Aromatic hydrocarbons - 1,183 entries found
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Armstrong T.W., Liang Y., Hetherington Y., Bowes S.M., Wong O., Fu H., Chen M., Schnatter A.R.
Retrospective occupational exposure assessment for case-control and case-series epidemiology studies based in Shanghai China
To provide exposure information for epidemiology studies conducted in Shanghai from 2001 to 2008, this study completed retrospective exposure assessments (EA) of benzene and other hazards. Interviewers administered questionnaires to subjects from Shanghai area hospitals. An initial exposure screening by EA staff members, blinded as to case-control status, stratified jobs into exposed, unexposed, or uncertain categories prior to review by a separate expert panel (EP). Resources for the EA included questionnaire responses by subjects, short-term benzene area concentration measurements from a Shanghai regulatory agency database, Chinese literature for qualitative and short-term quantitative measurements, on-site investigations, summaries of technology changes and selected task simulations with concurrent benzene concentration measurements. An EP in Shanghai completed semi-quantitative benzene exposure assignments. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2011, Vol.8, No.9, p.561-572. Illus. 48 ref.
Retrospective_occupational_exposure_assessment_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Zhang L., Ye F.L., Chen T., Mei Y., Song S.Z.
Trans, trans-muconic acid as a biomarker of occupational exposure to high-level benzene in China
The work aimed to study the potential correlation between high-level benzene exposures and urinary benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) among Chinese shoe industry workers. Individual benzene-exposed levels were determined by gas chromatography analysis; urinary metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The concentration of benzene ranged from 2.57 to 146.11 mg/m3. The correlation between benzene and t,t-MA was significantly higher than that of SPMA at the postshift. It is concluded that t,t-MA is a more specific biomarker than SPMA at high-level benzene exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1194-1198. Illus. 41 ref.
Trans_trans-muconic_acid_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Cave M., Falkner K.C., Henry L., Costello B., Gregory B., McClain C.J
Serum cytokeratin 18 and cytokine elevations suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease in highly exposed elastomer/polymer workers
Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a novel serologic biomarker for occupational liver disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CK18 elevation in elastomer/polymer workers exposed to acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and styrene. A total of 82 chemical workers were evaluated. Cytokeratin 18 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by multi-analyte chemiluminescent detection. Thirty-nine percent (32 of 82) had elevated CK18 levels. The pattern of CK18 elevation was consistent with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) in the majority of cases (78%). Tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were increased in these workers compared with those with normal CK18 levels. These results suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease and TASH in elastomer/polymer workers with elevated proinflammatory cytokines.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.53, No.10, p.1128-1133. 42 ref.
Serum_cytokeratin_18_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Scarselli A., Binazzi A., Di Marzio D.
Occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy: Findings from a national database
The aim of this study is to summarize data about occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy. Airborne concentrations of benzene were selected from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens in the period 1996-2007. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for the industrial sectors better characterized in the database. An analysis through linear mixed model was performed to determine factors affecting the exposure level. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.617-625. Illus. 38 ref.
Occupational_exposure_levels_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Chen M., Ho C.W., Huang Y.C., Wu K.Y., Wu M.T., Jeng H.A., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Lai C.H., Pan C.H., Chen Y.M.
Glycine N-methyltransferase affects urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels after PAH exposure
The objective of this study was to assess the modulating effects of genetic polymorphisms of glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) genotypes on 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine from coke-oven workers, consistently exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study participants included 289 coke-oven workers from a steel company in Taiwan. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, peripheral blood samples, and questionnaires were used to quantify PAH exposure, oxidative DNA damage, GNMT gene polymorphisms, demographic data, and environmental pollutants. Urinary 1-OHP level, GNMT STRP1 genotype, and worksite were significant predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjustments were made for covariates. This study suggests that GNMT STRP1 could modulate urinary 1-OHP and 8-OHdG levels in coke-oven workers exposed to PAHs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.812-819. 39 ref.
Glycine_N-methyltransferase_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Lee M.S., Magari S., Christiani D.C.
Cardiac autonomic dysfunction from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAH exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart-rate variability in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Continuous 24 h monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre- and postshift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Findings provide evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.474-478. Illus. 40 ref.
Cardiac_autonomic_dysfunction_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Jeng H.A., Pan C.H., Diawara N., Chang-Chien G.P., Lin W.Y., Huang C.T., Ho C.K., Wu M.T.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in relation to immunological alteration
This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and immunological measurements using blood samples from coke oven workers exposed to high and low PAH levels. It was conducted from 2008-2009 with coke oven workers and steel-rolling workers as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Questionnaires on basic demographic information were administered. Personal breathing zone and urine samples were collected to quantify personal PAH intake and biological response doses. Immunological and cytokine parameters in serum were analysed. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were analysed to determine oxidative stress induced by PAHs in relation to altered humoural immunological status. Results were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs may develop immunological alteration. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by PAHs may partly explain the alteration in immunological parameters.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.653-658. 31 ref.
Polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbon-induced_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Friesen M.C., Costello S., Thurston S.W., Eisen E.A.
Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers
The various types of metalworking fluids (MWFs) have overlapping components. This study derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios for each cancer and cumulative exposures were estimated. For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH. Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. These findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.450-460. Illus. 42 ref.
Kim J.H., Moon J.Y., Park E.Y, Lee K.H., Hong Y.C.
Changes in oxidative stress biomarker and gene expression levels in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds
This study was conducted to evaluate the change of oxidative stress biomarker and gene expression levels in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds. Urine and blood samples were collected from 21 subjects before and after occupational exposure to VOCs. Muconic (MuA), hippuric (HA) mandelic (MaA) and methyl hippuric (MHA) acid were measures as urinary exposure biomarkers for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (collectively BTEX), while malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers in all subjects. BTEX-mediated RNA expression using cDNA microarray were also evaluated in 14 subjects. Findings are discussed. The study results suggest that exposure to VOCs, specifically toluene, induces oxidative stress and various gene expression changes, some being possibly responsible for oxidative stress.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.8-14. Illus. 28 ref.
Changes_in_oxidative_stress_biomarker.pdf [in English]
Widner T.E., Gaffney S.H., Panko J.M., Unice K.M., Burns A.M., Kreider M., Marshall J.R., Booher L.E., Gelat R.H., Paustenbach D.J.
Airborne concentrations of benzene for dock workers at the ExxonMobil refinery and chemical plant, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA (1977-2005)
Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and natural gas (0.1-3.0% by volume). Materials that are refined from crude oil and natural gas contain some residual benzene. In this study, historical samples of airborne benzene collected from 1977-2005 at the docks of a large refinery and petrochemical plant in the United States were evaluated. Workers were categorized into 11 job titles for which benzene concentrations were assessed. Approximately 800 personal air samples were analyzed. Findings are discussed. Samples for specific job categories showed that concentrations have decreased over the past 30 years. Recognizing the potential for benzene exposure, this facility has required workers to use respiratory protective equipment during selected tasks and activities; thus, the concentrations measured were likely to be greater than those that the employees actually experienced.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.147-158. Illus. 43 ref.
Airborne_concentrations.pdf [in English]
Vyskocil A., Leroux T., Truchon G., Lemay F., Gagnon F., Gendron M., Boudjerida A., El-Majidi N., Viau C.
Effect of chemical substances on hearing - Interactions with noise
Effet des substances chimiques sur l'audition - Interactions avec le bruit [in French]
While noise is the main cause of occupational deafness, certain chemical substances can produce ototoxic effects that may make the ear more prone to acoustic assault, as opposed to noise alone. They are mainly solvents, asphyxiants, metals and pesticides, widespread in workplaces. In Quebec, over 400,000 workers are exposed to high noise levels, which raise concerns regarding the prevention of hearing impairments. This literature survey evaluated the effects of various chemical substances on hearing, and characterized the interactions between these chemical substances and noise at exposure levels respecting the current standards of the Occupational health and safety regulations. Strong interactions were found for toluene and carbon monoxide. Less solid evidence was found for other substances, with either lack of evidence or inconclusive results.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 18p. Illus. 59 ref.
R-685.pdf [in French]
Fustinoni S., Campo L., Cirla P.E., Martinotti I., Buratti M., Longhi O., Foà V., Bertazzi P.
Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt workers
The objective of this study was to assess dermal exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphalt workers in the region of Milan, Italy, to identify the most frequent compounds and exposure sites and to integrate dermal exposure results with environmental and biological data. Twenty-four asphalt workers were recruited. Dermal exposure was assessed during a single work shift. Sixteen PAHs were quantified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dermal exposure was assessed by applying polypropylene pads to six body sites (neck, shoulder, upper arm, wrist, groin and ankle). Airborne exposure, and urinary PAHs and monohydroxy metabolites were also investigated. Findings are discussed. Overall, dermal exposures to PAHs were in the low ng/cm2 range. Phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were the most representative compounds and the wrist was the best location to perform dermal exposure assessments. Both dermal and airborne exposure contributed to the total body burden of PAHs, with the relative contribution varying according to the specific PAH.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.456-463. Illus. 40 ref.
Galland B., Henrard J., Martin P., Tran-Thi T., Crunaire S., Rivron C.
