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Halogenated hydrocarbons - 1,937 entries found

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  • Halogenated hydrocarbons

2011

CIS 12-0156 Lipworth L., Sonderman J.S., Mumma M.T., Tarone R.E., Marano D.E., Boice J.D, McLaughlin J.K.
Cancer mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers - An extended follow-up
In this extended cancer follow-up among 77,943 aircraft workers, comprehensive exposure information enabled detailed classification of trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), mixed solvents and chromate exposures. Exposure to TCE, PCE, mixed solvents or chromates was not associated with increased cancer risk overall or for most cancer sites. Elevated rates compared with the general population were seen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma for PCE exposure, and colon and testicular cancers and multiple myeloma for mixed solvents exposure. Internal cohort analyses, however, showed no significant trends of increasing risk for these cancers with increasing years of exposure to TCE, PCE or mixed solvents. This large, long-term cohort study with comprehensive exposure assessment found no consistent evidence of increased cancer risk overall or by site among aircraft workers, including those with long-term exposure to TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.992-1007. 33 ref.
Cancer_mortality_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

2010

CIS 11-0543 Constans Aubert A., Solórzano Fàbrega M.
Protection of the ozone layer: Legal aspects
Protección de la capa de ozono: aspectos legales [in Spanish]
This technical note summarizes European Union legislation relative to the protection of the ozone layer directly applicable to Spain, namely Regulation EC/1005/2009 of 16 September 2009 on substances that deplete the ozone layer. Contents: introduction; EC/1005/2009 regulations; health hazards; legal provisions.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 17 ref.
NTP_874.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0697 Gérardin F., Subra I., Jannot J., Blachère V., Oury V., Guillemot M.
Production of phosgene and other compounds during photocatalytic degradation of perchloroethylene at dry cleaners
Production de phosgène et autres composés lors de la dégradation photocatalytique du perchloroéthylène dans les pressings [in French]
Perchloroethylene remains the solvent most commonly used at dry cleaners due to its advantageous physical chemical properties and its neutrality with respect to most textiles. Vapour collection systems is currently still the preferred solution for controlling operator exposure in this sector. However, a new generation of photocatalytic purifiers has recently appeared on the market. This technology is based on the principle of oxidizing compounds by a radical process. In the case of perchloroethylene, photocatalytic degradation leads to formation of extremely toxic compounds such as phosgene, trichloroacetyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid. Identified during laboratory experiments, these substances were also measured in significant quantities at a commercial dry cleaner. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.43-51. Illus. 14 ref.
ND_2335-220-10.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0602 Dupas D., François A., François F.
Fluoroalkanes
Fluoroalcanes [in French]
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons have progressively replaced chlorofluorocarbons as refrigerants and in numerous industrial applications, before being themselves supplanted by hydroflurocarbons. While chlorofluorocarbons were non-toxic to humans, their replacement by hydrochlorofluorocarbons has raised the possibility of poisonings in industrial settings. Accidental situations can give rise to acute effects, which besides anoxia consist essentially of cardiac arrhythmia. Several cases of hepatitis have been reported in occupational settings, mainly involving dichlorofluoromethane. Although practically devoid of human toxicity, hydroflurocarbons have in turn been severely regulated by the European Union in 2006 as part of the effort to limit greenhouse gases. This review article on fluoroalkanes addresses their physical and chemical properties, sources of exposure in occupational settings and toxicology, as well as the medical supervision of exposed workers and French, European and international regulations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 4th Quarter 2010, No.169, 11p. 25 ref.

