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Glycol ethers - 139 entries found

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2010

CIS 10-0695 Jargot D., Hecht C.
Assessment of employee exposure when using epoxy resins
Evaluation de l'exposition des salariés lors de la mise en œuvre de résines époxydiques [in French]
This article presents the results of a study conducted by INRS at the request of several companies wishing to assess and characterize occupational exposure to epoxy resins. Atmospheric and surface samples of resin monomers (DGEBA and/or DGEBF), amines, acid anhydrides and glycidylic ethers were collected at the workplaces. The airborne resin monomer concentrations were generally very low or undetectable, even when hot resins were used. The detected exposures were due to hardening agents in air or skin contact with resin monomers. The schedule of occupational diseases in France now allows consideration of hardeners and recognition of allergic respiratory diseases contracted when preparing and using epoxy resins.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.13-20. Illus. 27 ref.
ND_2332-220-10.pdf [in French]

2009

CIS 09-883 Schep L.J., Slaughter R.J., Temple W.A., Beasley D.M.
Diethylene glycol poisoning
This literature survey on diethylene glycol (DEG) summarized the aspects of DEG poisoning including epidemiology, toxicokinetics, toxicity mechanisms, clinical features, toxicity, diagnosis and management. DEG ingestion can lead to serious complications that may prove fatal. Prognosis may be improved, however, with prompt supportive care and timely use of fomepizole or ethanol.
Clinical Toxicology, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.525-535. Illus. 99 ref.

2008

CIS 09-1212 Cherry N., Moore H., McNamee R., Pacey A., Burgess G., Clyma J.A., Dippnall M., Baillie H., Povey A.
Occupation and male infertility: Glycol ethers and other exposures
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between male infertility and occupational exposures, particularly glycol ethers. It involved men attending 14 fertility clinics in the United Kingdom, from whom a semen sample was collected and occupational exposure data were obtained by means of interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Work with organic solvents, particularly glycol ethers was associated with the likelihood of low motile sperm count. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for moderate and high glycol ether exposure (compared with none) were 1.70 and 2.54. After adjustment for potential confounders, these risks were slightly reduced (OR 1.46 and 2.25, respectively). No other occupational risk factor was identified.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.65, No.10, p.708-714. Illus. 31 ref.

2007

CIS 09-395 Multigner L., Ben Brik E., Arnaud I., Haguenoer J.M., Jouannet P., Auger J., Eustache F.
Glycol ethers and semen quality: A cross-sectional study among male workers in the Paris municipality
This study investigated the effects of past and current exposure to products containing glycol ethers on semen quality and reproductive hormones among men employed by the Paris Municipality. Between 2000 and 2001, 109 male volunteers provided semen, blood and urine samples and underwent a medical examination. Information on lifestyle, occupation, exposure and medical history was obtained by interview. According to their job and chemical products used during the period 1990-2000, participants were classified as either historically exposed or non-exposed. Current exposure levels to glycol ethers were evaluated by monitoring urinary metabolites. Previous exposure to glycol ethers was associated with declines in sperm concentration, motility and morphologically-normal sperm levels. No effect of previous glycol ether exposure on hormones levels was observed. By contrast, current glycol ether exposure levels were low and not correlated with either seminal quality or hormone levels.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.64, No.7, p.467-473. 39 ref.

CIS 08-759
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary Reports XII (Nos. 39, 62, 67, 150, 151, 180,181, 194, 206)
Ergänzungsbericht XII [in German]
This document included translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1986 and May 1997, relating to nine substances or groups of substances (naphthalene, hexachlorobutadiene, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, chloracetic acid methyl ester, chloracetic acid ethyl ester, C10-C21-alkane sulfonic acids, phenyl esters, chloroalkane sulfonic acids, sodium salts, 3-methyl-2-butenal and surfactants) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Irritant effects and contact allergy in humans are reported respectively for methyl chloroacetate and ethyl chloroacetate.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 95p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.

2006

CIS 07-1141
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol
This volume re-evaluates the available evidence on the carcinogenic potential of formaldehyde, a substance that is widely used in binders for wood, paper; glass wool and rock wool, in plastics and coatings, textile finishing and chemical synthesis, and as a disinfectant and preservative. Also evaluated are two glycol ethers, 2-butoxyethanol and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol, which are widely used as solvents in paints and paint thinners, coatings, glass and surface cleaners, inks, adhesives, personal-care products, and as chemical intermediates. Summary of final evaluations: formaldehyde is classified in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans); 2-butoxyetahnol and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol are classified in Group 3 (cannot be classified as to carcinogenicity to humans).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. v, 478p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 40.00.

