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Halogens and their inorganic compounds - 653 entries found

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  • Halogens and their inorganic compounds

2011

CIS 11-0375 Sastre J., Madero M.F., Fernández-Nieto M., Sastre B., del Pozo V., Potro M.G., Quirce S.
Airway response to chlorine inhalation (bleach) among cleaning workers with and without bronchial hyperresponsiveness
Symptoms of obstructive lung disease in domestic cleaning staff have been related to the use of bleach and other irritant cleaning products. This study included 13 cleaning employees with work-related asthma-like symptoms, three asthmatic controls and three atopic subjects without bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) who had no exposure to cleaning products. The study protocol consisted of a methacholine test, sputum induction and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurement (FENO) both at baseline and 24 hr after a 1-hr inhalation challenge with either placebo or bleach at a concentration of 0.4 ppm of chlorine. The inhalation of the placebo caused no bronchial reactions. Mean maximum fall in FEV1 during challenge testing with bleach was significantly higher than the values obtained during the placebo challenge. Inhalation challenge with bleach elicited two isolated late asthmatic reactions and one dual asthmatic reaction. Of all the patients who underwent challenge testing with bleach, only one had a ≥2-fold decrease in methacholine PC20 24 hr after the challenge. No significant correlation was found between maximum fall in FEV1 and PC20 methacholine. Following challenge testing with bleach, no clinically significant changes in sputum cell counts or FENO were detected. These results suggest that bleach inhalation at a concentration of 0.4 ppm - a concentration below 8-hr permissible occupational exposure level - brings about a substantial decrease in FEV1 in subjects with and without BHR. Some subjects have a positive challenge response to bleach inhalation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.293-299. Illus. 11 ref.

2009

CIS 09-1201 Risher J.F., Keith L.S.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Iodine and inorganic iodides: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document on iodine and inorganic iodides: inhalation exposure to low iodine vapour concentrations have been shown to result in increases in airway resistance and a decrease in breathing rate in guinea pigs. The primary effects of long-term oral exposure to elevated amounts of inorganic iodide are, paradoxically, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, due to the complex physiological processes involved in regulating thyroid activity to maintain iodine homeostasis. Iodine does not cause mutagenic effects. The radioactive iodine isotopes are outside the scope of this document. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2009. iv, 53p. Approx. 320 ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad72.pdf [in English]

2008

CIS 08-1409 Théodore J., Baud F.
Chlorine
Chlore [in French]
Chlorine is widely used in industry. Its toxicity primarily results in respiratory diseases, although acute exposure can also cause eye damage. Acute poisoning is rare but can be fatal. In cases of occupational respiratory diseases, the prognosis is generally positive following removal from exposure. Carcinogenic risks are possible but have been difficult to prove in humans. There is currently no specific treatment for chlorine poisoning, but all acute exposures require hospital observation, even in the absence of symptoms. Preventive measures play an important role in limiting this chemical hazard. Regular medical supervision of exposed workers is required for detecting symptoms which may be potentially highly incapacitating.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3nd Quarter 2008, No.160, 5p. 28 ref.

CIS 08-1313 Tafrechian S.
Asthma due to chloramine among swimming pool personnel
L'asthme aux chloramines chez le personnel des piscines [in French]
This article describes three new cases of respiratory disease due to chloramines among swimming pool personnel in the Paris region. The causes of respiratory diseases among these workers exposed to chloramine emissions by inhalation are reviewed through a literature survey. In France, the occupational nature of these diseases is recognized. Job changes which are often necessary are not easy to implement among these workers, a majority of whom are furthermore young and in good health. Given the need to address various toxicity risk factors, the task of managing and monitoring the quality of swimming-pool water must be left to personnel that are diligent and particularly well trained in chlorination processes. Rules to be followed for limiting chloramine concentration in swimming pools are summarized.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.48, No.2, p.105-116. Illus. 34 ref.