2009

CIS 09-1302 Hsiao P.K., Lin Y.C., Shih T.S., Chiung Y.M.
Effects of occupational exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene on hematologic, kidney, and liver functions
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) on kidney, liver and haematological functions of workers in insect repellent factories in Taiwan. It involved 46 exposed workers and 29 non-exposed workers. Health information was collected using questionnaires and biochemical tests. The concentration of urinary 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), the major metabolite of 1,4-DCB, was analyzed by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Exposed workers had higher urinary 2,5-DCP concentrations (105.38µg/L) than controls (1.08µg/L). Exposure to 1,4-DCB also increased the white blood cell count and serum alanine aminotransferase level. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2009, Vol.82, No.9, p.1077-1085. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1228 Dai Y., Leng S., Li L., Niu Y., Huang H., Liu Q., Duan H., Cheng J., Zheng Y.
Effects of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase on trichloroethylene-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis among exposed workers
This case-control study was conducted to investigate effects of various genotypes and phenotypes of N-acetyltransferases (NATs) on individual susceptibility to trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced hypersensitivity dermatitis. The study involved 111 patients with hypersensitivity dermatitis and 154 healthy TCE-exposed workers. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the polymorphic sites of NATs. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.479-486. 41 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_5_479.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1297 Romeo L., Catalani S., Pasini F., Bergonzi R., Perbellini L., Apostoli P.
Xenobiotic action on steroid hormone synthesis and sulfonation - The example of lead and polychlorinated biphenyls
This study investigated the metabolism of steroid hormones to determine whether and how xenobiotics such as lead (Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interfere with steroid hormone biotransformation in humans. Three groups of subjects were tested for urinary steroids: 14 workers exposed to lead, 15 workers exposed to PCBs and an unexposed control group of 25 subjects. Findings suggest PCBs and Pb act on steroid hormone metabolism with different effects and only partially using the same hormone pathways.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2009, Vol.82, No.5, p.557-564. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 09-1050 Wen-Bin M., Wei W., Yu-Lan Q., Fang J., Zhao-Lin X.
Micronucleus occurrence related to base excision repair gene polymorphisms in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer
This study examines whether base excision repair gene polymorphisms contributes to susceptibility of chromosomal damage induced by vinyl chloride. The cytokinesis block micronucleus test was performed on 185 vinyl chloride exposed workers to detect chromosomal changes in peripheral lymphocytes. The PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was applied to detect polymorphisms of TDG, PARP1 and APE1 genes. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. Findings are discussed. Vinyl chloride exposed workers carrying TDG 199Gly/Ser + Ser/Ser genotypes were found to be highly susceptible to chromosomal damage. A combination of TDG Gly199Ser and APE1 Ile64Val polymorphisms may modify the risk of chromosomal damage.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.578-585. 43 ref.

CIS 09-1127 van Amelsvoort L.G.P.M., Slangen J.J.M., Tsai S.P., de Jong G., Kant I.
Cancer mortality in workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: Over 50 years of follow up
Dieldrin and aldrin, two pesticides widely used until the 1970s, have been under suspicion of being carcinogenic. In this study, mortality was assessed in a cohort of 570 production employees exposed to these pesticides from 1954 to 1970 followed for cause-specific mortality until 2006. The total intake of dieldrin was estimated for each individual subject in the cohort based on blood samples taken during the exposure period. A total of 226 workers had died before 2006 compared with an expected number of 327.3, giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 69.0. Overall cancer mortality was also significantly lower than expected (SMR 76.4). Furthermore, none of the specific cancer sites showed a significant excess mortality and no association between exposure level and cancer mortality was found.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.217-225. 29 ref.

CIS 09-885 Xu X., Yang R., Wu N, Zhong P., Ke Y., Zhou L., Yuan J., Li G., Huang H, Wu B.
Severe hypersensitivity dermatitis and liver dysfunction induced by occupational exposure to trichloroethylene
This study examines trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced dermatitis in 21 patients and investigates their occupational exposure as well as their clinical features. TCE concentrations in the workplace air were also monitored. Additionally, the symptoms, signs and laboratory test results of patients were collected. TCE concentrations in the cleaning agent used in the industries in which the patients worked varied from 10.2% to 91.4% by gas chromatography-mass chromatography analysis, and TCE levels in the workplace air ranged between 18 and 683 mg/m3. Most patients had symptoms such as headache (90.5%), dizziness (100%), skin itch (100%), fever (61.9%), skin erythema (85.7%) and rashes (90.5%). In addition, liver enlargement occurred in 3 patients; the abnormal rate of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin were 90.5%, 85.7% and 76.2%, respectively. Taken together, the major detrimental effect of trichloroethylene was to induce hypersensitivity dermatitis and liver dysfunction, the occurrence of this disorder being most likely related to the individual hypersensitivity to TCE exposure.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.107-112. Illus. 33 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/107/_pdf/-char/ja/ [in English]

2008

CIS 09-1126 Radican L., Blair A., Stewart P., Wartenberg D.
Mortality of aircraft maintenance workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons and chemicals: Extended follow-up
The objective of this study was to extend the follow-up of 14,455 aircraft maintenance workers from 1990 to 2000, and evaluate mortality risk from exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chemicals. Multivariable Cox models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) for exposed versus unexposed workers. Among TCE-exposed workers, there was no statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.04) or death from all cancers (RR 1.03). Some significant excesses were found for several chemical exposure subgroups and causes. However, interpretation is difficult due to the small numbers of events for specific exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1306-1319. 34 ref.