A new approach to qualifying and quantifying monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH ) in workplace atmospheres
Une nouvelle approche pour la qualification et la quantification des hydrocarbures aromatiques monocycliques (HAM) dans l'atmosphère des lieux de travail [in French]
Presently, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are selectively detected in workplace atmospheres mostly by conventional methods, namely specifically, sampling on a medium and conducting a posteriori analysis in the laboratory. This article presents the concept of a new real-time analyzer, based on laboratory research and validated by INRS. Work is underway to design a prototype in the next few years.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.45-50. Illus. 5 ref.
ND 2324-218-10.pdf [in French]
Kriech A.J., Emmel C., Osborn L.V., Breuer D., Redman A.P., Hoeber D., Bochmann F., Ruehl R.
Side-by-side comparison of field monitoring methods for hot bitumen emission exposures: The German IFA Method 6305, U.S. NIOSH Method 5042, and the Total Organic Matter Method
Field studies were conducted at multiple paving and roofing sites to compare the infrared spectroscopy method 6305 of the German Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Social Accident Insurance (IFA) with the benzene soluble fraction method 5042 of the National Institute for Occupational Science and Health (NIOSH) and the Total Organic Matter method. Sampling using both methods was performed in multiple bitumen-related workplace environments. To provide comparable data, all samplings were performed in parallel and the analytical data were related to the same representative bitumen condensate standard. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.712-725. Illus. 31 ref.
Side-by-side_comparison.pdf [in English]
Fioretti M., Catrambone T., Gordiani A., Cabella R.
Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter: Validation and application of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method
This study concerns the validation of an analytical method for the measurement of occupational exposure to trace levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter (APM). Personal exposures to selected PAHs of five workers occupationally exposed to urban pollution in Rome, Italy, were evaluated. The samples were collected over 10 days evenly-distributed during the winter and summer of 2008. It was found that phenanthrene was the predominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; the highest benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher than European annual target values: seasonal variations of personal exposure to selected PAHs suggested higher emissions and reduced atmospheric reactivity of PAH compounds in winter. The analytical method used was found to be reliable and a useful tool to evaluate occupational exposure to low PAH levels.
Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.672-682. Illus. 47 ref.
Uzma N., Kumar B.S., Hazari M.A.H.
Exposure to benzene induces oxidative stress, alters the immune response and expression of p53 in gasoline filling workers
This study investigated the adverse effects of benzene among workers occupationally exposed to benzene in India. It involved 428 gasoline filling workers occupationally exposed to benzene and 78 unexposed individuals. A significant increase in the concentration of benzene and its byproducts in both blood and urine were found in the workers compared with the controls. Occupational exposure to benzene causes oxidative stress, immune suppression and increases the expression of tumor-suppressing gene p53 in gasoline filling workers. These bio-functional markers might be useful in screening and surveillance for occupational hazard.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.1264-1270. Illus. 34 ref.
Hopf N.B., Kirkeleit J., Kramer S.L., Moen B., Succop P., Genter M.B., Carreón T., Mack J., Talaska G.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in offshore workers
The objective of this study was to compare differences in pre- and post-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) levels as a measure of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between two groups of oil production workers offshore assumed to be exposed to PAH, and to compare the exposed group to an unexposed control group. Urine samples of the 42 participants were collected over a study period of three consecutive 12-h work days (pre-shift on the first day and post-shift on the third day), and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analysis of covariance was used in the statistical models. Post-shift 1HP levels were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the controls. Tank workers and process operators did not show statistically significant different post-shift 1HP levels. Overall, this study indicates a low level of PAH exposure among offshore oil production workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.83, No.1, p.55-59. Illus. 17 ref.
Urinary_1-hydroxypyrene.pdf [in English]
Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.
Some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures
This volume reviews the potential carcinogenicity of 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and several occupational exposures involving coal-derived PAHs. These are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. Environmental sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons include industrial air pollution, urban air pollution, tobacco smoke and diet (which is commonly the main source of exposure in non-smokers who are not exposed to such hydrocarbons through their occupations). High occupational exposure can arise during the conversion of coal to coke and coal tar, and during the processing and use of products derived from coal tar. In this volume, benzo[a]pyrene, other PAHs and related occupational exposures were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2010. viii, 853p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00; USD 55.00; CHF 38.50 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol92/mono92.pdf [in English]
Liu H., Liang Y., Bowes S., Xu H., Zhou Y., Armstrong T.W., Wong O., Schnatter A.R., Fang J., Wang L., Nie L., Fu H., Irons R.
