Polycyclic hydrocarbons - 153 entries found
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Lee M.S., Magari S., Christiani D.C.
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Continuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Findings provide evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.474-478. Illus. 40 ref.
Cardiac_autonomic_dysfunction_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Jeng H.A., Pan C.H., Diawara N., Chang-Chien G.P., Lin W.Y., Huang C.T., Ho C.K., Wu M.T.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in relation to immunological alteration
This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and immunological measurements using blood samples from coke oven workers exposed to high and low PAH levels. It was conducted from 2008-2009 with coke oven workers and steel-rolling workers as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Questionnaires on basic demographic information were administered. Personal breathing zone and urine samples were collected to quantify personal PAH intake and biological response doses. Immunological and cytokine parameters in serum were analysed. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were analysed to determine oxidative stress induced by PAHs in relation to altered humoural immunological status. Results were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs may develop immunological alteration. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by PAHs may partly explain the alteration in immunological parameters.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.653-658. 31 ref.
Polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbon-induced_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Friesen M.C., Costello S., Thurston S.W., Eisen E.A.
Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers
The various types of metalworking fluids (MWFs) have overlapping components. This study derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios for each cancer and cumulative exposures were estimated. For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH. Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. These findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.450-460. Illus. 42 ref.
Fustinoni S., Campo L., Cirla P.E., Martinotti I., Buratti M., Longhi O., Foà V., Bertazzi P.
Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt workers
The objective of this study was to assess dermal exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphalt workers in the region of Milan, Italy, to identify the most frequent compounds and exposure sites and to integrate dermal exposure results with environmental and biological data. Twenty-four asphalt workers were recruited. Dermal exposure was assessed during a single work shift. Sixteen PAHs were quantified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dermal exposure was assessed by applying polypropylene pads to six body sites (neck, shoulder, upper arm, wrist, groin and ankle). Airborne exposure, and urinary PAHs and monohydroxy metabolites were also investigated. Findings are discussed. Overall, dermal exposures to PAHs were in the low ng/cm2 range. Phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were the most representative compounds and the wrist was the best location to perform dermal exposure assessments. Both dermal and airborne exposure contributed to the total body burden of PAHs, with the relative contribution varying according to the specific PAH.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.456-463. Illus. 40 ref.
Massari S., Bianchi A.R., Binazzi A., Branchi C., di Marzio D., Marinaccio A., Scano P., Scarselli A., Iavicoli S.
Occupational cancer registry: The ISPESL experience
Il registro dei tumori di sospetta origine professionale: l'esperienza dell'ISPESL [in Italian]
In Italy, legislation governing the collection of data on occupational cancer cases has been recently updated. The data collected by the Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL) has been recoded to match the new requirements. For the period 1994-2007, 1042 cases of occupational cancer were notified to the ISPESL, mainly regarding men. The most frequent cancer sites were the lung, pleura and nasal cavity. The most affected activity sectors were basic metals and the metal industry, construction, and health care and social services. The most represented carcinogenic agents were asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silica.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-June 2010, Vol.6, No.1/2, p.43-59. Illus. 51 ref.
Kriech A.J., Emmel C., Osborn L.V., Breuer D., Redman A.P., Hoeber D., Bochmann F., Ruehl R.
Side-by-side comparison of field monitoring methods for hot bitumen emission exposures: The German IFA Method 6305, U.S. NIOSH Method 5042, and the Total Organic Matter Method
Field studies were conducted at multiple paving and roofing sites to compare the infrared spectroscopy method 6305 of the German Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Social Accident Insurance (IFA) with the benzene soluble fraction method 5042 of the National Institute for Occupational Science and Health (NIOSH) and the Total Organic Matter method. Sampling using both methods was performed in multiple bitumen-related workplace environments. To provide comparable data, all samplings were performed in parallel and the analytical data were related to the same representative bitumen condensate standard. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.712-725. Illus. 31 ref.
Side-by-side_comparison.pdf [in English]
Boffetta P., Autier P., Boniol M., Boyle P., Hill C., Aurengo A., Masse R., de Thé G., Valleron A.J., Monier R., Tubiana M.
An estimate of cancers attributable to occupational exposures in France
A quantitative estimate of the proportion of cancers attributable to occupational exposures in France in 2000 was performed. Exposure data for established carcinogens were obtained from a 1994 survey and other sources. Relative risks for 23 exposure-cancer combinations were derived from meta-analyses and pooled analyses. A total of 4335 cases of cancer among men (2.7% of all cancers) and 403 cases among women (0.3% of all cancers) were attributed to occupational exposures. Asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chromium VI were the main occupational carcinogens in men, while asbestos and passive smoking were the main carcinogens in women. Corresponding proportions for cancer deaths were 4.0% and 0.6% in men and women, respectively. Lung cancer represented 75% of deaths attributable to occupational exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.52, No.4, p.399-406. 49 ref.
Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.
Wang Y., Duan H., Dai Y., Bin P., Cheng J., Pan Z., Huang C., Leng S., Chen W., Zheng Y.
Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed workers
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-exposed workers. Blood and urine samples of 140 PAH-exposed workers and 66 non-PAH-exposed workers were collected. The polymorphisms of UGT1A7, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and 1-hydroxypyrene were analyzed. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that polymorphisms of UGT1A7 gene may alter the severity of PAH-induced chromosomal damage among the exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.682-689. Illus. 56 ref.
Sobus J.R., Waidyanatha S., McClean M.D., Herrick R.F., Smith T.J., Garshick E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Zheng Y., Rappaport S.M.
Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds
This study investigated the utility of unmetabolised naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as biomarkers of exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It involved 39 workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level), 26 exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level) and 28 exposed to emissions from coke ovens (high PAH exposure level). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe and other PAHs in the relevant sectors were taken into account. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflected the workplace atmospheric concentrations of these compounds and therefore constitute promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.99-104. Illus. 25 ref.
Elihn K., Ulvestad B., Hetland S., Wallén A., Randem B.G.
Exposure to ultrafine particles in asphalt work
An earlier study demonstrated that asphalt workers show a loss of lung function and an increase of inflammation biomarkers during the paving season. The aim of this study was to investigate which possible agents cause the inflammatory reaction, with emphasis on ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure to total dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and NO2 was determined by personal sampling. Ultrafine particles were measured by means of particle counters mounted on a van following the paving machine. Findings showed that pavers were exposed to relatively high concentrations of ultrafine particles throughout their working day, with possible adverse health effects.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.771-779. Illus. 23 ref.
Wang H., Chen W., Zheng H., Guo L., Liang H., Yang X., Bai Y., Sun J., Su Y., Chen Y., Yuan J., Bi Y., Wei Q., Wu T.
Association between plasma BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers
Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can induce both benzo[a]pyrene-r-7, t-8, t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. In this study, 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE were recruited in the same steel plant in northern China. BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations in plasma was measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes by alkaline comet assay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE-Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed but not in control group. The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.753-758. Illus. 40 ref.
Falcy M., Reygagne A.
Halogen derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons. Chloronaphthalenes
Dérivés halogénés d'hydrocarbures aromatiques. Chloronaphtalènes [in French]
This article reviews the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of a group of organic substances consisting of aromatic rings where one or several hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens. Some chloronaphthalenes are widely used in occupational settings (chemical synthesis) and in commonly-used products (paints, perfumes and deodorants). Toxicological properties vary from product to product, but generally involve irritation or neurotoxicity. Systemic effects (hepatoxicity, porphyria, renal or haematological damage) are discussed in detail for the most common products. Finally, where known, the specific effects (mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and reprotoxicity) are described.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.151, 20p. Illus. 156 ref.
Chalbot M.C., Vei I., Lykoudis S., Kavouras I.G.
Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations
The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the various steps of paper manufacture. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8 to 41.4ng/m3) and the mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons were measured in all samples, while n-alkanes from n-C220l to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (180.6 to 4297.9ng/m3). Total benzo[α]pyrene-equivalent concentrations of particulate PAHs, which varied from 323 up to 1104pg/m3, provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs, posing a long-term threat to their health.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.2, p.742-751. Illus. 49 ref.
Iavicoli I., Carelli G., Bergamaschi A.
Exposure evaluation to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an Italian airport
The aim of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biphenyl in an Italian airport. In winter 2005, 12 air samples were taken at 120L/min during 24h in three different areas of the airport. PAH levels were found to be generally low. In all investigated areas, the highest concentrations were found for naphthalene (130-13,050ng/m3), followed by 2-methylnaphthalene (64-28,500ng/m3), 1-methylnaphthalene (24-35,300ng/m3), and biphenyl (24-1610ng/m3). However, in some instances, the levels found for benzo[i+j+k]fluoranthenes and benzo[α]pyrene, two high-boiling PAHs, (54.2ng/m3 and 8.6ng/m3, respectively) are a cause of concern.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.815-822. 32 ref.
Wu M.T., et al.
Sperm DNA damage correlates with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomarker in coke-oven workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in men has an adverse effect on semen quality. Forty-eight coke-oven workers, including 16 topside-oven workers and 32 side-oven workers, were studied. Ambient PAHs exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels and parameters of semen quality were determined. Findings are discussed. A potential risk of sperm dysfunction should be considered for workers occupationally exposed to high levels of PAHs. Cigarette smoking may aggravate this risk. Urinary 1-OHP was found to be a useful a biomarker for predicting sperm dysfunction.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2006, Vol.79, No.5, p.349-356. Illus. 41 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/fx70q8u68g494803/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Preuss R., Drexler H., Böttcher M., Wilhelm M., Brüning T., Angerer J.