CIS 06-1159 Martin P., Ferrari P., Pierrel M.
Testing the chemical resistance of gloves to four frequently-used glycol ethers
Tests de résistance chimique des gants vis-à-vis de quatre éthers de glycol d'utilisation fréquente [in French]
The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of a set of gloves to four glycol ethers, namely 2PG1MEA (2-propylene glycol 1-methyl ether 2-acetate), EGBE (ethylene glycol n-butyl ether), DEGEE (diethylene glycol ethyl ether) and DEGBE (diethylene glycol butyl ether). The need to test protective gloves in relation to these glycol ethers required developing specific analytical methods implemented within the framework of European standards EN 369 and EN 374 testing procedures. This study led to determining permeation times for the different gloves, enabling users of these chemicals to protect themselves effectively against penetration of glycol ethers through the skin. The results revealed the superiority of two thicknesses (0.45 and 0.65mm) of butyl gloves made by two manufacturers. Permeation measurements for these gloves were interrupted after eight hours of recording without reaching the threshold concentration downstream of the sample. Permeation times for other materials were shorter and less uniform, depending on the glycol ether concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.202, p.23-30. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202242/$File/ND2242.pdf [in French]

2005

CIS 07-505 Copestake P.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Selected alkoxyethanols - 2-Butoxyethanol
This criteria document on 2-butoxyethanol is an update of the earlier edition published in 1998 (see CIS 04-262). Human health aspects have been extensively revised on the basis of recent data on carcinogenicity and modes of action. 2-Butoxyethanol has moderate acute toxicity and is irritating to the eyes and skin; it is not a skin sensitizer. The main effect exerted by 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolite 2-butoxyacetic acid is haematotoxicity, with the rat being the most sensitive species. In animals, adverse effects on reproduction and development have not been observed at less than toxic doses. Long-term studies in laboratory animals show some evidence of carcinogenicity in mice. Based on the haemolytic effects observed on pregnant rats exposed during gestation, a revised tolerable concentration of 11.0mg/m3 has been derived. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. iv, 51p. Illus. Approx. 180 ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad_67_2_butoxyethanol.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-662 Yokota K., Ikeda N., Johyama Y., Michitsuji H., Yamada S.
Urinary methoxyacetic acid as an indicator of occupational exposure to ethylene glycol dimethyl ether
This case-control study investigated the use of urinary methoxyacetic acid (MAA) as a biomarker for exposure to ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME). Urine samples were collected from 14 exposed and 20 unexposed subjects. The identification and quantification of the metabolite were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionisation detection. Air samples were also collected. The levels of urinary MAA among exposed workers were significantly higher than among controls, showing a clear exposure-response relationship. These findings confirm that MAA in urine may be used for biological monitoring of EGdiME exposures.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.650-654. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/99eqahwvmk4xnchyyjvw/contributions/q/2/m/7/q2m7433340082310.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-131 Starek A.
(2-Methoxymethylethoxy)propanol: Documentation of maximum admissible values for occupational exposure
(2-Metoksymetyloetoksy)-propanol: Dokumentacja proponowanych wartości dopuszczalnych wielkości narażenia zawodowego [in Polish]
(2-Methoxymethylethoxy)-propanol (dipropylene glycol methyl ether, DGME) is a colourless liquid with low vapour pressure, an ethereal odour and bitter taste. It has relatively low toxicity in humans and laboratory animals. Irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract as well as depression of the central nervous system are recognised as critical effects. No embryotoxic, foetotoxic or teratogenic effects have been found in toxicological studies. On the basis of the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for irritation obtained from experiments on rats and the appropriate uncertainty factor, the maximum admissible concentration was set at 240 mg/m3. A short-term exposure limit of 480 mg/m3 and irritant (I) notation are recommended.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.91-101. 16 ref.

CIS 06-124 Wesołowski W., Kucharska M.
2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol - determination method
2-(2-Metoksyetoksy)-etanol - metoda oznaczania [in Polish]
A method for the determination of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol vapour in air is described. The method is based on the adsorption of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol on charcoal, desorption with a 5% solution of methanol in dichloromethane and a gas chromatographic analysis of the resulting solution. The determination limit of the method is 10 mg/m3.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.19-25.