Benzene exposure in industries using or manufacturing paint in China - A literature review, 1956-2005
A systematic review of the Chinese literature was conducted from 1956 to 2005. The survey included both online and manual searching, as well as expert discussions aimed at providing insight into factors affecting benzene exposure levels in paint/coatings industries. Data were extracted from 204 articles. Most benzene measurements were short-term samples for comparison with the Chinese maximum allowable concentration standard. The accuracy and precision of the sampling and analytical methods were not reported. The overall median benzene exposure levels were 215, 82, 31 and 6 mg/m3 during the periods 1956-1978, 1979-1989, 1990-2001 and 2002-2005, respectively. Mean benzene exposure was significantly lower for paint manufacturing than paint spraying. No significant difference was found among paint types and benzene exposure for paint application. Benzene exposure was significantly higher in workplaces judged to have poor ventilation. No significant differences were found in benzene exposure as a function of industry type. Even though substantially lower when compared with levels in the past, recent benzene exposure measurements suggested that many facilities in the paint/coatings industries in China still have benzene concentrations that are above the current China occupational exposure limit for benzene (6 mg/m3) as a time-weighted average).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2009, Vol.6, No.11, p.659-670. Illus. 19 ref.
Benzene_exposure.pdf [in English]
Panko J.M., Gaffney S.H., Burns A.M., Unice K.M, Kreider M.L., Booher L.E., Gelatt R.H., Marshall J.R., Paustenbach D.J.
Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery at Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1977-2005)
This study evaluated the airborne concentrations of benzene and their variability over time at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baton Rouge between 1977 and 2005. Refinery workers were categorized into 117 worker groups using company job descriptions. These 117 groups were further collapsed into 25 job categories based on similarity of measured exposure results. Results of 5289 personal air samples are included in this analysis. Findings are discussed. Even the tasks with the highest estimated exposures were well below the STEL of 5 ppm. This study thus provides a task-focused analysis for occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, which can be insightful for understanding exposures at this refinery and perhaps others operated since about 1975.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.517-529. Illus. 32 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_benzene.pdf [in English]
Triebig G., Bruckner T., Seeber A.
Occupational styrene exposure and hearing loss: A cohort study with repeated measurements
This study investigated the associations between styrene exposure and hearing loss among workers of a boat factory in Germany, classified into groups of low, medium and high levels of exposure to styrene. At levels of 30-50ppm of inhaled styrene per work day over a period of 15 years, an elevated risk for impaired hearing thresholds can be expected. However, formerly published results on ototoxic effects below 20ppm could not be confirmed. With few exceptions, no dose-response relationship between threshold and exposure data was found. The hearing loss is partly reversible during exposure-free periods.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.463-480. Illus. 52 ref.
Seeber A., Bruckner T., Triebig G.
Occupational styrene exposure, colour vision and contrast sensitivity: A cohort study with repeated measurements
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between occupational styrene exposures and colour vision deficiency and contrast sensitivity. Workers from a German boat building plant were classified in groups of low, medium and high levels exposure to styrene, and subjected to visual function tests. There was no evidence of significant associations between exposure parameters and colour confusion or contrast sensitivity. The largest portions of the variances in both tests were explained by age.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.757-770. Illus. 47 ref.
Seeber A., Bruckner T., Triebig G.
Occupational styrene exposure and neurobehavioural functions: A cohort study with repeated measurements
Possible associations between occupational styrene exposure and cognitive as well as psychomotor functions were investigated with a view to determining whether they are related to current or to chronic exposure and to what extent they are reversible. Workers of a plant producing glass-reinforced polyester boats in Germany were divided into three groups based on their estimated exposure to styrene being low, medium or high. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and various tests of cognitive function. The overall findings were that symptoms were not related to exposure and that cognitive function tests generally revealed no exposure-related associations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.969-984. Illus. 52 ref.
Wang Y., Duan H., Dai Y., Bin P., Cheng J., Pan Z., Huang C., Leng S., Chen W., Zheng Y.
Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposed workers
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chromosomal damage among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-exposed workers. Blood and urine samples of 140 PAH-exposed workers and 66 non-PAH-exposed workers were collected. The polymorphisms of UGT1A7, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and 1-hydroxypyrene were analyzed. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that polymorphisms of UGT1A7 gene may alter the severity of PAH-induced chromosomal damage among the exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2009, Vol.51, No.6, p.682-689. Illus. 56 ref.
Sobus J.R., Waidyanatha S., McClean M.D., Herrick R.F., Smith T.J., Garshick E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Zheng Y., Rappaport S.M.
Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds
This study investigated the utility of unmetabolised naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as biomarkers of exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It involved 39 workers exposed to diesel exhausts (low PAH exposure level), 26 exposed to emissions from asphalt (medium PAH exposure level) and 28 exposed to emissions from coke ovens (high PAH exposure level). Levels of Nap and Phe were measured in urine from each subject. Published levels of airborne Nap, Phe and other PAHs in the relevant sectors were taken into account. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that levels of Nap and Phe in urine reflected the workplace atmospheric concentrations of these compounds and therefore constitute promising surrogates for occupational exposures to PAH mixtures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.99-104. Illus. 25 ref.
Schäper M., Seeber A., van Thriel C.
The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: An evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry
The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during five years. Workers' lifetime weighted average exposures to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings. Recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study. Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry. Noise intensity was significant for auditory thresholds. However, no relationships were found between auditory thresholds and toluene concentrations, toluene exposure duration and interactions between toluene and noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 16 ref.
Elihn K., Ulvestad B., Hetland S., Wallén A., Randem B.G.
Exposure to ultrafine particles in asphalt work
An earlier study demonstrated that asphalt workers show a loss of lung function and an increase of inflammation biomarkers during the paving season. The aim of this study was to investigate which possible agents cause the inflammatory reaction, with emphasis on ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure to total dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and NO2 was determined by personal sampling. Ultrafine particles were measured by means of particle counters mounted on a van following the paving machine. Findings showed that pavers were exposed to relatively high concentrations of ultrafine particles throughout their working day, with possible adverse health effects.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.771-779. Illus. 23 ref.
Williams P.R.D., Panko J.M., Unice K., Brown J.L., Paustenbach D.J.
Occupational exposures associated with petroleum-derived products containing trace levels of benzene
Benzene may be present as a trace impurity in many petroleum-derived products. In this article, the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products is reviewed and the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States are characterized, based on indoor exposure modeling and industrial hygiene air monitoring data collected since the late 1970s. Overall findings indicate that the vast majority of products manufactured in the United States after 1978 contained less than 0.1% benzene by volume, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not have been expected to exceed 0.5ppm under most product use scenarios.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.565-574. Illus. 97 ref.
Ferrari M., Negri S., Zadra P., Ghittori S., Imbriani M.
Saliva as an analytical tool to measure occupational exposure to toluene
Biomonitoring of toluene exposure is commonly performed using blood or urine sampling. Sampling of saliva may be a simple and a viable alternative. In this study, solvent concentrations in urine and saliva were measured in a group of 36 workers exposed to toluene in the synthetic leather industry. Their environmental exposure to toluene was assessed using passive samplers. Toluene in urine, saliva and environmental samples was measured by GC-MS. Environmental toluene levels ranged from 0.22 to 57.20mg/m3, while the concentrations of the solvent in saliva and urine ranged from 0.12 to 18.30µg/L and from 0.47 to 26.64µg/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients between biological and environmental levels of toluene were 0.77 and 0.93, respectively, for saliva and urine samples. These findings suggest that saliva monitoring could be a simple and practical method of evaluating exposure to toluene.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.81, No.8, p.1021-1028. Illus. 19 ref.
Wang H., Chen W., Zheng H., Guo L., Liang H., Yang X., Bai Y., Sun J., Su Y., Chen Y., Yuan J., Bi Y., Wei Q., Wu T.
Association between plasma BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers
Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can induce both benzo[a]pyrene-r-7, t-8, t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. In this study, 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE were recruited in the same steel plant in northern China. BPDE-Alb adduct concentrations in plasma was measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes by alkaline comet assay. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE-Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed but not in control group. The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.753-758. Illus. 40 ref.
Relationship between styrene exposure and hearing loss: Review of human studies
Occupational exposure to styrene occurs mainly in the manufacturing of fibreglass-reinforced plastics. Since 1988, nine studies have been published on the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and hearing loss. All studies were cross-sectional epidemiological studies or clinical studies from occupational health clinics. They involved more than 1000 workers exposed to styrene, both with and without concurrent noise exposure. Of the nine studies, seven showed some effects on the auditory system associated with styrene-alone exposure. These effects are examined using different outcome measures such as pure tone audiometry, high frequency hearing loss, and central hearing tests. In some studies, an increased risk for hearing loss was associated with exposure estimates.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.315-325. 27 ref.
Costa K.N.S., Pinheiro I.O., Calazans G.T., Nascimento M.S.