CIS 09-1100 Gold L.S., De Roos A.J., Waters M., Stewart P.
Systematic literature review of uses and levels of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene
This literature survey on occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene identified 179 documents containing useful descriptive information. Mean exposures are given for several sectors including dry cleaning and machining. Several other sources of tetrachloroethylene exposure are identified, including cleaning mining equipment, testing coal, cleaning animal coats in taxidermy and cleaning film. These results will be useful in population-based, case-control studies for quantifying tetrachloroethylene exposure levels for various jobs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.807-839. 180 ref.

CIS 09-1096 Seldén A.I., Lundholm C., Johansson N., Wingfors H.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), thyroid hormones and cytokines in construction workers removing old elastic sealants
The objective of this study was to estimate the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) level among workers specialized in PCB abatement in buildings and to measure possible effects of PCBs on their thyroid function and immune system. Thirty six workers removing old elastic sealants containing PCBs and 33 control construction workers unexposed to PCBs provided blood samples. The PCB exposed group was reinvestigated after 10 months for a trend assessment. The concentrations of PCB congeners from the exposed group were twice those of controls (580 vs. 260 ng/g lipid). No statistically significant increase in overall PCB levels was observed in the abatement workers at follow-up and some congeners even declined, suggesting that the high concentrations were essentially due to historical exposures. Thyroid function was not associated with PCB exposure. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.99-106. 29 ref.

CIS 09-884 Müller M., Bode M., Behrendt B., Dillmann U., Fassbender K., Buchter A.
Chronic diseases due to perchloroethene - Clinical picture and course
Chronische Erkrankungen durch Perchlorethen - Klinisches Bild und Verlauf [in German]
The medical files of ten patients who developed a chronic-toxic encephalopathy (stage III for eight patients and stage II b for two patients) and other diseases as a result of exposure to perchloroethene were examined. The follow-up conducted after 15 years did not show any significant improvements of the deficits. On the contrary, despite the fact that exposure had ceased, progressive worsening was observed, three patients having died soon after the beginning of the follow-up. Hence, the progress of chronic-toxic encephalopathy is most likely even after the cessation of exposure.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.4-19. 48 ref.

CIS 09-659
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 1,3-Butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide)
This volume re-evaluates the available evidence on the carcinogenic potential of 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). Ethylene oxide is widely used as a sterilizing agent for hospital equipment. The largest single use for 1,3-butadiene is in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber for tyres, while vinyl chloride is primarily used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. Summary of final evaluations: ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene and vinyl chloride are classified in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans); vinyl bromide is classified in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), while there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of vinyl fluoride in humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2008. ix, 510p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol97/mono97.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-142 Cocco P., Brennan P., Ibba A., de Sanjosé Llongueras S., Maynadié M., Nieters A., Becker N., Ennas M.G., Tocco M.G., Boffetta P.
Plasma polychlorobiphenyl and organochlorine pesticide level and risk of major lymphoma subtypes
There is conflicting epidemiological evidence concerning the relationship between the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and plasma levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The concentration of 17 OC pesticides was measured in the plasma samples of 174 NHL cases and 203 controls from France, Germany and Spain. The risk of NHL and its major subtypes associated with increasing blood levels of OC pesticides and PCBs was calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Findings are discussed. Overall, there was no evidence of an association between NHL risk and plasma levels of OC pesticides and PCBs.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.132-140. 35 ref.

2007

CIS 09-1133 Raymond L.W., Ford M.D.
Severe illness in furniture makers using a new glue: 1-Bromopropane toxicity confounded by arsenic
All four workers working with a new glue in a furniture factory were hospitalized following severe flu-like symptoms, which persisted three months later. Milder symptoms persisted in two workers eight years after their initial illnesses. Both have returned to work, while follow-up was unavailable for the other two workers. All available clinical records were reviewed. All four workers had high concentrations of serum bromide after exposure to glue containing 1-bromopropane (1-BP). All also had elevated urinary arsenic concentrations, the source of which remains unknown, but which confound interpretation of the abnormal bromide levels and clinical findings present during the acute illnesses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1009-1019. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 09-116 Bakke B., Stewart P.A., Waters M.A.
Uses of and exposure to trichloroethylene in U.S. industry: A systematic literature review
This literature survey examined industrial hygiene literature for reports of exposures to trichloroethylene (TCE). The collected information was systematized according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system codes, and used to build a database for future use in epidemiological studies on brain cancer. TCE use was extensive from the early 1920s through the 1970s mainly as a degreasing agent in metal-fabricating operations. After the 1970s it became less popular because of environmental concerns. TCE historically has had a multitude of uses in many other industries, including dry cleaning, textiles, electronics, leather and rubber. Also, many products such as adhesives, drugs, paints, inks and various industrial products have contained TCE. The arithmetic mean of the exposures across all industries and decades was 38.2ppm. The highest personal and area air levels were reported in vapor degreasing (44.6ppm).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.375-390. 175 ref.

