium and compounds; lactates; limitation of exposure; literature survey; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 94p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-239 Toxicological profile for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
Topics: anaemia; antifertility effects; carcinogenic effects; trinitrotoluene; cataract; criteria document; determination in biological matter; exposure evaluation; glossary; haematotoxic effects; haemolysis; health hazards; hepatic damage; immunotoxic effects; legislation; limitation of exposure; literature survey; mutagenic effects; neurological effects; sensitization dermatitis; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, June 1995. xvii, 186p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-774 Smith E.F., Smith H.J., Kuchar E.J.
Monitoring of dinitrotoluene and its metabolites in urine by spectrophotometry of their coupled aryldiazonium salts
A method for monitoring employee absorption of dinitrotoluene (DNT) is described. DNT and its metabolites in urine are reduced to primary arylamines and diazotized with nitrous acid. The diazo compounds are coupled with N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine to produce a coloured complex for spectrophotometric analysis. In a six-month monitoring programme at a DNT manufacturing facility, control samples from non-exposed individuals were used to define an exposure indication level. This level was used to correlate DNT exposure with job description or individual activity. Job descriptions were ranked according to a rational evaluation of exposure potential and correlated well with monitoring data.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.12, p.1175-1179. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1992 Nitropropane
1-Nitropropano [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; may cause hepatic damage.
Noticias de seguridad, May 1995, Vol.57, No.5. 4p. Insert.

CIS 95-2137 Gehanno J.F., Avignon M., Kamal A., Caillard J.F.
Aliphatic nitro hydrocarbons (nitroalkanes and nitroparaffins)
Dérivés nitrés des hydrocarbures aliphatiques (nitroalcanes ou nitroparaffines) [in French]
Information note on nitroparaffins (nitroalkanes), of which only a few are of use to industry. Tables present chemical and physical properties of five of these substances as well as their exposure limits (French VME and US TLV-TWA values). Further information: nitromethane, nitroethane - no epidemiological evidence for carcinogenicity; 1-nitropropane - no evidence exists for carcinogenicity or teratogenicity in man; 2-nitropropane - IARC Class IIB (potential carcinogen), TLV (STEL): 10ppm (35mg/m3); tetranitromethane - ACGIH Class A2 (potential carcinogen), TLV (TWA): 0.05ppm (0.4mg/m3).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 1st Quarter 1995, No.106. 5p. 43 ref.

1994

CIS 96-1980 2,4-Dinitrotoluene
Data sheet. May enter the body by inhalation and through the skin. It is a carcinogen and should be handled with extreme caution. Contact with molten 2,4-dinitrotoluene may cause severe skin and eye irritation and burns. May cause methaemoglobinaemia. It is a highly reactive chemical and is an explosion hazard.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1994. 6p.

CIS 95-1622 2-Nitropropane
2-Nitropropano [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: may have neurotoxic effects; may cause hepatic and renal damage and pulmonary oedema; probable human carcinogen (lymphatic and connective tissues).
Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 1994, Vol.56, No.11. 4p. Insert.

CIS 95-1795
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Nitrobenzene
Translation of a report finalized in Jan. 1991. No epidemiological data are available on the effects of nitrobenzene in humans. Acute intoxication has been reported following exposure to solutions containing nitrobenzene; intake in conjunction with alcohol appears to promote absorption. Both acute and chronic exposure cause methaemoglobin formation which results in haemolytic anaemia, icterus, hypoxic damage to internal organs and disorders of the central nervous system. The substance may be absorbed through the skin.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1994. xiv, 100p. 248 ref. Price: DEM 72.00.

CIS 95-978 Pendergrass S.M.
An approach for estimating workplace exposure to o-toluidine, aniline, and nitrobenzene
A comprehensive approach to estimating worker exposure to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene using a combination of surface wipe, dermal badge and air samples is described. Desorption of each sample was accomplished with ethanol followed by analysis using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Analyte recovery was maximized when the gauze wipes and dermal badges were immediately extracted with ethanol after sample collection. Collection of the airborne analytes was improved over previous solid sorbent sampling methods by using a sampling train consisting of an acid treated glass fibre filter in series with a large capacity silica gel tube. The greatest recoveries of aniline and o-toluidine were from the large capacity silica gel sorbent tubes. The limit of detection for each analyte was approximately 10 times more sensitive than reported in previous NIOSH methods.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.733-737. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-1036
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
1,3-Dinitrobenzene
m-Dinitrobenzene is rapidly absorbed following inhalation or dermal or oral exposure. Main symptoms of mild acute poisoning are hypoxia and gastrointestinal disturbances. Severe poisoning causes icterus and symptoms associated with methaemoglobinaemia. Chronic poisoning leads to hypoxia, icterus and disturbances of vision. Animal studies indicate that m-dinitrobenzene is very toxic; mutagenic and antifertility effects have been observed; no studies of carcinogenicity are available.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1994. xv, 87p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 72.00.