2007

CIS 08-5 Sodium hypochlorite (6 to15% active chlorine)
Hipoclorito de sodio (6 al 15% de cloro activo) [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet for concentrated sodium hypochlorite solutions (corresponding to 6 to 15% active chlorine). The substance is toxic and corrosive. Inhalation causes severe irritation of the respiratory tract and of the mucous membrane, throat pain, cough, respiratory difficulties and pulmonary oedema. Ingestion causes irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; there is a risk of perforation of the intestine or the oesophagus. Contact with the skin and eyes causes burns, reddening and pain. Prolonged exposure may cause methaemoglobinaemia characterized by headache, weakness, respiratory difficulties, vertigo, pulmonary oedema, cyanosis, tachycardia and unconsciousness, possibly leading to death.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Cra. 20 No. 39 - 62, Bogotá D.C., Colombia, [ca 2007]. 4p. Illus.

CIS 07-1251
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Boron trifluoride diethyl ether
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge of November 2005: boron trifluoride diethyl ether is an irritant to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. In rats, the 4h LC50 is more than 1000mg/m3. Animal studies at high concentrations show adverse effects on the respiratory tract, kidneys, bone and liver. In mutagenicity tests, the product is non-mutagenic up to the toxic range. No data are available for an evaluation of the sensitization potential, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. xiii, 31p. 56 ref. Price: EUR 00.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.dav-buchhandlung.de/... [in English]

2005

CIS 06-656 Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I.
UV process: Chloroform and nitrogen trichloride level monitoring in indoor swimming pool waters
Traitement UV: suivi de l'évolution des concentrations en chloroforme et en trichlorure d'azote dans les eaux de baignade d'un centre aquatique [in French]
Faced with high levels of supervisory staff exposure to nitrogen trichloride and high levels of combined chlorine in pool water, indoor swimming pool operators increasingly adopt additional water treatment systems based on UV irradiation. This technology results in the formation of undesired by-products such as chloroform (an IARC class 2B carcinogen). For eight weeks, INRS monitored chloroform and nitrogen trichloride concentrations in water from two pools equipped with low and medium pressure lamps respectively. This study revealed the significant contribution of UV irradiation to chloroform formation and to the possible increase of dissolved nitrogen trichloride.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.19-30. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/9FCD3307BCB91167412570D8004C447A/$FILE/nd2237.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-655 Gérardin F., Hecht G., Hubert-Pelle G., Subra I., Gagnaire F., Héry M., Massin N.
Reduction of worker exposure to nitrogen trichloride through process-related action in two activity sectors
Réduction de l'exposition des travailleurs au trichlorure d'azote par action sur les procédés dans deux secteurs d'activité [in French]
Activity sectors as varied as indoor swimming pools and the ready-to-use fresh vegetable industry are faced with high employee exposures to nitrogen trichloride. The INRS has conducted numerous studies aimed at both characterizing the chemical risk to which workers in these sectors are exposed and proposing technical solutions for reducing pollution and controlling work atmosphere quality. Besides the analytical, toxicological and epidemiological aspects, this document describes technical prevention solutions that have been developed and adapted to activities that involve exposure to nitrogen trichloride. Based on the principle of nitrogen trichloride stripping, two pilot installations have been installed in an indoor swimming pool and in a ready-to-use fresh vegetable-processing plant. Measurements have been carried out to confirm the efficiency of these installations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.9-18. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/2B129BEE07F32AD9412570D8004C4F3C/$FILE/nd2236.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-134 Rydzyński K., Gromadzińska J.
Sulfur tetrafluoride: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
Tetrafluorek siarki: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
Sulfur tetrafluoride (SF4) is a colourless, nonflammable gas, very active and corrosive with a sulphur-dioxide-like odour. It is used in many technological processes and is a degradation product of sulfur hexafluoride: a substance used as an isolation material in condensers, cables and transformers. SF4 causes irritation of the respiratory tract. A TLV value of 0.5 mg/m3 and a short-term exposure limit of 1.0 mg/m3 are proposed.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.129-138. 14 ref.