CIS 09-113 Grevenkamp A.
OSHA compliance issues - Overexposure and control of methylene chloride in a furniture stripping operation
This OSHA inspection reports on a case of overexposure to methylene chloride in a small business involved in furniture repair and restoration employing 18 workers. The exposure occurred in a section of the establishment where a single employee worked three to four days per week removing paint and varnish from furniture by spraying methylene chloride. Personal sampling found short-term exposures and 8h TWA levels of 285-662ppm and 108ppm respectively, compared to permissible levels of 125ppm and 25ppm respectively. Recommendations included modifications in equipment design and local exhaust. Subsequent samplings showed drastic reductions in exposure levels which were well within permissible levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.D39-D41. 4 ref.

CIS 08-1392 Attarchi M.S., Aminian O., Dolati M., Mazaheri M.
Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: A cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of mild to moderate long-term exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) on the liver, and to assess the suitability of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool for these effects. Liver enzyme levels of 52 exposed workers were compared to 48 unexposed controls. Cases worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex in Iran, and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. Both groups answered a questionnaire on personal factors and work history. There were statistically-significant differences between cases and controls in ALP and GGT; there were also differences in AST, ALT and bilirubin, but this difference was not statistically significant. Mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis; cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in the regular monitoring of liver function among PVC production workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Aug. 2007, Vol.2, No.6, 6p. 26 ref.

CIS 08-759
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary Reports XII (Nos. 39, 62, 67, 150, 151, 180,181, 194, 206)
Ergänzungsbericht XII [in German]
This document included translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1986 and May 1997, relating to nine substances or groups of substances (naphthalene, hexachlorobutadiene, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, chloracetic acid methyl ester, chloracetic acid ethyl ester, C10-C21-alkane sulfonic acids, phenyl esters, chloroalkane sulfonic acids, sodium salts, 3-methyl-2-butenal and surfactants) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Irritant effects and contact allergy in humans are reported respectively for methyl chloroacetate and ethyl chloroacetate.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 95p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.

CIS 08-767
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for heptachlor (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards may include hepatic disorders and neurotoxic effects. However, insufficient data are available on the harmful health effects of these substances. IARC has classified heptachlor in group 2B (possible human carcinogen). (Update of CIS 96-2226).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 158p. Illus. Approx. 320 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp12.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-645 Poirot P., Lecler M.T., Galland B., Hubert-Pelle G., Nicot T., Grosjean J.
Profiles of perchloroethylene exposure in dry cleaning services
Profils d'exposition au perchloroéthylène dans le secteur du nettoyage à sec [in French]
This article describes the current situation with respect to the concentrations of perchloroethylene to which workers of dry cleaning services are exposed. Average exposure ranges between 25 and 60ppm in industrial dry cleaning services and approximately 10ppm in retail services. The use of direct reading instruments such as photoionization detectors which can be carried by workers enabled the highlighting of multiple exposure peaks of up to 1000ppm, especially when opening machine hatches or performing special operations on the equipment. Overall, 80% of exposure profiles feature at least one peak equal to or greater than 100ppm during one minute or more, with a clear prevalence in industrial dry cleaning services. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.43-58. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202280/$File/ND2280.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-394 González Ruiz T., Calvo Sáez J.A.
Teamwork - Electrical equipment containing PCBs - Transformers and condensers
Trabajos en equipos - Eléctricos con PCBs - Transformadores y condensadores [in Spanish]
This article discusses the current situation in Spain with respect to the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a dielectric fluid in transformers and condensers. Contents: brief review of the basic principles of transformers; properties, toxicity and risks associated with PCBs; safety standards for storage, emergency plans, fires, spills and first aid; current Spanish regulations; current operation of transformers and condensers containing PCBs, and the regulations concerning their substitution.
Prevención, July-Sep. 2007, No.181, p.44-59. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 08-2 Decree No.2007-1083 of 10 July 2007 updating and completing occupational disease table No.12 appended to book IV of the law on social security [France]
Décret n° 2007-1083 du 10 juillet 2007 révisant et complétant le tableau n° 12 des maladies professionnelles annexé au livre IV du code de la sécurité sociale [France] [in French]
This French decree of 10 July 2007 consists of a complete overhaul of occupational disease table No.12, concerning diseases caused by certain halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The decree specifically updates the list of chemicals and diseases concerned, together with the lag times for compensation.
Secrétariat général du Gouvernement, Hôtel de Matignon, 57 rue de Varenne, 75007 Paris, France, 2007. Internet document (PDF format). 2p.
http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/imagesJOE/2007/0712/joe_20070712_0160_0012.pdf [in French]