Current external and internal exposure to naphthalene of workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different industries
Exposure to naphthalene was examined in 410 German workers employed in industries typically associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced diseases. A control group from the general population was also investigated. Naphthalene was determined by personal air sampling. Internal exposure was examined by urinary metabolites 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol. Median concentrations of naphthalene in air ranged from 93.2µg/m3 to 0.7µg/m3. Biological monitoring revealed concentrations of the sum of both metabolites in smokers to be increased by 1.6-6.4 times compared with that in non-smokers at the same workplaces. Among non-smokers, median metabolite levels ranged from 120.1µg/l to 10µg/l. Results indicate that tobacco smoking is an important confounding factor in biological monitoring of naphthalene exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.355-362. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/hb5c1xjk3l5xrv996xfr/contributions/k/t/2/0/kt20154g11011505.pdf [in English]
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Test method for protective gloves against PAHs during renovation work
Prüfmethode für Handschuhe zum Schutz gegen PAK bei Sanierungsarbeiten [in German]
Demolition and renovation workers may be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The barrier effect of protective clothing and gloves cannot be assessed by existing standard testing methods. This report describes a new method for testing the permeation of PAHs through barrier membranes using essential elements of the testing standards EN 374-3, ASTM F739 and ISO 6529, but with a solid medium as receptor. The testing method is based on typical durations of exposure, real glove temperatures and realistic material stretching conditions. Several types of gloves were evaluated using this method. These tests showed that even higher molecular compounds such as PAHs can permeate through elastomers after prolonged use.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 54p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: EUR 8.50.
Nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment
Nitrowe pochodne wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych w środowisku [in Polish]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro derivatives (nitro-PAHs) are present in the environment. They are derived from products of natural origin, and are also formed as a result of thermal processes. These compounds are classified as harmful, carcinogenic and mutagenic. They pollute the atmosphere, the workplace air and various other parts of the environment.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.17-20. Illus. 9 ref.
Armstrong B., Hutchinson E., Fletcher T.
Health and Safety Executive
Cancer risk following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A meta-analysis
Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been known to cause cancer in animals and are classified as human carcinogens. A meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies that include assessments of occupational exposure to PAHs was carried out, in order to identify the determinants of lung and bladder cancer risk. Relevant reports published up to early 2001 were identified systematically using bibliographic databases. From each study that met the inclusion criteria, unit relative risk was estimated by Poisson regression from published tables of risk against estimated cumulative exposure. Distribution and determinants of unit relative risks (URRs) were investigated using standard meta-analytic methods. On average, the URR for lung cancer was 1.20 with significant variation across industries, while for bladder cancer, the average URR was 1.33, with little variation across industries.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 61p. Illus. 64 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr068.pdf [in English]
Tsai P.J., Shieh H.Y., Lee W.J., Chen H.L., Shih T.S.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon black workers
In this study, a total of 30 workers exposed to carbon black were selected, including eight wet pelletizing workers and 22 packaging workers. For all selected workers, urine samples were collected on the first day pre-shift, first day post-shift and fifth day post-shift, and their urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels (1-OHP) were determined (denoted as BM1pre, BM1post and BM5post, respectively). Personal respiratory exposures, including both inhalable particle-bound PAHs (Cipb) and gaseous PAHs (Cgas), together with dermal exposure to particle-bound PAHs (Cskin) were measured. Personal background information, including age, sex and smoking habit, was registered. Pyrene exposure was statistically significantly correlated with exposure to PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs. The resultant regression coefficients for sex, smoking habit and age were statistically insignificant. In conclusion, this study suggests BM5post could be a suitable indicator for PAH exposures of carbon black workers, on the condition that both respiratory and dermal exposures are assessed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.229-235. 24 ref.
Caux C., O'Brien C., Viau C.
Determination of firefighter exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene during fire fighting using measurement of biological indicators
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene among firefighters was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and trans,trans-muconic acid (TTMA), respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period extending for 20h following the end of exposure during a fire. A control sample was also obtained from each participant after at least four days without involvement in fire fighting activities. Following exposure to fire, the level of 1-hydroxypyrene exceeded 0.32µmol/mol creatinine value in 38% of the cases. 17 firefighters had measurable TTMA in the urine samples, among which only 6 had concentrations exceeding 1.1mmol/mol creatinine considered to correspond to a benzene concentration of approximately 1ppm. The low exposure evaluations could be due to either low concentrations of the contaminants during fire fighting or to the efficiency of protective equipment worn.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.379-386. Illus. 32 ref.