CIS 05-642 Cicolella A.
Exposures to glycol ethers: Current situation
Exposition aux éthers de glycol: état des lieux [in French]
Glycol ethers are used in many areas, particularly in paints, but also in inks, varnishes and cutting fluids. Ethylene glycol derivatives (also known as E-series glycol ethers) are known to be genotoxic and to cause reproductive toxicity. Some products are carcinogens. They have been largely replaced by the less toxic propylene glycol derivatives (P-series glycol ethers). This article reviews the current situation with respect to occupational exposures to glycol ethers and examines resulting health hazards. Contents: European classification and regulations; official position of the Consumer Safety Commission regarding the full substitution of the E-series; kidney diseases; view of the chemical industry; recent research findings.
Face au risque, May 2005, No.413, p.21-24. Illus.

CIS 05-172 The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man
Glycol mono-ethers are liquids that combine the solubility characteristics of ethers and alcohols since both functional groups are present. As a result, they are widely used in solvent applications, including formulations such as paints, inks and cleaning fluids. Non-solvent applications include anti-icing agents in jet fuel, hydraulic system fluids and chemical intermediates. Glycol ethers have a high potential to penetrate the skin (as a liquid or vapour) and this represents the dominant potential route of exposure. The majority of glycol ethers are of low acute toxicity; the main effect seen in laboratory animals at high doses is narcosis, typical of many solvents. Some glycol ethers are eye irritants. Numerous studies with glycol ethers show that they do not exhibit genotoxic activity. Glycol ether exposure has been associated with anaemia, leukaemia, granulocytopenia, increased risk of abortion or reduced sperm count in painters, but these effects could be confounded by simultaneous exposure to other chemicals.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 4th ed., Feb. 2005. 202p. Illus. Approx. 1000 ref. Price: EUR 125.00. Profiles of 44 substances are provided on a companion CD-ROM (included).

2004

CIS 07-865 Kezic S., Meuling W.J.A., Jakasa I.
Free and total urinary 2-butoxyacetic acid following dermal and inhalation exposure to 2-butoxyethanol in human volunteers
To assess excretion kinetics of free and total 2-butoxyacetic acid (BAA) following dermal and inhalation exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (BE), six male volunteers were dermally-exposed for 4h to a 50% aqueous BE on the forearm. Six other male volunteers were exposed by inhalation (mouth only) to 93mg/m3 BE for 30min. As biological indices of exposure, BE in blood and total and free BAA in urine were measured. Findings are discussed. Overall, inter-individual variability was large. However, due to lower inter-individual variability, total BAA was found to be superior to free BAA as a biomarker of both cutaneous and inhalation exposures to BE.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2004, Vol.77, No.8, p.580-586. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/1hnb9mtxtl85d5hx/fulltext.pdf [in English]

2003

CIS 03-1779 Korinth G., Göen T., Lakemeyer M., Broding H.C., Drexler H.
Skin strain and its influence on systemic exposure to a glycol ether in offset printing workers
The aim of this study was to show whether systemic exposure to glycol ether is higher among printing workers with skin lesions. 28 male printers exposed to 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE) were interviewed on their workplace exposure by means of a standardized questionnaire. The systemic exposure was determined by biological monitoring of the main metabolite of BEE (butoxyethoxyacetic acid, BEAA) in urine. Furthermore, a clinical examination of the skin was also carried out, together with measurements of transepidermal water loss, capacitance and skin surface pH. Erythema and scaliness were the most important factors showing an effect on dermal absorption. The mean urinary BEAA excretions for printers with skin lesions on the hands were higher (20.62mg/L for scaliness and 14.40mg/L for erythema) compared to levels for printers without detectable skin lesions (12.08mg/L for scaliness and 13.03mg/L for erythema).
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2003, Vol.49, No.5, p.248-254. Illus. 31 ref.

2002

CIS 03-1326 Laudet-Hesbert A., Lefevre B., Mahieu C., Triolet J., Dornier G.
Glycol ethers
Les éthers de glycol [in French]
Despite being present in numerous industrial environments, certain glycol ethers are nonetheless hazardous. By proving an overview of the physical and chemical properties of glycol ethers, their risks to health and the existing regulatory measures for managing these risks, the objective of this information sheet is to present the knowledge required for good risk management in a concise form. Contents: chemical structures, properties and uses of glycol ethers; animal experiments; risks to humans (routes of exposure, toxicology, results of epidemiological studies); protective measures. The classification of the main glycol ethers according to Directive 67/548/EEC (see CIS 92-23) as well as the average exposure limit values are presented in tabular form. Boxes include a glossary of the common abbreviations of the main glycol ethers, as well as research and publications of the INRS.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 2002. 4p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/les_ethers_de_glycol.html [in French]