2006

CIS 12-0032
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of July 2004: 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene can be absorbed orally, dermally and by inhalation. In the rat, the oral LD50 is about 200 mg/kg and the dermal LD50 84 mg/kg. In general, the symptoms after acute 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene uptake are staggering, spasms, tremor, accelerated respiration or breathing sounds. Oral administration of 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene also leads to the formation of methemoglobin and Heinz bodies, whereas dermal administration causes cyanosis. Investigations are lacking on the toxicity after repeated uptake. After an exposure period of 15 minutes, undiluted 2,4-difluoronitrobenzene does not irritate the skin. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is slightly irritating to the rabbit eye. Studies on the allergenic effect are not available. Considering the structural similarity to such substances as 3-chloro-2,4-difluoronitrobenzene, a sensitizing potential cannot be ruled out. Data are not available on the reproductive toxicity. Against the backdrop of the fertility-damaging effects of other nitro-aromatics, an effect on the reproductive capacity cannot be excluded. 2,4-Difluoronitrobenzene is positive in the mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium. No other investigations are available on the in vitro or in vivo genotoxicity in mammalian cells or on the carcinogenic potential. However a carcinogenic potential cannot be ruled out, considering the similarity to other nitro-aromatics. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiv, 27p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 36.00.
BUA_Report_252_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_252_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1010
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include neurotoxic effects and liver damage. The substance is not classifiable with regard to its carcinogenicity to humans (IARC Group 3). (Update of CIS 97-217).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 194p. Illus. Approx. 400 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp93.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1007
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for dichloropropenes - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of dicholoropropenes is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. IARC has classified 1,3-dicloropropene as being possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 282p. Illus. Approx. 380 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp40.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-255 Chlorobenzene
Clorobenceno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for chlorobenzene. Inhalation causes irritation of the respiratory airways with cough and breathing difficulties, with possible effects on the central nervous system (vertigo, coordination difficulties and loss of consciousness). Ingestion causes an irritation of the gastrointestinal tract with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Ingestion can lead to systemic poisoning with symptoms similar to those caused by inhalation. Vapours can cause eye irritation, and spills can result in serious irritation and with possible corneal injury. Skin absorption is slow and can cause systemic effects. Skin contact is irritating (rash, itching). Prolonged exposure can lead to dermatitis or skin burns, together with hepatic, renal or lung damage.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2006]. 4p. Illus.

CIS 08-325 Mandel J.H., Kelsh M.A., Mink P.J., Alexander D.D., Kalmes R.M., Weingart M., Yost L., Goodman M.
Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A meta-analysis and review
This literature survey of 14 occupational cohort and four case-control studies of workers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) was carried out to investigate the relation between TCE exposure and the risk of nonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Interpretation is hampered by variability in results across the studies, limited exposure assessments, lack of evidence of exposure response trends, lack of supportive information from toxicological and mechanistic data, and an absence of consistent findings of exposure and NHL. Overall, there is insufficient evidence to suggest a causal link between TCE exposure and NHL.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.63, No.9, p.597-607. 88 ref.

CIS 08-176 Falcy M., Reygagne A.
Halogen derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons. Chloronaphthalenes
Dérivés halogénés d'hydrocarbures aromatiques. Chloronaphtalènes [in French]
This article reviews the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of a group of organic substances consisting of aromatic rings where one or several hydrogen atoms are replaced by halogens. Some chloronaphthalenes are widely used in occupational settings (chemical synthesis) and in commonly-used products (paints, perfumes and deodorants). Toxicological properties vary from product to product, but generally involve irritation or neurotoxicity. Systemic effects (hepatoxicity, porphyria, renal or haematological damage) are discussed in detail for the most common products. Finally, where known, the specific effects (mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and reprotoxicity) are described.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.151, 20p. Illus. 156 ref.