Assessing risks concerning the use of xylene in cytology and pathological anatomy laboratories
Avaliação dos riscos associados ao uso do xilol em laboratórios de anatomia patológica e citologia [in Portuguese]
An evaluation of occupational exposure to xylene used by technicians in cytology and pathological anatomy was carried out in eight laboratories of a region of Brazil. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Emphasis was given to information concerning occupational health and risk perception when using xylene and disposing waste. Results show that personal and collective protection equipment were neglected. Eighty percent of the technicians interviewed had noticed changes in health after they had been exposed to xylene for some years. However, only 6.6% of them went through regular monitoring of urinary methyl hippuric acid, a biomarker of xylene exposure. It was noticed that 76.6% of the people interviewed disposed waste directly into a sink, as there was no proper place for waste disposal. Findings highlight the need for workers' training with respect to occupational and environmental hazards.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.50-56. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Xilol.pdf [in Portuguese]
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary Reports XII (Nos. 39, 62, 67, 150, 151, 180,181, 194, 206)
Ergänzungsbericht XII [in German]
This document included translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1986 and May 1997, relating to nine substances or groups of substances (naphthalene, hexachlorobutadiene, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, chloracetic acid methyl ester, chloracetic acid ethyl ester, C10-C21-alkane sulfonic acids, phenyl esters, chloroalkane sulfonic acids, sodium salts, 3-methyl-2-butenal and surfactants) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Irritant effects and contact allergy in humans are reported respectively for methyl chloroacetate and ethyl chloroacetate.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 95p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for xylene (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of xylene is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract; respiratory disorders; lung diseases; gastric disorders; visual function disorders; liver damage; renal damage; neurotoxic effects; heart diseases; teratogenic effects. IARC has determined that xylene is not classifiable with respect to its human carcinogenicity because of insufficient evidence (Update of CIS 97-235).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 330p. Illus. Approx. 750 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp71.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for benzene (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of benzene is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects; bone marrow disorders (blood-cell anomalies); immunotoxic effects; mutagenic effects (chromosome changes); damage to the female reproductive system; carcinogenic effects (leukaemia). IARC has classified benzene in group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). (Update of CIS 99-1287).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 382p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp3.pdf [in English]
Gaudin R., Marsan P., Baty G., Orivelle D.
Forestry and exposure to benzene - Survey findings
Bûcheronnage et exposition au benzène - Résultats d'une enquête [in French]
Benzene is a chemical agent that is potentially responsible for increased risks of leukaemia among certain categories of workers exposed to engine fuels. This article describes a study aimed at evaluating the exposure to benzene among loggers and forestry workers, using a biological sampling method. A total of 55 volunteers were subjected to urine sampling before and after a day of work. They also answered a questionnaire on their work and several personal factors, including their smoking habits. It was found that exposures were very moderate, well within permissible levels. This was equally true for smokers, despite the strong effect of smoking on biological markers of benzene exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.89-93. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_PR%2032/$File/pr32.pdf [in French]
Fustinoni S., Mercadante R., Campo L., Scibetta L., Valla C., Consonni D., Foà V.
Comparison between urinary o-cresol and toluene as biomarkers of toluene exposure
This case-control study compared urinary o-cresol (U-OC) and urinary toluene (U-TOL) as biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene. One hundred healthy male rotogravure printing workers and 161 male and female control subjects unexposed to toluene were studied. Personal exposure to airborne toluene (TOL-A) during the shift was determined as a time weighted average. Simple analytical procedures based on solid phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were applied to the determination of end-shift U-OC and U-TOL. Median TOL-A was 48mg/m3 in printers and 0.021mg/m3 in controls. U-OC was 0.185mg/g creatinine in printers and 0.027mg/g in controls. U-TOL was 7.6µg/L in printers and 0.140µg/L in controls. U-TOL was found to be a slightly more reliable biomarker to toluene exposure than U-OC.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2007, Vol.4, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 31 ref.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of July 2004: 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene can be absorbed orally, dermally and by inhalation. In the rat, the oral LD50 is about 200 mg/kg and the dermal LD50 84 mg/kg. In general, the symptoms after acute 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene uptake are staggering, spasms, tremor, accelerated respiration or breathing sounds. Oral administration of 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene also leads to the formation of methemoglobin and Heinz bodies, whereas dermal administration causes cyanosis. Investigations are lacking on the toxicity after repeated uptake. After an exposure period of 15 minutes, undiluted 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene does not irritate the skin. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is slightly irritating to the rabbit eye. Studies on the allergenic effect are not available. Considering the structural similarity to such substances as 3-chloro-2,4-difluoronitrobenzene, a sensitizing potential cannot be ruled out. Data are not available on the reproductive toxicity. Against the backdrop of the fertility-damaging effects of other nitro-aromatics, an effect on the reproductive capacity cannot be excluded. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is positive in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium. No other investigations are available on the in vitro or in vivo genotoxicity in mammalian cells or on the carcinogenic potential. However a carcinogenic potential cannot be ruled out, considering the similarity to other nitro-aromatics. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiv, 27p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_252_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_252_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]
Xileno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for xylene. The liquid and its vapours are flammable. Ingestion is harmful and can lead to death. Xylene is a central nervous system depressor. Inhalation results in nasal and pharyngeal mucous membrane irritation and at high concentrations, causes nausea, vomiting, migraine, tinnitus and severe respiratory disorders. Ingestion can cause irritation of the oral cavity and the stomach. Reflux of low amounts into the lungs can cause chemical pneumonia, with severe and possibly fatal lung damage. Contact with the skin causes degreasing and can often give rise to characteristic dermatitis. Xylene is absorbed through the skin. Eye contact causes irritation. Repeated exposure to vapours can cause reversible eye damage and haematopoietic effects. Chronic effects include migraine, tremors, nervousness, skin roughness and liver and renal damage.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2006]. 4p. Illus.