CIS 06-133 Rydzyński K., Kuchowicz E.
Bromine pentafluoride: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
Pentafluorek bromu: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
Bromine pentafluoride is a colourless or light yellow liquid. The material has a chemical reactivity similar to that of elemental fluorine. At temperatures above its boiling point, it is a colourless, pungent, and corrosive gas. Contact of the liquid or vapour with the skin or eyes causes painful, deep- seated, long-lasting burns. Relatively short exposures at high concentrations cause serious lung injury similar to that seen in phosgene-exposed individuals (e.g., pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, atelectasis, bronchitis); lower concentrations cause watering of the eyes and difficulty in breathing within a few minutes. Based on the toxicological analogy of bromine pentafluoride with hydrogen fluoride, the maximum exposure limit (maximum admissible concentration) for bromine pentafluoride has been established at 0.5 mg/m3. Based on the results obtained from clinical studies of human exposure to hydrogen fluoride, a short-term exposure limit of 1 mg/m3 is proposed.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.117-127. 10 ref.

CIS 05-638 Krakowiak A., Dudek W., Tarkowski M., Świderska-Kiełbik S., Nieścierenko E., Pałczyński C.
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride in a diamond polisher after cessation of occupational exposure: A case report
Occupational asthma caused by cobalt chloride was diagnosed in a 35-year-old patient, who worked as a diamond paste polishing disc former. He had been suffering for two years from dyspnoea, cough and symptoms of rhinitis. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with common environmental allergens were found to be negative, while SPTs with cobalt chloride were positive for all applied solutions. Provocation with cobalt chloride caused a significant increase in the proportion of eosinophils, basophils and albumin during the late allergic reaction. Positive lymphocyte transformation caused by cobalt was also observed. It is concluded that cobalt salts may induce occupational asthma; the mechanism may be IgE-mediated.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.151-158. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 05-379 Payen D.
Gaseous chlorine poisoning
Intoxication au chlore gazeux [in French]
This information sheet describes an accidental poisoning by gaseous chlorine in a worker involved in cleaning the sanitary facilities of a building site. The worker attempted to dilute Javel water into a container which had previously contained hydrochloric acid and in which residual amounts of acid were still present. The information sheet outlines measures for the prevention of such incidents (information and training of workers, disposal of empty containers, adequate ventilation, use of personal protective equipment).
Prévention BTP, Mar. 2005, No.72, p.29-30. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 04-624 Thoumelin P., Monin E., Armandet D., Julien M.J., Massart B., Vasseur C., Pillon A.M., Zilliox M., Balducci F., Bergeret A.
Irritant respiratory problems among swimming pool attendants
Troubles d'irritation respiratoire chez les travailleurs des piscines [in French]
A survey of attendants in 59 swimming pools in the Rhône-Alpes region was carried out. Respiratory problems reported by the attendants were compared with data concerning their activity, their conditions of work, the characteristics of the equipment and levels of nitrogen trichloride measured in poolside ambient air. A campaign launched by an urban community for improving hygiene in swimming pools is also described. The campaign resulted in substantial reductions in chloramine levels in air and water, known to be responsible for ocular and respiratory airway irritation of swimming pool attendants.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2005, No.101, p.43-64. Illus. 50 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20138/$File/TF138.pdf [in French]

2004

CIS 06-144 Sjögren B.
Fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders
Welders inhale gases and respirable particles. To investigate the relationship between fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders using basic electrodes containing calcium fluoride, 63 railroad track welders were interviewed. Fluoride was measured in post-shift urine samples. Seventeen welders reported respiratory symptoms related to welding fume exposures. Respiratory symptoms were somewhat more common with increasing concentrations of fluoride in urine. The association between welding fume exposure and respiratory symptoms seems related more to fluorides than to other particles among welders using basic electrodes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.310-312. 19 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Sjogren.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-257
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for chlorine dioxide
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects chlorine dioxide is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: eye, nose and respiratory tract irritation. Animal studies show developmental effects, however at high concentrations unlikely to be encountered by humans.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2004. xix, 143p. Illus. Approx. 300 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp160.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-557 Guével E., Madani R., Conso F., Causse E., Choudat D.
Thyroidal dysfunction and occupational overexposure to iodine
Dysfonctionnement thyroïdien et surcharge iodée professionnelle [in French]
Two cases of work-related thyroid dysfunction are presented. Two workers involved in the machining and polishing of sodium and caesium iodide crystals employed at the same enterprise showed thyroid function disorders and high levels of 24h urinary iodine excretion. Following the report of these two cases of thyroid dysfunction and the elevated urinary excretion of iodine found among other exposed workers in the course of a biological monitoring programme implemented within the enterprise, preventive measures and medical surveillance based on action levels of this biological exposure index were proposed. The prevention of iodine exposure is primarily based on collective measures (process confinement and local exhaust), personal protective equipment and strict adherence to hygienic measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2004, Vol.65, No.5, p.438-441. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 04-29
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for iodine
This profile characterizes the toxicological and adverse health effects information for iodine. It was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the toxicological properties of iodine. Contents: public health statement; relevance to public health; health effects; chemical, physical and radiological information; production, import, export, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards of excessive exposure to stable (non-radioactive) iodine include thyroid dysfunction and consequent hormonal imbalance. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid and can cause thyroid nodules or cancer.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 2004. xxii, 517p. Illus. Approx. 2700 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp158.pdf [in English]