CIS 08-175 Bard D.
Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques halogénés [in French]
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or "Seveso dioxin" is the most toxic of all halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dioxins, together with similar families of products including polychlorodibenzofuranes (PCDFs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) have been grouped together to yield a single numerical value called the "toxic equivalent quantity" (TEQ) to characterize the potential toxicity of any environment where these congeneric substances are found. Non-carcinogenic effects are very diverse, the most reported and specific appearing at high doses. TCDD has been classified as a carcinogenic to humans in 1997. All persons are exposed daily to very low doses of dioxins, essentially through the ingestion of food. The form of the dose-response relationship for cancer remains uncertain. Several chemical industry worker cohort studies have yielded information allowing the modelling of the relationship, but the findings remain open to various interpretations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2006, No.153, 7p. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 08-142 Baur X., Yu F., Poschadel B., Veldman W., Knol-De Vos T.
Health risks by bromomethane and other toxic gases in import cargo ship containers
Containers are increasingly used for the worldwide transport of all kinds of goods. Consistent with national and international regulations on pest controls, a growing proportion of these containers undergoes fumigation. Frequently, the prescribed labelling is missing, leading to accidents and a significant health risk to dock workers, inspectors and custom workers. Furthermore, contact with these toxic fumigants such as bromomethane can also occur among warehouse workers and even among final consumers of the transported goods. The consequences of container fumigation should always be carefully weighed up, and alternatives such as heat treatment or atmospheres with reduced oxygen should be considered whenever possible. Finally, the compliance with international regulations should be strictly controlled and sanctions should be considered if IMO's recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships are not followed.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.46-55. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-511 Trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) (CAS No. 420-46-2)
Conclusions of this criteria document: a preliminary report on a human volunteer toxicokinetic study did not indicate any adverse effect in individuals exposed to 500 ppm for 2 hours; animal experiments indicate a low acute toxicity. In the USA an occupational exposure limit (8hr time-weighted average) of 1,000 ppm is recommended by the American Industrial hygiene Association.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 2006. 52p. 59 ref.

CIS 07-507 Kielhorn J., Schmidt S., Mangelsdorf I., Howe P.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Heptachlor
This criteria document on heptachlor is an update of an earlier edition published in 1984 (see CIS 86-221). Heptachlor is a persistent chemical and accumulates in the food chain. It was widely used as an insecticide. Although banned in many countries since the 1980s, it is still detected as a contaminant in some food commodities. Heptachlor is readily absorbed following ingestion and skin contact. Animal studies have shown the product to be neurotoxic. It is carcinogenic in mice but not in rats. A tolerable daily intake of 0.1µg/kg of body weight has been derived from experimental studies. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. v, 74p. Illus. Approx. 330 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad70.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-506 Watts P.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Tetrachloroethene
Conclusions of this criteria document on tetrachloroethene (tetrachloroethylene): the product is irritating to human and rabbit skin. Vapours were found to be irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract of exposed volunteers. In laboratory animals, acute inhalation and oral toxicities were low. There are reports of central nervous system depression, dizziness, fatigue, loss of coordination, coma and liver damage in humans accidentally exposed to high concentrations by inhalation. The product is clearly carcinogenic in laboratory animals, causing liver tumours in mice. However, it does not appear to be genotoxic or mutagenic. Data on reprotoxic effects are insufficient and inconclusive. A tolerable concentration of 0.2mg/m3 and a tolerable daily intake of 50µg/kg of body weight were derived based on neurotoxicity. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. v, 115p. Illus. Approx. 500 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad68.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-113 Hofmann J., Guardado J., Keifer M., Wesseling C.
Mortality among a cohort of banana plantation workers in Costa Rica
The nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP, Nemagon), widely used in Costa Rica during the late 1960s and 1970s, causes sterility in men and is a possible carcinogen. Mortality among a cohort of Costa Rican banana plantation workers was investigated. The cohort included 40,959 individuals who worked on banana plantations between 1972 and 1979. Employment records were linked with the Costa Rican Mortality Registry to determine outcomes through 1999. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all causes of death. Poisson regression was also used to calculate mortality risk estimates by duration of employment, but provided no additional insight. All-causes SMRs were 0.77 for men (95% CI 0.75-0.80) and 0.90 for women (95% CI 0.80-1.02) relative to national mortality rates. Mortality from septicaemia was significantly higher than expected. Nonsignificant increases in mortality were also observed for testicular cancer, penile cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and Parkinson's disease in men, and for cervical cancer and lung cancer in women.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.321-328. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Hofmann.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-1400 Maroni M., Fanetti A.C.
Liver function assessment in workers exposed to vinyl chloride
A medical examination including liver function tests (LFTs) and liver ultrasonography was carried out in a group of 757 workers with long-standing service in the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in four production plants in Italy. Cumulative and maximum VCM exposures were calculated. Possible histories of viral hepatitis and alcohol intake habits of subjects were carefully investigated. Regression analysis explored the association between abnormal LFTs and a group of possible determinants. Results indicate that liver function assessment only (including LFTs) is not able to detect VCM-induced liver damage, but reveals alterations due to non-occupational factors, such as dietary and/or metabolic dysfunctions. The LFTs are however of importance in detecting conditions that indicate the need to avoid VCM exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.79, No.1, p.57-65. 17 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/j110530u28817775/fulltext.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-900 Ben Mansour H., Miled S., Hidri A., Ben Laiba M.
Exposure to methyl bromide
L'exposition au bromure de méthyle [in French]
Methyl bromide is a pesticide used in Tunisia as a fumigation agent for the preservation of dates. It is estimated that around 10,000 persons working in the date packaging sector are potentially exposed to this substance. This article summarizes the physical and chemical properties of methyl bromide, its metabolism and toxicity, and its effects on health (neurotoxic effects, peripheral neuropathies, hepatic disorders), together with preventive measures, medical supervision and the compensation of occupational diseases due to exposure to the substance.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2006, No.36, p.33-35. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 06-517 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) (CAS No.811-97-2) (Second edition)
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) is a colourless, non-flammable gas that is mainly used to replace hydrochlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The toxicity of HFC-134a is extremely low in experimental animals and no adverse health effects in humans have been reported. Animal experiments also suggest that the substance does not present a carcinogenic risk to humans at any foreseeable levels of exposure.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Ave. E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2nd ed., Jan. 2006. v, 74p. 136 ref.