Benchmark guideline for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene has been proposed as an indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This article discusses a proposed three-level guideline for exposure evaluation. The first level is the 95th percentile in non-occupational exposed controls, namely 0.24µmol/mol and 0.76µmol/mol creatinine for non-smokers and smokers, respectively. Next, 1.4µmol/mol creatinine is the lowest reported level at which no genotoxic effects were found among exposed workers and is therefore proposed as the second level of the guideline. In two types of industry, coke ovens and primary aluminium production, airborne PAH concentrations and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in exposed workers have been studied. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine equal to the occupational exposure limit is 2.3µmol/mol creatinine and 4.9µmol/mol creatinine, respectively, in these two industries. These latter values present the third level of the guideline.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.3-13. 70 ref.
Fenga C., Loreto C., Spatari G., Guarneri F., Barbaro M., Caltabiano C., Germanò D.
Histopathological changes in the skin of workers employed in the handling of petroleum products
Modificazioni istopatologiche cutanee in lavoratori addetti alla movimentazione di prodotti petroliferi [in Italian]
Cutaneous histomorphological alterations in a group of 10 healthy workers, repeatedly exposed to low amounts of petroleum products over a prolonged period, were monitored. The overall histomorphological and immunological features were not specific, but resembled skin reactions due to various irritants. Such skin alterations can lead to contact dermatitis.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.25-31. Illus. 36 ref.
Vassilev Z.P., Robson M.G., Klotz J.B.
Outdoor exposure to airborne polycyclic organic matter and adverse reproductive outcomes: A pilot study
To investigate the association between outdoor airborne polycyclic organic matter (POM) and adverse reproductive outcomes in New Jersey, a cross-sectional design combining U.S. air quality data and individual data on pregnancy outcomes from birth and foetal death certificates at the census tract level were used. After excluding plural births and chromosomal anomalies, 221,406 live births and 1,591 foetal deaths registered during the years of 1990 and 1991 were included. The exposure estimates were derived from modeled average POM concentrations for each census tract in the state. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios (OR) for very low birth weight for the highest exposure compared to the lowest exposure group was 1.31; high POM exposure was associated with low birth weight (OR = 1.31) among term births, with foetal death (OR = 1.19) and with premature birth (OR = 1.25). In conclusion, this study found associations between outdoor exposure to modeled average airborne POM and several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.255-262. 21 ref.
Carrer P., Maroni M., Cavallo D., Visentin S., Cecchetti G., Mangani F., Piovano G., Iachetta R.
Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene and xylenes in workers in an oil-burning power plant
Valutazione dell'esposizione ad idrocarburi policiclici aromatici ed a benzene, toluene e xileni di lavoratori di una centrale termoelettrica che utilizza olio combustibile denso [in Italian]
An evaluation of personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) in workers of an oil-burning power plant. The control group consisted of office workers at the same power plant. Altogether 29 exposed workers and 10 controls were studied, for a total of 84 days of monitoring. Personal environmental exposure to PAHs was very low. All workers showed very low levels of dermal exposure to PAHs. The study confirmed the effectiveness of existing protective measures.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.314-326. 32 ref.
Moulin J.J., Clavel T., Buclez B., Laffite-Rigaud G.
A mortality study among workers in a French aluminium production plant
Etude de mortalité parmi les salariés d'une usine de production d'aluminium en France [in French]
The aim of this study was to establish the possible existence of a relationship between bronchopulmonary cancer and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aluminium industry. The historical cohort consisted of all 2133 male workers who had been employed for at least a year between 1950 and 1994 in the same plant of a French aluminium producer. Mortality was followed for the period between 1968 and 1994, during which 335 deaths were registered. Causes of death were obtained from death certificates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using regional mortality rates as external reference. The observed mortality was lower than expected for all causes of death (SMR=0.81) and for lung cancer (SMR=0.63). No lung cancer excess was observed in workshops where PAH exposure was likely to have occurred, and no trend was observed according to duration of exposure and time since first exposure. This low lung cancer mortality may be partly explained by a pronounced healthy worker effect. Translation into French of an article that appeared originally in International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.181, p.5-13. 42 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/etude_mortalite_parmi_salaries_usine_production.html [in French]
Dor F., Haguenoer J.M., Zmirou D., Empereur-Bissonnet P., Jongeneelen F.J., Nedellec V., Person A., Ferguson C.C., Dab W.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure of workers on a contaminated site: Influence of exposure conditions
The aim of the study was to determine the exposure levels of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on gasworks sites through the measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Start-of-shift and end-of-shift urine samples were collected during five consecutive days, once in November and a second time in June. Four groups of workers were selected according to their activity. Increased exposure was only found among workers involved in the remediation of a site, with levels of 0.16 to 2.31µmol/mol creatinine, while the median level among the nonsmoker referent group was 0.02µmol/mol creatinine. Smokers had greater exposure levels than non-smokers in every group. It is concluded that this method allows the assessment of exposure of persons on contaminated soil on the condition that the exposed subjects be in direct contact with the soil.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.42, No.4, p.391-397. Illus. 41 ref.