1993

CIS 96-1237 Nitroethane
International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; lowering of consciousness. Occupational exposure limit: TLV-TWA: 100ppm, 307mg/m3 (ACGIH 1991-1992).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-912
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Nitrotoluenes (methylnitrobenzenes)
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in April 1989: no reliable data are available on the effects of nitrotoluenes in humans; there are some reports of poisoning among workers exposed to mixtures of nitrotoluenes and other substances. Animal studies indicate that nitrotoluenes have a low level of acute toxicity; main effects are methaemoglobin formation and central nervous system depression. No reliable data are available on mutagenic or carcinogenic effects.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1993. xv, 104p. 146 ref.

CIS 96-27 3,4-Dinitrotoluene
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; may affect the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the blood; methaemoglobinaemia.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-26 2,6-Dinitrotoluene
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; may affect the blood; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: possible human carcinogen. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 1.5mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991); MAK: Class III A2 (1990).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-25 2,4-Dinitrotoluene
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; may affect the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the blood; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: possible human carcinogen; may impair fertility.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-24 2,3-Dinitrotoluene
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; may affect the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the blood; methaemoglobinaemia.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-23 Dinitrobenzene (mixed isomers)
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect the lungs and the blood; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: liver damage; may impair male fertility. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 0.15ppm, 1.0mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1590 1,4-Dinitrobenzene
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect the lungs and the blood; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: hepatic damage. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 0.15ppm, 1.0mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1589 1,3-Dinitrobenzene
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; chemical burns; may affect the lungs and the blood chemistry; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: hepatic damage; may impair male fertility. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 0.15ppm, 1.0mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1707 Zhang G.S., Tang M.J.
The investigation of a devastating accident - An accidental explosion of 40 tons of TNT
An explosive accident occurring in the TNT production line of a factory in China in 1991 is described. The total amount of explosives in the incident was estimated to be the equivalent of 40 tons of TNT. Two primary causes of the explosion were identified through event tree analysis. It was concluded that the incident was a human element accident which occurred because of poor safety conditions. Lessons learned from the accident are summarized.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 1993, Vol.34, No.2, p.225-233. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 94-1705 van den Berg A.C., Lannoy A.
Methods for vapour cloud explosion blast modelling
Methods for quantifying the explosive potential of a flammable fuel-air mixture are described and demonstrated in a simple case study concerning a storage site for liquefied hydrocarbons. While TNT-equivalent methods are easy to use, they are unsatisfactory in several respects. An alternative multi-energy method is described in which a flammable fuel-air mixture is considered to be explosive only if it is in a partially confined, congested or obstructed area in the cloud. The concept is shown to be a flexible one which makes it possible to incorporate current experimental data and advanced computational methods into the procedure of vapour cloud explosion hazard analysis.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 1993, Vol.34, No.2, p.151-171. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 94-1130 Nitromethane
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the liver and kidney. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 100ppm; 250mg/m3 (ACGIH 1989-1990); PDK: 30mg/m3 (USSR 1988).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-997
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
p-Nitroanisole (1-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene)
No data are available on the effects of p-nitroanisole in humans. Animal studies show that the substance has a low acute toxicity. No experimental results are available on subchronic, chronic or reproduction toxicity and no firm conclusion can be reached on mutagenicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1993. xi, 33p. 52 ref. Price: DEM 32.00.

CIS 94-636
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
o-Nitroanisole (1-methoxy-2-nitrobenzene)
This document reviews the currently available data on the environmental occurrence and behaviour of 1-methoxy-2-nitrobenzene along with ecotoxic effects and toxicological data derived from animal experiments. No information is available on the effects of this substance in humans. Symptoms of acute toxicity have been observed in animals; no data are available on chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Mutagenic effects have been observed in in vitro tests.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 101061, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1993. xiii, 32p. 52 ref. Price: DEM 32.00.

CIS 94-308 Stayner L.T., Dannenberg A.L., Bloom T., Thun M.
Excess hepatobiliary cancer mortality among munitions workers exposed to dinitrotoluene
The association between dinitrotoluene (DNT) exposure and increased risk of cancers of the liver and biliary tract was studied through an analysis of the mortality experience of exposed workers (n=4,989) and unexposed workers (n=7,436) at a study facility between 1949 and 1980. An excess of hepatobiliary cancer was observed among workers exposed to DNT. The SMR for hepatobiliary cancer was 2.67 (six cases) based upon comparison with the US population, and 3.88 based upon comparison with controls. The study was limited by the small number of workers with long-term DNT exposure, and by the lack of quantitative information on exposure to DNT and other chemicals. Nonetheless, the excess in hepatobiliary cancer mortality observed among DNT-exposed workers in this study is similar to findings from animal studies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.35, No.3, p.291-296. 16 ref.

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