2003

CIS 06-681
Health and Safety Executive
Bulk storage of acids: Guidance on the storage of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid in tanks
This booklet provides guidance on the design, construction, operation and maintenance of installations used for the storage of hydrochloric or nitric acid in fixed tanks, with reference to the current regulatory framework in the United Kingdom, including the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (see CIS 03-1023). Contents includes: risk assessment, siting of the tank, bunding, materials of construction, tank design, pipework and valves, inspection and maintenance and emergency procedures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 32p. 21 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 03-1537
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride and fluorine (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: strong irritation of the skin, eyes and lungs; lung diseases; chemical burns on the skin and eyes with possible necrosis; skeletal fluorosis; dental fluorosis. Update of CIS 96-2215.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xx, 356p. Illus. Approx. 1275 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp11.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1050 Chlorine
Cloro [in Spanish]
Material safety data sheet on chlorine. Exposure limits: TWA 0.5ppm; STEL 1ppm. Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: corrosive and irritant for the respiratory tract and mucous membranes by inhalation with symptoms including chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary oedema and respiratory collapse which may be fatal; skin contact can induce irritation, chemical burns and necrosis; contact with eyes can cause irritation, ulcerations and chemical burns which can lead to vision damage; prolonged contact may cause dermatitis and dental erosion.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Bogotá, Colombia, Mar.-Apr. 2003. 3p.

2002

CIS 03-1780 Olin A.C., Granung G., Hagberg S., Adriansson M., Brisman J., Dalander O., Karlsson B., Torén K.
Respiratory health among bleachery workers exposed to ozone and chlorine dioxide
A total of 129 bleachery workers in two Swedish pulp mills that use ozone for bleaching were studied together with 80 non-exposed controls. The pulp mills had previously used chlorine dioxide as the bleaching agent. Participants responded to questionnaires and were subjected to spirometry and methacholine challenge testing. Area sampling showed sporadic ozone levels exceeding 0.9ppm. There was a greater prevalence of wheezing (25%) among the bleachery workers with a history of gassings than among the referents (13%). Among current smokers, the proportion with a slightly increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was greater among the bleachery workers. For the period from 1992 to 1996 when the mills were using ozone, there was an increased incidence rate of wheezing among the workers in the bleachery. This finding reinforces the view that repeated peak exposures to irritants must be prevented in pulp mills.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p. 117-123. 28 ref.

CIS 03-54 Sulfur monochloride
Monocloruro de azufre [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 6mg/m3 or 1ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: vapour may cause cough and watering of the eyes; inhalation may induce severe respiratory disorders and symptoms of chemical pneumonia; splashes on the skin may cause irritation and burns; splashes on the eyes may cause severe lesions and scars; repeated exposure may cause chronic irritation of the skin, eyes and upper airways.
Noticias de seguridad, May 2002, Vol.64, No.5, 4p. Insert.