Burstyn I., Kromhout H., Kauppinen T., Heikkila P., Boffetta P.
Statistical modelling of the determinants of historical exposure to bitumen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers
An industrial hygiene database was constructed for exposure assessment in a study of cancer risk among asphalt workers. The aim was to create models of intensity of exposure to bitumen and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among paving workers. Individual exposure measurements from 1,581 pavers were collected in eight countries. Correlation patterns between exposure measures were examined and factors affecting exposure were identified using statistical modelling. Bitumen fume, vapour and PAHs have different determinants of exposure. For paving workers, exposure intensity can be assessed on the basis of time period and production characteristics.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2000, Vol.44, No.1, p.43-56. Illus. 31 ref.
Pavanello S., Genova A., Foà V., Clonfero E.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by analysis of urinary 1-pyrenol
Valutazione dell'esposizione professionale ad idrocarburi policiclici aromatici mediante l'analisi del livelli urinari de 1-pirenolo [in Italian]
Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed by analysing urinary levels of 1-pyrenol. A total of 231 non-smokers exposed to PAH (in industries and occupations including fuel oil power plants, used oil recovery, rubber production, road surface asphalting operations, aluminium anodizing, chimney-sweeping and coke-oven production) were enrolled, together with 53 non-smoker unexposed controls. In the overall population (controls and exposed), multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of urinary 1-pyrenol were significantly influenced by occupational exposure to PAH in asphalt workers, anodizing plant workers, chimney-sweeps, and coke-oven workers, but not in power plant workers, workers recovering exhausted oils, or rubber production workers. In chimney sweeps and top side coke-oven workers, respectively 2 and 4 subjects exceeded the precautionary level of 1.4µmoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine; of these, 1 chimney sweep and 3 top side workers exceeded the recommended biological threshold of 2.3µmoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.192-205. 40 ref.
Lafontaine M., Payan J.P., Delsaut P., Morele Y.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in an artificial shooting target factory: Assessment of 1-hydroxypyrene urinary excretion as a biological indicator of exposure
Five representative workers and two external observers were monitored by personal air and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (PyOH) sampling for a four-shift working week in an artificial shooting target factory. The targets were made from chalk and petroleum pitch and molded at 190°C. No respiratory protective mask was worn. Atmospheric concentrations of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) ranged from 0.66 to 5.05µg/m3 and 0.037 to 0.270µg/m3 respectively, with a mean pyrene/BaP ratio of approximately 20 and a correlation r = 0.51. Maximum PyOH urinary excretion ranged from 1.84 to 10.9µmol/mol creatinine. The correlation between atmospheric pyrene and urinary PyOH concentrations was poor (r = 0.37). It improved considerably (r = 0.74) if the amount of pyrene inhaled over the shift and the corresponding amount of PyOH excreted were considered. The ratio of urinary excreted PyOH to the pyrene inhaled dose (with assumed retention of 100%), ranged from 0.18 to 0.70 (arithmetic mean =0.34). Although dermal absorption is significant, these results suggests that the respiratory tract is the main absorption route for pyrene.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2000, Vol.44, No.2, p.89-100. Illus. 27 ref.
Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P.
Coal tar pitch
Brais de houille [in French]
Acute toxicity: nausea; headache; state of intoxication similar to that under the influence of alcohol; impairment of consciousness; bronchial and skin irritation; blepharoconjunctivitis or keratitis punctata. Chronic toxicity: acneiform dermatitis; hyperkeratosis; occular lesions which may be aggravated by sun or UV rays; diarrhoea; respiratory disorders. Epidemiologic studies show evidence of carcinogenicity: skin cancer, in particular of the face and the scrotum; inhalation gives rise to lung, bladder and kidney cancer and cancer of the upper respiratory system. French exposure limit: 0.2mg/m3 (VME).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.179, p.115-119. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/dossiers/fichtox/ft91.pdf [in French]
Elevated risk for male breast cancer after occupational exposure to gasoline and vehicular combustion products
Automotive gasoline contains benzene, 1,3-butadiène, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, and the combustion products include certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, all of which have shown mammary gland carcinogenicity in long-term bioassays. A case control study on male breast cancer morbidity was established among members of a pension fund. Employment histories were reconstructed for each of 230 cases and 12,880 control subjects based on computerized records. When a lag time of at least 10 years was taken into account, the odds ratio for breast cancer among men with over three months of employment in occupations with potential exposure to gasoline and combustion products was 2.5. Among men younger than 40 years at the time of first employment, the odds ratio was 5.4. This study supports the hypothesis that occupational exposure to gasoline vapours and combustion products may play a role in the causation of male breast cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.349-352. 25 ref.