2005

CIS 08-1146 Reducing worker exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning
This guide provides information on the health hazards and current regulations, as well as recommendations on methods for reducing worker exposures to perchloroethylene (PERC). It also provides information on training, personal protective equipment, and some of the new technologies available in the dry cleaning industry. Contents: health hazards on prolonged exposure (mild neurotoxic effects, namely dizziness, loss of coordination; loss of memory, visual perception, and reaction time; redness and blistering of the skin after prolonged dermal contact); PERC exposure; current regulations and recommendations; machine design and maintenance; ventilation; personal protective equipment, work practices and training; PERC air monitoring; OSHA assistance services; case studies. Appendices include recommended maintenance schedules for dry cleaning machines and the international chemical safety card for tetrachloroethylene.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2005. 25p. Illus.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3253.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-1264 Gribble M.
Vinylidene fluoride (CAS No. 75-38-7)
Conclusions of this criteria document on vinylidene fluoride (VDF): VDF has low acute and chronic toxicity in laboratory animals. It is not genotoxic either in vitro or in vivo. Although rats developed carcinomas in a one-year oral study, subsequent lifetime inhalation studies in rats and mice showed no adverse effects at high doses. It is therefore unlikely that VDF has significant long-term toxic or carcinogenic properties. VDF has no effects on rat fertility or reproduction. A teratology study did not indicate any embryotoxic, foetotoxic or teratogenic effects at high concentrations. There are no data on the effects of human exposure. The ACGIH has established a threshold limit value of 500ppm or 1300mg/m3.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 2005. 54p. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 06-1004 Methylene chloride
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. Synonym: dichloromethane. Overall, the toxicity of methylene chloride in humans appears to be restricted to depression of the central nervous system and CO-Hb formation that are seen if large amounts of methylene chloride are inhaled. Exposure to higher concentrations can lead to narcosis and sometimes death, as observed following excessive inhalation of methylene chloride without adequate ventilation. Deaths have also been reported following accidental ingestion. Therefore, the risk to humans from methylene chloride will depend on the level of exposure to the chemical. An exposure standard (50ppm (NOHSC 1995, 8h TWA: 50ppm = 174mg/m3) exists for methylene chloride in Australia for workers.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2005. 6p. 7 ref.
http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/Information_Sheets/Existing_Chemical_Information_Sheets/ECIS_Methylenechloride_PDF.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-656 Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I.
UV process: Chloroform and nitrogen trichloride level monitoring in indoor swimming pool waters
Traitement UV: suivi de l'évolution des concentrations en chloroforme et en trichlorure d'azote dans les eaux de baignade d'un centre aquatique [in French]
Faced with high levels of supervisory staff exposure to nitrogen trichloride and high levels of combined chlorine in pool water, indoor swimming pool operators increasingly adopt additional water treatment systems based on UV irradiation. This technology results in the formation of undesired by-products such as chloroform (an IARC class 2B carcinogen). For eight weeks, INRS monitored chloroform and nitrogen trichloride concentrations in water from two pools equipped with low and medium pressure lamps respectively. This study revealed the significant contribution of UV irradiation to chloroform formation and to the possible increase of dissolved nitrogen trichloride.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.19-30. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/9FCD3307BCB91167412570D8004C447A/$FILE/nd2237.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-643 Wallace G.M.F., Brown P.H.
Horse rug lung: Toxic pneumonitis due to fluorocarbon inhalation
Fluorocarbons are widely used in industry, and manifestations of inhalation toxicity include polymer fume fever, reactive airways dysfunction and bronchospasm. Only seven cases of alveolitis occurring acutely after inhalation have been reported. This paper presents four cases of toxic pneumonitis due to direct inhalation of industrial fluorocarbon used as a waterproofing spray for horse rugs. These cases differ from previous reports and show that chronic as well as acute alveolitis can result from fluorocarbon inhalation. Corticosteroid treatment may be beneficial. The need for stricter control in the workplace is emphasized.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.62, No.6, p.414-416. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 06-388 Iavicoli I., Marinaccio A., Carelli G.
Effects of occupational trichoroethylene exposure on cytokine levels in workers
This study investigates trichloroethylene-induced alterations of the immune system in humans. The levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interferon-γ in sera obtained from workers exposed to trichloroethylene were determined and compared with those of internal and external control subjects. In workers with a mean urinary trichloroacetic acid concentration of 13.3±5.9mg/g creatinine and exposed to a mean environmental trichloroethylene level of 35±14mg/m3, a significant increase in sera interleukin-2 and interferon-γ levels was observed. There was also a reduction in interleukin-4 concentrations compared with workers from the control groups. This study strongly suggests that exposure to low levels of trichloroethylene results in immune changes, with possible effects on health.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.453-457. 24 ref.