Falcy M., Reygagne A.
Halogen derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons. Chloronaphthalenes
Dérivés halogénés d'hydrocarbures aromatiques. Chloronaphtalènes [in French]
This article reviews the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of a group of organic substances consisting of aromatic rings where one or several hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens. Some chloronaphthalenes are widely used in occupational settings (chemical synthesis) and in commonly-used products (paints, perfumes and deodorants). Toxicological properties vary from product to product, but generally involve irritation or neurotoxicity. Systemic effects (hepatoxicity, porphyria, renal or haematological damage) are discussed in detail for the most common products. Finally, where known, the specific effects (mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and reprotoxicity) are described.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.151, 20p. Illus. 156 ref.
Chalbot M.C., Vei I., Lykoudis S., Kavouras I.G.
Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations
The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the various steps of paper manufacture. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8 to 41.4ng/m3) and the mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons were measured in all samples, while n-alkanes from n-C220l to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (180.6 to 4297.9ng/m3). Total benzo[α]pyrene-equivalent concentrations of particulate PAHs, which varied from 323 up to 1104pg/m3, provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs, posing a long-term threat to their health.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.2, p.742-751. Illus. 49 ref.
Sińczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M., Aniołczyk H., Brzeźnicki S., Raźniewska G., Trzcinka-Ochocka M., Matczak W.
The effect of combined exposure to chemical and physical factors on the nervous system during aluminium production: A preliminary finding
Skutki zdrowotne w układzie nerwowym łącznego narażenia na czynniki chemiczne i fizyczne podczas produkcji aluminium: Doniesienie wstępne [in Polish]
Medical examinations were carried out on 39 male workers exposed to aluminium dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and magnetic fields during aluminium production. Clinical symptoms, such as headache (46.2%), increased emotional irritability (66.7%), concentration difficulty (25.6%), insomnia (30.8%), hypersomnia (15.4%), and mood lability (10.3%) predominated among functional disorders of the nervous system in workers chronically exposed to chemical and physical factors. Objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous system. In EEG recordings classified as abnormal, paroxysmal changes were most common (20.5%).
Medycyna pracy, 2006, Vol.57, No.1, p.7-13. 28 ref.
Iavicoli I., Carelli G., Bergamaschi A.
Exposure evaluation to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an Italian airport
The aim of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biphenyl in an Italian airport. In winter 2005, 12 air samples were taken at 120L/min during 24h in three different areas of the airport. PAH levels were found to be generally low. In all investigated areas, the highest concentrations were found for naphthalene (130-13,050ng/m3), followed by 2-methylnaphthalene (64-28,500ng/m3), 1-methylnaphthalene (24-35,300ng/m3), and biphenyl (24-1610ng/m3). However, in some instances, the levels found for benzo[i+j+k]fluoranthenes and benzo[α]pyrene, two high-boiling PAHs, (54.2ng/m3 and 8.6ng/m3, respectively) are a cause of concern.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.815-822. 32 ref.
Colman R., Coleman A.
Unexpected cause of raised benzene absorption in coke oven by-product workers
Urinary biological monitoring for benzene (by measuring benzene metabolites) in coke oven by-product workers produced the unexpected result that two out of ten employees had significantly raised urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid. However, simultaneous personal air sampling showed no excessive airborne exposure. Possible causes for this finding were investigated having excluded inhalation as the route of uptake. It was suspected that skin absorption via contaminated overalls was the possible mechanism and a standard frequency for overall change was introduced. It was found that changing overalls after every four shifts reduced uptake levels to less than the equivalent of the 1ppm inhaled dose for all employees. It is concluded that skin absorption of benzene from contaminated overalls in coke oven by-product workers can be significant and therefore overalls should be changed on a regular and frequent basis.
Occupational Medicine, June 2006, Vol.56, No.4, p.269-271. 4 ref.
Wu M.T., et al.