CIS 03-832 Recommendation - Prevention of hazards linked to the production and use of glycol ethers
Recommandation - Prévention des risques liés à la fabrication et à l'utilisation des éthers de glycol [in French]
This special issue reproduces the full text of a recommendation adopted in France in 2001 on the prevention of risks linked to the production and use of glycol ethers. Contents: physical and chemical properties; toxicity (toxicology, animal studies, epidemiological studies); responsibilities of employers (hazard identification, exposure evaluation, establishing priorities, information of workers, workplace monitoring, biological monitoring, medical supervision). Appendices include: list of the most common glycol ethers; listing by CAS number; physical and chemical properties; examples of forms for defining exposure and establishing an inventory of predictable incidents; methods of determination in urine.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2002, No.616, Supplement II. 23p. (whole issue).

CIS 03-811 Screening information data set - SIDS - for high production volume chemicals - Volume 7, Parts 1, 2 and 3
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of: acetic anhydride; D & C Red No. 9; benzyl chloride; 2-butoxyethanol; 4-chloro-o-cresol; 2,6-dichlorotoluene; dicyclopentadiene; cresyl diphenyl phosphate; pentaerythritol; hydroquinone; melamine; 3-methyl butynol; α-methyl styrene.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2002. viii, 328p. Index (Part 1); viii, 322p. Index (Part 2); viii, 295p. Index (Part 3).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/oecdsids/indexcasnumb.htm [in English]

CIS 02-575
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether
Conclusions of this criteria document on diethylene glycol dimethyl ether: in vitro studies indicate that the product is not mutagenic nor genotoxic. Animal experiments show no chromosomal aberrations, and indicate low ingestion and inhalation toxicities. The primary form of exposure is by inhalation. Although not conclusive, the limited epidemiological studies involving exposed workers show some indication of reproductive effects (spontaneous abortions among women, lower sperm counts among men). Animal studies confirm the reproductive disorders, and possible mechanisms are discussed.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 33p. Illus. 107 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad41.pdf [in English]

2000

CIS 01-495 Shih T.S., Hsieh A.T., Liao G.D., Chen Y.H., Liou S.H.
Haematological and spermatotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in copper clad laminate factories
Impregnation workers from factories using ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) as a solvent were evaluated for haematological and reproductive effects together with a control group with indirect exposure to EGME. Results showed that the haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cell count among exposed male workers were significantly lower than among controls. The frequency of anaemia in the exposed group was also significantly higher (26.1% vs. 3.2%). The red blood cell count was negatively associated with air concentrations of EGME, and haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red blood cell count were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of methoxyacetic acid. The pH of semen in the exposed workers was lower than that of controls, but there were no significant differences in sperm count or morphology.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.348-352. 18 ref.

1999

CIS 02-1061 Brondeau M.T., Miraval S., Pillière F., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O.
2-Ethoxyethanol
2-Ethoxyéthanol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. CD-ROM version of the document already analysed as CIS 99-1782. Acute toxicity: severe skin and eye burns; irritation and ulceration of mucous membranes. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders, neurological signs; skin dryness and hyperhaemia with cyanosis metabolic acidosis; liver and kidney damage; lymphopenia and pancreatitis. Chronic toxicity: reversible haematological effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 19mg/m3 (5ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-012-00-X; T, R60, R61, R10, R20/21/22, S53, S45, 203-804-1. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 6p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 01-1314 Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether
Ether monoéthylique du triéthylène glycol [in French]
Eter monoetílico de trietilenglicol [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Synonym: ethoxyglycol. Exposure routes: skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin and eyes. No TLV has been established.
On the Internet site http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/produ cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 00-1068 Shih T.S., Liou S.H., Chen C.Y., Chou J.S.
Correlation between urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid and exposure to 2-methoxy ethanol
To examine the correlation between airborne 2-methoxy ethanol (ME) exposures and urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid (MAA), 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) personal breathing zone samples and urine samples before and after the shift were collected from Monday to Saturday for 27 workers exposed to ME and on Friday for 30 control workers. No correlation was found between airborne exposure to ME and urinary MAA for special operation workers due to the use of personal protective equipment. For regular operation workers, a significant correlation was found between urinary MAA (mg/g creatinine) on Friday at the end of the shift and the weekly mean exposures of ME in a 5 day working week. The proposed biological exposure index BEI, which corresponds to exposure for 5 days and 8 hours a day to 5ppm, extrapolated from the regression equation, is 40mg MAA/g creatinine. A significant correlation was also found between the weekly increase of urinary MAA and the weekly mean exposures of ME. The recommended value of the weekly increase of urinary MAA for 5 days repeated exposures of 5ppm ME is 20mg/g creatinine.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.674-678. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 00-1062 Kim Y., Lee N.R., Sakai T., Kim K.S., Yang J.S., Park S., Lee C.R., Cheong H.K., Moon Y.
Evaluation of exposure to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetates and their possible haematological effects on shipyard painters
The aim of this study was to evaluate exposure to mixed solvents containing ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) in shipyard painters in order to determine if EGEEA is toxic to the bone marrow. The mean exposure concentration to EGEEA in the high and low exposure groups were 3.03ppm and 1.76ppm, respectively. The concentrations of methyl hippuric acid and ethoxyacetic acid in the high exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The mean white blood cell counts in the high exposure group were significantly lower than in the control group, and a significant proportion, six of the 57 painters, were leucopenic; none of the controls were affected. The high rate of possible haematological effects among shipyard painters and a hygienic evaluation of their working environment in the present study suggests that EGEEA might be toxic to bone marrow.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.378-382. 19 ref.