BaP-Jahre [in German]
Lung cancer caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized as an occupational disease in Germany on condition that claimants can demonstrate a cumulative exposure of at least 100µg/m3 x years of benzo[a]pyrene (or benzo[a]pyrene years). This report provides insurance institutions with guidelines on the probable PAH exposure at workplaces for the purpose of establishing the occupational case history. Based on data from recent studies and from literature, tables provide estimated exposure levels by occupation, task and historical period.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Oct. 1999. 132p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Petralia S.A., Vena J.E., Freudenheim J.L., Dosemeci M., Michalek A., Goldberg M.S., Brasure J., Graham S.
Risk of premenopausal breast cancer in association with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene
This study examines the relationship between the risk of premenopausal breast cancer and occupational exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Occupational histories and other information were obtained through interviews with 301 cases and 316 controls, and job-exposure matrices were used to assess exposure to PAHs and benzene. The findings suggest an association between risk and occupational exposure to benzene. Although it is difficult to study the effects of PAHs independently of those of benzene, there is some suggestion of an association between PAH exposure and estrogen receptor-positive tumours.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.215-221. 29 ref.
Hemminki K., Veidebaum T.
Environmental pollution and human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the east Baltic region
Environmental contamination and human exposure due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were surveyed in the east Baltic region. Polluted and heavily industrialized areas are upper Silesia in Poland, northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic, and the northeast part of Estonia. In Estonia the pollution is in a defined geographic area, where lung cancer incidence is higher than elsewhere. DNA adduct levels in white blood cells are increased in groups of residents with apparently only environmental exposure. By extrapolation, some 150 annual cancer cases could be predicted due to PAH in Silesia. Air levels of benzo[a]pyrene were increased in northern Bohemia. Further studies are needed to assess health risks of PAH exposures in central and eastern Europe.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.33-39. Illus. 24 ref.
Brandt H.C.A., de Groot P.C.
A laboratory rig for studying aspects of worker exposure to bitumen fumes
Worker exposure to benzene-soluble matter and to the polycyclic aromatic compound (PAH) content of bitumen fume was investigated. A laboratory rig was developed to generate bitumen fumes reproducibly under well-controlled conditions. Laboratory results were related to personal exposure measurements during asphalt paving and roofing. A quantitative relationship for predicting the laboratory fume emission was derived, with the variable part of the equation being termed the fuming index (FI). The FI correlates well with measured personal exposures in asphalt paving and in roofing. The laboratory fumes generated at 160°C are representative for fumes emitted in the temperature range relevant for asphalt paving, those generated at 250°C for roofing. The PAH profiles of the fumes collected as personal samples during asphalt paving and roofing operations were similar to those of the fumes generated in the laboratory from the same bitumen and at the same temperature. This laboratory set-up is an excellent tool for assessing bitumens in terms of fuming tendency and PAH emissions/exposures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.182-190. Illus. 17 ref.
Rønneberg A., Haldorsen T., Romundstad P., Andersen A.
Occupational exposure and cancer incidence among workers from an aluminium smelter in western Norway
Associations between specific cancers and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), asbestos, electromagnetic fields and heat were studied in a cohort of Norwegian aluminum smelter workers. A positive association was found between bladder cancer and PAH exposure 30 years or more before observation for the production cohort. Results also suggest an association between PAH and pancreatic cancer, although this is not statistically significant. In the maintenance cohort there was a positive association between employment as an electrician and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer, and a non-significant association between PAH and lung cancer. Short-term workers showed a statistically significant excess of lung cancer. The results support previous findings of an association between exposure to PAH and bladder cancer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.207-214. 28 ref.
Romundstad P., Haldorsen T., Rønneberg A.