CIS 02-1946 Rydock J.P.
A simple method for tracer containment testing in hospital isolation rooms
This article describes a simple method for tracer containment testing of hospital isolation rooms using a portable gas chromatograph system. Results from tracer testing of two isolation rooms in two different hospitals are presented. One isolation room had a significant negative pressure differential between room and corridor, and the other isolation room was not at negative pressure. A small quantity of sulfur hexafluoride gas was injected manually in an isolation room. Tracer concentrations were thereafter measured in the corridor adjacent to the room at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after the injection, yielding a quantitative measure of leakage of the tracer from the isolation room. Finally, measuring the tracer concentration in the isolation room 30 minutes after injection yielded an indication of how effectively the ventilation system removed a contaminant released at the position of the bed. The results show that the method is well-suited for studying containment in hospital isolation rooms.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.486-490. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1547
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Fluorides
Conclusions of this criteria document: there is little conclusive epidemiological evidence of negative health effects on humans resulting from occupational exposure to fluorides. There are several reports of skeletal fluorosis associated with the consumption of drinking water containing elevated levels of fluoride, but further work is required on the accumulation of fluoride in organisms. Effects on the skeleton, such as inhibition of bone mineralization and delayed fracture healing have been observed in several animal studies involving high doses. There are no indications of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or reproductive disorders from other animal studies. Detailed summary and conclusions in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. xx, 268p. Illus. Approx. 750 ref.
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc227.htm [in English]

CIS 02-1356 Morgan J.W., Cassady R.E.
Community cancer assessment in response to long-time exposure to perchlorate and trichloroethylene in drinking water
In response to concerns about cancer from drinking water contaminated with ammonium perchlorate and trichloroethylene, observed and expected numbers of new cancer cases were assessed for all sites combined and 16 cancer types in a California community between 1988 and 1998. The numbers of observed cancer cases divided by expected numbers defined standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). No significant differences between observed and expected numbers were found for all cancers (SIR 0.97), thyroid cancer (SIR 1.00), or 11 other cancer types. Significantly fewer cases were observed than expected for cancer of the lung and bronchus (SIR 0.71) and the colon and rectum (SIR 0.86), whereas more cases were observed for uterine cancer (SIR 1.35) and skin melanoma (SIR 1.42). These findings did not identify a generalized cancer excess or thyroid cancer excess in this community.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.616-621. 19 ref.

CIS 02-1387 Le Guen B., Hémidy P.Y.
Radioactive iodine
Iodes radioactifs [in French]
Stable and radioactive forms of iodine evaporate at low temperature and are consequently highly volatile. Stable iodine is a key trace element in human physiology and an essential component of thyroid hormones which are vital for growth and energy metabolism. However, accidental exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine can be dangerous. Contents of this information note on radioactive iodine: general physical and chemical aspects; environmental sources of radioactive iodine (nuclear tests, nuclear accidents); medical uses of radioactive iodine; environmental and human effects; stable iodine needs and required food intake; exposure, radiation and dosimetry; effects on radioactive iodine on the thyroid; cancer and genetic effects of iodine 131; protection in the event of accidental exposure.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 12p. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 02-1079 Palladium
Palladium is recovered mostly as a by-product of nickel and platinum metal refining. It is used in catalysts for automobiles and in the chemical industry, and in dentistry and jewellery. There is no information on the possible effects of palladium emitted from automotive catalytic converters on the general population. Human patch tests have shown that palladium (II) chloride to have sensitizing effects. Animal tests show skin and eye irritating effects of palladium (II) chloride. Several palladium compounds were found to be potent sensitizers. There are insufficient data on the reproductive and developmental effects of palladium and its compounds. In vitro testing and in vivo testing on mice show some indications of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002, xxi, 201p. Illus. 369 ref. Price: CHF 36.00, USD 32.40.

CIS 02-579
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Chlorine dioxide (gas)
Conclusions of this criteria document on gaseous chlorine dioxide: given the highly reactive nature of the product, it seems likely that health effects would be restricted to local responses. Animal experiments show the high acute inhalation and ingestion toxicities. Severe skin and respiratory tract irritation has been observed in rats. Long-term inhalation exposure testing in animals show indications of nasal tissue and respiratory tract damage. Eye and respiratory tact irritation has been observed in humans. There are no reports of skin sensitization or asthma associated with occupational exposure to the product.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 26p. 54 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad37.pdf [in English]

CIS 97-40 Boron trifluoride
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Irritates and burns the skin and the eyes. May damage the eyes. Irritates the respiratory tract and may cause nosebleeds and lung oedema. May damage the kidneys.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0246.pdf [in English]