Sperm DNA damage correlates with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biomarker in coke-oven workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in men has an adverse effect on semen quality. Forty-eight coke-oven workers, including 16 topside-oven workers and 32 side-oven workers, were studied. Ambient PAHs exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels and parameters of semen quality were determined. Findings are discussed. A potential risk of sperm dysfunction should be considered for workers occupationally exposed to high levels of PAHs. Cigarette smoking may aggravate this risk. Urinary 1-OHP was found to be a useful a biomarker for predicting sperm dysfunction.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2006, Vol.79, No.5, p.349-356. Illus. 41 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/fx70q8u68g494803/fulltext.pdf [in English]
2-Methylnaphthalene: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
2-Metylonaftalen: Dokumentacja dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
2-Methylnaphthalene (2-MN) is a white solid that evaporates easily. It is used with 1-methylnaphthalene to make other chemicals such as dyes, resins, leather tanning agents and insecticides. It is also a component of many commonly used commercial solvent mixtures. 2-MN can enter the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. The substance is irritating to the eyes, the skin and mucous membranes. In animal experiments, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) was set at 87.5 mg/kg and a maximum exposure limit (MAC) for humans was established as 25 mg/m3. Because of the irritant effect, the MAC-STEL value was established at 50 mg/m3. The notations I (irritation) and Sk (skin absorption) should also be included.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2006, Vol.47, No.1, p.185-204. Illus. 31 ref.
Mortality of workers employed in shoe manufacturing: An update
This study investigated the mortality of a cohort 7828 workers employed one month or more between 1940 and 1979 at one of two shoe manufacturing plants where a 1982 study revealed increased lung cancer mortality. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1999. An excess of lung cancer deaths persisted with additional years of follow-up (standardized mortality ratio SMR=1.36). There was no indication of a positive trend between lung cancer risk and duration of employment. Mortality from leukaemia was not significantly elevated in the updated analysis. It is concluded that there is a possible association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to chronic, low-levels of toluene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.535-546. 60 ref.
Lawton B.W., Hoffmann J., Triebig G.
The ototoxicity of styrene: A review of occupational investigations
Seven occupational studies dealing with the ototoxicity of styrene were analysed. Factors assessed included the experimental design, measurement of the styrene-in-air concentration, confirmation of styrene exposure by blood or urine analysis, determination of hearing threshold levels and measurement of noise at the workplace. Findings are equivocal. Four investigations failed to find any effect of styrene on hearing thresholds. In contrast, other investigations claimed to have demonstrated styrene-induced hearing loss in industrial populations, with synergism between styrene and noise. However, these reports exhibited shortcomings of experimental design and data analysis. Considering the body of evidence as a whole, hearing deficits due to occupational exposure to styrene at low concentrations have not been demonstrated by scientifically reliable argument.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2006, Vol.79, No.2, p.93-102. Illus. 23 ref.
Toppila E., Forsman P., Pyykkö I., Starck J., Tossavainen T., Uitti J., Oksa P.
Effect of styrene on postural stability among reinforced plastic boat plant workers in Finland
Many substances are vestibulotoxic and may impair balance. Styrene is both ototoxic and neurotoxic, but its effect on balance has been little studied. This study evaluated the effect of exposure to low concentrations of styrene on balance among Finnish manufacturers of fibreglass-reinforced plastic boats. Postural stability and urinary mandelic acid concentrations were determined for 252 male employees. Postural stability was evaluated by means of force platform and photographic recording. Individual exposure to styrene in the breathing zone was measured for 148 workers. It was found that the postural stability of laminators was worse than that of other workers. This impairment was observed already in young workers, and tended to worsen with age.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.175-180. Illus. 26 ref.
González-Yebra A.L., Kornhauser C., Wrobel K., Pérez-Luque E.L., Barbosa G.
Occupational exposure to toluene and its possible causative role in renal damage development in shoe workers
Many shoe workers in Leon, Mexico, are in continuous contact with toluene-based glues. The objective of this case-control study involving 50 toluene-exposed shoe workers and 25 control subjects was to evaluate the relationship between toluenel exposure and renal damage. Urinary o-cresol excretion was used as a measure of toluene exposure. Urinary albumin excretion and N-acetyl-Β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) enzymatic activity were tested to assess renal dysfunction. Urinary o-cresol levels were higher in exposed subjects. Albumin excretion was similar in the exposed and control groups. NAG enzymatic activity was greater in the exposed group compared to the control group (3.5 U/g vs 1.9 U/g creatinine). An inverse relationship was found between schooling years and the NAG enzymatic activity for the two studied groups. The findings support the hypothesis that toluene may be a factor associated with the presence of renal damage in exposed shoe workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.259-264. Illus. 27 ref.
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