Exposure to PAH and fluoride in aluminum reduction plants in Norway: Historical estimation of exposure using process parameters and industrial hygiene measurements
A methodology for the historical estimation of exposure to fluoride and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at two Norwegian aluminium smelters is described. Area concentrations of fluoride and PAH in periods with no measurements were estimated and relationships between measured area concentrations and process parameters were investigated by statistical modelling. Process parameters and the models were then used to estimate area concentrations in periods lacking area measurement data. The relationships between the area measurements and job specific exposure (personal measurements) were investigated by use of a measurement model. Finally, the relationships obtained were used to estimate job specific exposure in different periods. Despite limitations of available measurements in the early production period, the exposure estimates from this study provide a reasonable tool for the estimation of dose-response relations in subsequent epidemiological analyses. Topics: aluminium industry; aromatic hydrocarbons; description of technique; determination in air; exposure evaluation; fluorides; job-exposure relation; mathematical models; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.164-174. 13 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Selected non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds
This criteria document covers the following toxicological aspects of 32 of these substances: identity; properties; analytical methods; sources of exposure; environmental behaviour; environmental levels and human exposure; metabolism in humans and animals; effects on animals, plants, microorganisms and humans; risk evaluation; recommendations. Summary in French and in Spanish. The following substances are covered: acenaphthylene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, 11h-benzo(a)fluorene, 11h-benzo(b)fluorene, benzo(c)phenanthrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)fluoranthene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzoperylene, chrysene, coronene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, dibenzo(a,e)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)pyrene, dibenzo(a,i)pyrene, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, 5-methylchrysene, 1-methylphenanthrene, naphthalene, perylene, phenanthrene, pyrene, triphenylene.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. xxii, 883p. Illus. approx. 2000 ref. Price: CHF 174.00 (CHF 121.80 in developing countries).
Romundstad P.R., Rønneberg A., Leira H.L., Bye T.
Health survey of former workers in a Norwegian coke plant. Part 1: Estimation of historical exposures. Part 2: Cancer incidence and cause specific mortality
Analysis of industrial hygiene data at a coke plant in Norway showed that the exposures of greatest concern were to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbonaceous particulates and carbon monoxide. Exposure to PAHs was highest for those who worked at the top of the ovens before 1976, when exposure control measures were introduced. There was a significant excess of stomach cancer among these workers, and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and sudden death was positively associated with work in areas which entailed peak exposures to carbon monoxide. Topics: airborne dust; aromatic hydrocarbons; cancer; quartz; carbon monoxide; benzene; cohort study; coke ovens; coking plants; coronary diseases; exposure evaluation; gastrointestinal cancer; job-exposure relation; mortality; polycyclic hydrocarbons; sudden death syndrome.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.55, No.9, p.616-621, 622-626. Bibl.ref.
Krajewska B., Lutz W., Piłacik B.
Determination of blood serum oncoprotein NEU and antioncoprotein p-53 - Molecular biomarkers in various types of occupational exposure
Blood serum p-53 and NEU proteins were determined in 32 workers exposed to asbestos and in 57 workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The proteins were also determined in 99 patients with overt cancer and in 47 controls. The data show positive values of oncoprotein NEU or antioncoprotein p-53 in 17.3% to 31.8% of workers exposed to asbestos or PAHs. The percentage of positive values for the examined proteins in the patients with overt cancer ranged from 12.5% to 42.5%. It should be noted that positive values of the oncoproteins detected in the biomaterial of the persons exposed do not mean that people will necessarily develop cancer. Nevertheless, elevated values should be regarded as a warning and an implication for undertaking suitable preventive measures. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; asbestos; blood monitoring; cancer; case-control study; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; polycyclic hydrocarbons; serum protein changes.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol.11, No.4, p.343-348. Illus. 12 ref.
Farant J.P., Gariépy M.
Relationship between benzo[a]pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Söderberg primary aluminum smelter
Air samples were collected at various sites in a primary aluminium smelter over a period of four years. There was an excellent relationship between concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). B[a]P was also a good indicator for individual PAHs in coal tar pitch volatiles. B[a]P relative abundance ratios (PAH/B[a]P), derived on the basis of this relationship, showed remarkable stability as long as electrolytic process conditions were not changed. In the absence of any such changes, these values could allow retrospective estimates to be made of the concentration of any of the 18 PAHs selected or total PAHs based solely on the concentration of B[a]P measured at a given site. When combined with B[a]P relative potency factors, these values yield B[a]P toxic equivalent concentrations for any sites where B[a]P levels are known. This parameter provides a viable alternative to all other means of assessing exposure to a complex mix such as PAHs. Topics: air sampling; aluminium industry; aromatic hydrocarbons; benzo(a)pyrene; determination in air; exposure evaluation; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons; sampling and analysis; smelting plants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1998, Vol.59, No.11, p.758-765. Illus. 15 ref.
Hara K., Itani T.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological monitoring index for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
takanhoukouzokutankasuisorui no seibutsugakuteki monitaringu shihyō toshiteno nyōchū 1-hidorokishipiren [in Japanese]
Summary in English. Literature review which suggests the need to extend the use of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological monitoring index for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to other workplaces than coke ovens. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene may be useful for assessing early effect markers more strictly. Assessment of individual susceptibility could be developed by observation of individual profiles of PAH metabolites in urine. Topics: 1-hydroxypyrene; aromatic hydrocarbons; determination in urine; evaluation of technique; polycyclic hydrocarbons; urinary metabolites.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Jan. 1998, Vol.74, No.1, p.1-16. Illus. 128 ref.
Aromatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons in air and their urinary metabolites in coke plant workers
Concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, xylenes and 14 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in various parts of a coke plant by personal air sampling; concentrations of o-cresol, 1- and 2-naphthol, methylhippuric acid and 1-hydroxypyrene were determined in the post-shift urine of workers. Results showed that these workers were simultaneously exposed to a mixture of aromatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons present in breathing zone air. While exposure levels were low compared to exposure limits, exposure was significantly influenced by job category. Compounds identified in the urine appeared to be the products of the hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbons present in the air as well as unmetabolized hydrocarbons. A correlation was observed between inhaled toluene, naphthalene and xylene and urinary excretion of metabolites. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; p-xylene; m-xylene; toluene; benzene; naphthalene; o-xylene; coking plants; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; gas chromatography; job-exposure relation; mass spectrometry; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons; urinary metabolites.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.445-454. Illus. 51 ref.
Van Rooij J.G.M.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among workers
This document describes the results of a three-year research project on dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) among occupationally exposed workers. It contains several publications on this topic. The outcome of this research is that the most of the pyrene burden of workers occupationally exposed to PAHs occurs through dermal exposure and not through inhalation. This conclusion seems also valid for benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs with five benzenoid rings or fewer. Summaries in French, German and Italian.
European Commission, Directorate General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. vii, 185p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Biological indicators of exposure, internal dose, biological effective dose and of early biological effects in coke oven workers exposed to genotoxic compound (PAH)
This study compares a high-risk group of coke-oven workers exposed do PAH with a reference group in order to evaluate the levels of environmental exposure and the biomarkers of internal dose (urinary 1-hydroxyphenol and urinary mutagenicity), of effective dose (DNA and haemoglobin adducts) and of early genomic modifications. Levels of DNA adducts, amino-haemoglobin adducts and sister chromatid exchanges were significantly higher in coke workers and depending on their job, certain categories of workers showed a higher risk. Urinary hypoxypyrene was associated with a high level of DNA adducts; urinary mutagenicity was associated with the amino-fluoranthrene haemoglobin adducts. Smoking was associated with both PAH-DNA and amino-haemoglobin adducts. Summaries in French, German and Italian.
European Commission, Directorate-General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Roos F., Renier A., Ettlinger J., Iwatsubo Y., Letourneux M., Haguenoer J.M., Jaurand M.C., Pairon J.C.
Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: An assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis
In a study of 60 coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 40 controls, the high concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) observed in the coke oven workers reflected recent exposure to PAHs and were in agreement with assessment of exposure by job. No significant difference was found between coke oven workers and controls in the DNA repair levels of rat cells treated with urine samples. However, the rat cell repair capacity decreased with increasing 1OHP concentration in the exposed population. While exposure to PAHs was not associated with a clear cut modification of the urinary excretion of DNA damaging factors in this test, impairment of some repair mechanisms by urinary constituents is suspected. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; coke ovens; determination in urine; DNA; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; job-exposure relation; polycyclic hydrocarbons; urinary metabolites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.854-860. Illus. 42 ref.
Mielżyńska D., Braszczyńska Z., Siwińska E., Smolik E., Bubak A., Sokal J.A.
Exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on biological monitoring results
Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; benzo(a)pyrene; coke ovens; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; job-exposure relation; mutagenicity tests; mutagens; Poland; polycyclic hydrocarbons; smoking; synergism; urinary metabolites.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1997, Vol.58, No.9, p.661-666. Illus. 20 ref.
Hatjian B., et al.
Risk assessment of occupational exposure to bitumen fumes in the road paving and roofing industries
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen fumes was assessed by ambient and biological monitoring of 16 pavers, 13 roofers and 21 unexposed controls. Exposure of pavers and roofers was low in comparison with other industries where exposure to PAHs occurs, but higher than the control group. Significant correlations were observed between airborne PAH exposure indices and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in the pavers only, and between mean sister chromatid exchange frequency and external PAH exposure expressed as the percentage of exposed subjects in individual groups. Exposure could be further reduced by appropriate control measures.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1997, Vol.13, No.1, p.65-78. Illus. 19 ref.
Elevated serum liver enzymes in coke oven and by-product workers
Blood levels of two liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), were measured for 213 steel workers employed for at least three months in two coke-operation work areas, and for 131 unexposed controls. Each work area contained a coke oven and a by-product plant. Airborne levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also measured. Workers from Area I (shown to have high PAH levels) had significantly higher AST and ALT levels than the control group. Workers from Area II (lower PAH levels) had slightly, but not significantly, elevated AST and ALT levels. Results indicate that heavy exposure to coke oven emissions has adverse effects on the liver.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.527-533. Illus. 22 ref.
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