2001

CIS 03-828 Héry M., Massin N., Gagnaire F.
Chlorine and swimming pools
Chlore et piscines [in French]
Disinfection of swimming-pool water is usually carried out by using chlorine, which reacts with nitrogen-containing substances from bathers to form chloramines, and in particular nitrogen trichloride, a highly-volatile substance that causes eye and respiratory irritations often encountered by swimming-pool staff. Technical solutions exist for lowering the atmospheric concentration of this substance to levels below 0.3-0.5mg/m3 which generally give rise to complaints. Contents of this information sheet on chlorine and swimming pools: formation of chloramines; irritating properties of nitrogen trichloride; methods of sampling and analysis of nitrogen trichloride; exposure levels in different types of swimming pools; effects of exposure to nitrogen trichloride on health; aeration for eliminating nitrogen trichloride.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2001, No.131, 3p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 03-793 Badinier-Paganon I., Deschamps F.
Exposure of swimming-pool lifeguards to chlorinated compounds
Exposition des maîtres nageurs aux dérivés chlorés [in French]
Disinfection of swimming pool water is carried out using chlorinated agents that react with nitrogen-containing human residues. This results in the formation of chloramines, which include nitrogen trichloride (chloramine-T). These compounds may be responsible for chronic symptoms such as eye, rhinopharyngeal and bronchial irritations with a dose-effect relationship. However, cases of chronic bronchitis or asthma are not frequent. Chloramine-T solutions used in the disinfection of walls, floors and sanitary facilities may induce sensitizations confirmed with specific IgE detection. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome may occur with massive accidental exposure to chlorinated compounds. Primary prevention consists in gas extraction systems to maintain atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated agents at acceptable levels.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2001, Vol.62, No.6, p.477-481. 16 ref.

CIS 02-1112 Tellurium hexafluoride
Hexafluoruro de telurio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.2mg/m3 or 0.02ppm (OSHA). Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: irritation of the respiratory tract and respiratory impairment; headache; dyspnoea; garlic odour of the breath; effects may be delayed.
Noticias de seguridad, Aug. 2001, Vol.63, No.8, 3p. Insert.

CIS 02-820 Lee J.Y., Yoo J.M., Cho B.K., Kim H.O.
Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians
This study investigated the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in 49 Korean dental technicians. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand for all of them. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results. 7 positive reactions to the various polyacrylates were found in 3 subjects.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.13-16. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-269 Guffey S.E., Flanagan M.E., van Belle G.
Air sampling at the chest and ear as representative of the breathing zone
Tracer gas concentrations were measured on a 60%-sized mannequin, which was holding a sulfur hexafluoride source at waist height while standing in a wind tunnel. Samplers were placed at the mannequin's mouth, in front of the ear and at three chest locations at lapel level. Simultaneous 15-min time-weighted average samples were taken with sampling pumps. Concentrations at all sampling locations when the mannequin faced to the front and side were less than a tenth of the levels measured at the nose, when the mannequin faced downstream. Different flow orientations and velocities affected the ratios of concentrations. At the back orientation, the chest sampler provided lower overestimates of measurements at higher velocities than at lower values. Results showed significant differences between concentrations at the nose and lapel. These findings should be interpreted with caution, because a dense tracer gas and an unheated not breathing mannequin were used.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.416-427. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 02-271 Gérardin F., Muller-Rodriguez N., Quenis B.
Trichloramine stripping in swimming pool buffer tanks - Study of various gas/liquid contact systems
Strippage de la trichloramine dans les bacs tampons des piscines - Etude de différents contacteurs gaz/liquide [in French]
The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four gas/liquid contactors. These systems can be adapted to the buffer tanks of public swimming pools to extract, by stripping, the trichloramine present in re-circulated water of pools. Work was carried out on a pilot scale, enabling several parameters to be varied. The results confirmed the satisfactory levels of extraction that were found during full-scale trials, where up over 60% reductions in concentration of atmospheric trichloramine achieved, and enabled the determination of the design parameters for each system. An example of design calculations for these four systems for a typical buffer tank is included.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2153-184-01, p.25-36. Illus. 5 ref.