CIS 99-1785 2-Methoxyethanol
2-Méthoxyéthanol [in French]
Replaces CIS 87-836. Uses, physical and chemical properties, pathology and toxicology. Attention is drawn to French legislation relating to occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations are made concerning technical and medical aspects. Topics: abortion; anaemia; methoxyethanol; data sheet; determination in air; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; France; gastrointestinal diseases; haematological effects; handling and storage; health hazards; labelling; legislation; limitation of exposure; neurological effects; personal protective equipment; skin absorption; spills; testicular atrophy; threshold limit values; waste disposal.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1999. 6p. 27 ref.

CIS 99-1782 2-Ethoxyethanol
2-Ethoxyéthanol [in French]
Replaces CIS 87-409. Uses, physical and chemical properties, pathology and toxicology. Attention is drawn to French legislation relating to occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations are made concerning technical and medical aspects. Topics: abortion; ethoxyethanol; data sheet; determination in air; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; France; gastrointestinal diseases; haematological effects; handling and storage; health hazards; hepatotoxic effects; labelling; legislation; limitation of exposure; nephrotoxic effects; neurological effects; personal protective equipment; spills; threshold limit values.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1999. 6p. 20 ref.

1998

CIS 04-262 Wess J., Ahlers H., Dobson S.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ((IOMC)
2-Butoxyethanol
Conclusions of this criteria document: 2-butoxyethanol has moderate acute toxicity and is irritating to the eyes and skin; it is not a skin sensitizer. The principal effect exerted by 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolite 2-butoxyacetic acid is haematotoxicity, with the rat being the most sensitive species. In animals, adverse effects on reproduction and development have not been observed at less than toxic doses. Although there were indications of mutagenicity based on in vitro tests, the results were inconsistent. The absence of structural alerts and the negative findings of in vivo studies are sufficiently reassuring to allow the conclusion that the substance is not mutagenic. Based on the of haemolytic effects observed on pregnant rats exposed during gestation, a tolerable concentration of 13.1mg/m3 has been derived.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. iv, 29p. Illus. 109 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad10.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-1138 Goris A.M.
Industries drive out glycol ethers
Des industriels chassent les éthers de glycol [in French]
Glycol ethers are widely used in industry and are present in numerous degreasing agents, cooling fluids, paints and adhesives. In light of the carcinogenic and mutagenic risks and of the reproductive toxicity of certain glycol ethers, the preferred approach to reduce worker exposure is to avoid their use and adopt substitute materials. The collection of articles describes the practical experiences of two manufacturers, one of electrical equipment, the other of integrated circuits, in switching to product formulations free of glycol ethers.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1998, No.577, p.14-28. Illus.

CIS 00-488
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate
Topics: 2-butoxyethyl acetate; butoxyethanol; criteria document; exposure evaluation; glossary; haematuria; health hazards; irritation; limitation of exposure; literature survey; neurological effects; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 1998. xvii, 357p. Illus. approx. 245 ref.