CIS 06-376 Ichihara G.
Neuro-reproductive toxicities of 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane
2-Bromopropane (2-BP), used as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons in a Korean electronics factory, caused reproductive and haematopoietic disorders in male and female workers. After identification of 2-BP toxicity, 1-bromopropane (1-BP) was introduced as an alternative. 1-BP was considered less mutagenic than 2-BP, but subsequent animal experiments revealed 1-BP to be a potent neurotoxic substance. It was also revealed that 1-BP has reproductive toxicity, but with target cells that are different from those of 2-BP. After the first animal study describing the neurotoxicity of 1-BP, human cases were reported showing decreased vibration perception, paraesthesia in the lower extremities, decreased sensation in the thighs, ventral and gluteal regions, stumbling and headache, as well as mucosal irritation. More work is necessary on the dose-response of bromopropanes in humans and on the mechanisms underlying the differences in toxic effects between the two bromopropanes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.79-96. 94 ref.

CIS 06-127 Romanowicz B.
Trichloronaphthalene - determination method
Trichloronaftalen - metoda oznaczania [in Polish]
A method for the determination of trichloronaphtalene vapour and aerosol concentrations in air is described. This method is based on a simultaneous collection of vapors and aerosols of trichloronaphtalene in sampling tubes containing a glass fibre filter in a series with amberlite XAD-2. Samples are desorbed with l ml of acetone or toluene and analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The determination limit of the method is 0.5 mg/m3.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p. 39-45.

CIS 06-1 Hexafluoropropylene (CAS No.116-15-4)
Conclusions of this criteria document: hexafluoropropylene (HFP) has a low acute toxicity; animal experiments indicate that the kidney is the principal target organ; given the chemical similarity of HFP with tetraflurorethylene, it is recommended that consideration be given to the possibility of carcinogenic effects. In general, HFP is considered to be of low potential risk and of low priority for further work.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 2005. v, 67p. 99 ref.

CIS 05-637 Kubota T., Miyata A.
Acute inhalational exposure to chlorodifluromethane (Freon 22): A report of 43 cases
43 cases of chlorodifluoromethane (Freon-22) intoxication occurred when a freezer in a seafood factory exploded. In this accident, 80 workers were exposed to Freon-22 gas and 43 workers developed symptoms and were hospitalized. Neurological symptoms including dizziness, headache, and nausea were the most frequently observed (40 of 43 patients). One patient was comatose but recovered within one hour with oxygen inhalation. Airway and respiratory symptoms including dysesthesia of the tongue, pharyngitis, and shortness of breath were also frequently observed (26 of 43 patients). These symptoms disappeared within a few days in all patients. There were no fatalities. Although Freon-22 has been considered to be a chlorofluorocarbon of relatively low toxicity, this incident suggests that potentially significant toxic effects may occur following large exposures.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 2005, Vol.43, No.4. p.305-308. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 05-10 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) CAS No.306-83-2 (Third edition)
Conclusions of this criteria document: HCFC-123 has a low toxicity in laboratory animals upon single brief exposure. The liquid is not irritant or sensitizing to the skin, but produces eye irritation. For humans, the most relevant critical effects from brief single exposure are depression of the central nervous system and increased likelihood of cardiac arrhythmia. Repeated exposure may yield liver lesions.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 13th ed., May 2005. v, 95p. 147ref.

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