2000

CIS 02-1854 Héry M., Dornier G.
Chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry
Chloramines dans les piscines et l'agroalimentaire [in French]
Thanks to its outstanding bactericidal properties, its low cost and the ease of use of some if its compounds, chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant. In recent years, a large number of questions were addressed to the French National research and safety institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS) by workers engaged in activities using chlorine, in particular in swimming pools and in the food industry. This information sheet was prepared in order to provide answers to the concerns of workers exposed to chlorine and who are often subject to eye or respiratory irritation. Contents: chlorine chemistry and the formation of chloramines, substances which the primary irritants; determination of chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry; current activities of INRS and its collaborating organizations; protective measures that need to be implemented in swimming pools and in the food industry.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2000. 4p. Illus. 7 ref. Can also be found on the site: http://www.inrs.fr/produits/

CIS 02-1136 Potassium chlorate; Sodium chlorate
Chlorate de potassium; chlorate de sodium [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-126. Acute toxicity: irritation of the gastro-intestinal tract; methaemoglobinaemia; cardiovascular shock; renal insufficiency; reversible hepatotoxic damage; skin and eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the upper respiratory tract and ulceration of the nasal mucosa. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.017-004-00-3; O, Xn, R9, R20/22, S13, S16, S27, 223-269-7 (potassium chlorate); No.017-006-00-9; O, Xn, R9, R22, S13, S17, S46, 231-887-4 (sodium chlorate). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 01-1357
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Lithium carbonate and lithium chloride - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of lithium carbonate and lithium chloride based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 45p. 49 ref.
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@06OSH.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-38 Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Miraval S., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O.
Javel waters and extracts
Eaux et extraits de Javel [in French]
Javel waters and extracts are aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite. Toxic effects depend on the concentration of the solution used; usual dilutions cause little effects. Acute toxicity: ingestion of concentrated solutions causes irritation of the gastro-intestinal tract sometimes with vomiting of blood, which and can lead to necrosis, perforation and severe after-effects, shock, haemolysis, and possibly hypernatraemia; projections on skin and eyes may cause severe burns with possible ocular after-effects; mixture with acids liberates chlorine which may cause strong bronchial irritation and acute pulmonary oedema; mixture with ammonium hydroxide liberates chloramine which is also irritant for the respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: nail lesions; dermatosis.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2000, No.178, p.115-119. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/dossiers/fichtox/ft157.pdf [in French]

CIS 00-1664 Peltier A.
Use of hydrofluoric acid in chemical laboratories - Occupational risk prevention
Utilisation de l'acide fluorhydrique dans les laboratoires de chimie - Prévention des risques [in French]
The use of strong acids is widespread in laboratories and their corrosive properties are well documented. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a special case because the burns it causes, made more serious by its affinity for blood calcium, require immediate medical care in order to prevent possibly drastic consequences. This account of its effects is aimed at all laboratory users of hydrofluoric acid. Contents include: toxicity of HF; first aid in case of skin or eye contact, inhalation of vapour and ingestion; preventive actions; regulatory aspects in France; labelling.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2000, No.178, Note No.2122-178-00, p.37-41. 11 ref.

CIS 00-1256
Health and Safety Executive
Chlorine dioxide - Risk assessment document
Main conclusions of this risk assessment document: little information is available on the effects of chlorine dioxide exposure; it is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory tract. Chlorine dioxide is an in vitro mutagen in mammalian cells. There are no data available on carcinogenic or reproductive effects nor the sensitization potential of chlorine dioxide. Occupational exposure limits in most major countries (including the United Kingdom - OES and the United States - ACGIH) are 0.1ppm (8h-TWA) and 0.3ppm (STEL).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 63p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 97-25 Mercurous iodide
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause "shakes", irritability, sore gums, memory loss, increased saliva, personality change, brain damage, kidney damage, skin allergy and grey skin colour. Irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory tract.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993, 2000. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/1189.pdf [in English]

CIS 97-24 Mercurous chloride
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause "shakes", irritability, sore gums, memory loss, increased saliva, personality change, brain damage, kidney damage, skin allergy and grey skin colour. Irritates the skin, eyes and respiratory tract.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1993, 2000. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/1179.pdf [in English]

1999

CIS 02-1085 Uranium hexafluoride
Hexafluorure d'uranium [in French]
Hexafluoruro de uranio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract; nephrotoxic effects (kidney impairment and tissue lesions); exposure at low levels may result in death. Threshold limit value: 0.2mg/m3 (TWA) A1 (as uranium (soluble and insoluble compounds)) (ACGIH 1998); 0.6mg/m3 (STEL) (ACGIH 1998).
English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1250.html [in French]
http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1250.htm [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc12/icsc1250.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-1345 Sodium hypochlorite (solution, active chlorine >10%)
Hypochlorite de sodium (solution, chlore actif >10%) [in French]
Hipoclorito de sodio (solución, cloro activo 10 %) [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: corrosive for the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; corrosive if ingested; inhalation may cause pulmonary oedema; effects may be delayed. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization. No TLV has been established. The Spanish version of the card refers to solutions >5% concentration.
On the Internet site http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/produ cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 01-1344 Sodium hypochlorite (solution, active chlorine < 10%)
Hypochlorite de sodium (solution, chlore actif <10%) [in French]
Hipoclorito de sodio (solución, cloro activo 10 %) [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization. No TLV has been established. The Spanish version of the card refers to solutions <5% concentration.
On the Internet site http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/produ cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 01-1318 Ammonium fluoride
Fluorure d'ammonium [in French]
Fluoruro de amonio [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: effects on bones and teeth (fluorosis). Threshold limit value: 2.5mg/m3 A4 (as F) (ACGIH 1998).
On the Internet site http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/produ cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 00-1394 Lamm S.H., Braverman L.E., Li F.X., Richman K., Pino S., Howearth G.
Thyroid health status of ammonium perchlorate workers: A cross-sectional occupational health study
A study of employees at a perchlorate manufacturing plant was conducted to assess whether occupational exposure to perchlorate suppresses thyroid function. Exposure to perchlorate was assessed by measurement of ambient air concentrations of perchlorate particles, and systemic absorption was assessed by measurement of urinary perchlorate excretion. Workers were grouped into four exposure categories. Thyroid function was assessed by measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine index, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid hormone binding ratio, thyroid peroxidase antibodies and by clinical examination. No differences in thyroid function parameters were found among the four groups of workers across approximately three orders of magnitude of exposure and of dose. Thus human thyroid function was not affected by these levels of absorbed perchlorate. In addition, no clinical evidence of thyroid abnormalities was found in any exposure group. The blood-cell counts were normal in all groups, indicating no evidence of haematotoxicity in this exposure range.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.248-260. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 00-183 Kim I.H., Seo S.H.
Occupational chemical burns caused by bromine
Topics: bromine; case study; chemical burns; chemical industry; delayed effects; erythema; protective clothing; washing.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.43. 3 ref.

CIS 00-187 Ferruz R., Peña J.A., Santamaría J.
Hazards at installations using chlorine
Peligrosidad en instalaciones de manejo de cloro [in Spanish]
Topics: chlorine; case study; causes of accidents; chemical industry; compressed gases; corrosion; dangerous substances; irritants; major hazards; threshold limit values; toxic gases.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.74, p.35-43. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-179 Radon K., Nowak D., Heinrich-Ramm R., Szadokwski D.
Respiratory health and fluoride exposure in different parts of the modern primary aluminium industry
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 78 potroom workers, 24 foundry workers, 45 carbon-plant workers and 56 control workers (watchmen, craftsmen, office workers, laboratory employees) of a modern aluminium plant to investigate possible acute and long-term respiratory health effects of work at different working places. The survey consisted of pre- and postshift spirometric and urinary fluoride measurements. In a multiple regression model a small but significant negative correlation was found between postshift urinary fluoride concentrations and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Across-shift spirometric changes were observed only in FVC among carbon-plant workers. The results suggest that lung function impairment in the modern primary aluminium industry may be only partly due to fluoride exposure and that working in aluminium carbon plants may cause acute lung function changes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 1999, Vol.72, No.5, p.297-303. Illus. 24 ref.

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