CIS 99-900 Raymond L.W., Williford L.S., Burke W.A.
Eruptive cherry angiomas and irritant symptoms after one acute exposure to the glycol ether solvent 2-butoxyethanol
Seven clerical workers were evaluated eight months after exposure to vapourized 2-butoxyethanol which had been applied overnight to clean an office floor. Four months after exposure, cherry angiomas began to appear on the bodies of six workers. Medical examination found no evidence of hematologic, liver, lung or renal toxicity, but elevations in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood pressure of each subject were found. While irritant symptoms abated and the mild hypertension cleared, new cherry angiomas continued to appear five years after acute exposure, and the original ones persisted. The angiomas appear to have resulted from a single overexposure to 2-butoxyethanol. Topics: angiomas; butoxyethanol; eye irritation; glycol ethers; hypertension; irritation; short-term exposure; skin eruption; symptoms.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.12, p.1059-1064. 23 ref.

CIS 99-568 Laintinen J., Liesivuori J., Savolainen H.
Urinary NAG and GAG as biomarkers of renal effects in exposure to 2-alkoxyalcohols and their acetates
In a study to evaluate the usefulness of urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) as biomarkers of early kidney effects in exposure to 2-alkoxyethanols and their acetates, GAG excretion was compared with effects on the activity of the urinary enzyme β-N-acetylglycosaminidase (NAG). The excretion rate of GAG was higher among women than men; it was lower among exposed subjects than among controls, and the level was decreased at the tested levels of exposure. The NAG activity was higher in most of the exposed groups than in the controls. Data indicated that an appropriate urinary limit value for ethoxyacetic acid was 30mmol/mol creatinine in postshift samples and that this value corresponded to an 8h exposure level of 2cm3/m3 2-ethoxyethylacetate. Urinary butoxyacetic acid excretion of 60mmol/mol creatinine corresponded to the inhalation exposure level of 5cm3/m3 2-butoxyethanol and its acetate in postshift samples. Topics: butoxyethanol; ethoxyethanol; 2-ethoxyethyl acetate; 2-butoxyethyl acetate; butoxyacetic acid; 2-ethoxyacetic acid; continuous monitoring; determination in urine; enzymological tests; exposure evaluation; limitation of exposure; mucopolysaccharides; nephrotoxic effects; renal function tests; sex-linked differences; urinary excretion; urinary metabolites; urine monitoring.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1998, Vol.40, No.7, p.595-600. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 98-824
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Butyl diglycol
Translation of a report finalized in German in February 1997. Topics: diethylene glycol butyl ether; criteria document; ecotoxicology; Germany; irritants; literature survey; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1998. xv, 60p. 118 ref. Price: DEM 53.00.

CIS 98-820
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Methyl glycol and methyl triglycol
Translations of reports finalized in German in October and August 1996. Topics: blood-cell anomalies; methoxyethanol; triethylene glycol monomethyl ether; criteria document; ecotoxicology; Germany; haematological effects; literature survey; neurological effects; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1998. xxv, 183p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 106.00.

CIS 98-420 2-Ethoxyethanol
2-Etoxietanol [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: anaemia; ethoxyethanol; data sheet; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; haematotoxic effects; health hazards; hepatic damage; irritation; limitation of exposure; lung diseases; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; renal damage; respirators; skin absorption; solvents; USA; waste disposal.
Noticias de seguridad, Apr. 1998, Vol.60, No.4. 4p. Insert.

1997

CIS 99-605 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVIII
Vetenskapligt Underlag för Hygieniska Gränsvärden 18 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1996 and June 1997. Topics: 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; platinum chloride; potassium tetrachloroplatinate; ethoxyethoxyethanol; ethoxyethoxyethyl acetate; manganese dioxide; trimanganese tetraoxide; platinum tetrachloride; methyl cyanoacrylate; ammonium tetrachloroplatinate; ammonium hexachloroplatinate; potassium hexachloroplatinate; sodium hexachloroplatinate; hexachloroplatinic acid; potassium aluminium fluoride; ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate; manganese chloride; criteria document; cyanoacrylates; determination of exposure limits; ethylene; limitation of exposure; literature survey; manganese and compounds; platinum and compounds; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1997. 78p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 98-224
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Methoxypropanol, dipropylene glycol methyl ether
These reports are translations of reports finalized in German in October 1995. Topics: criteria document; dipropylene glycol methyl ether; ecotoxicology; Germany; irritants; legislation; literature survey; neurotoxic effects; propylene glycol monomethyl ether; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997. vii, 142p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 80.00.

CIS 97-1288
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Ethyl glycol/ethyl glycol acetate
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in December 1995: the toxicity of ethyl glycol corresponds to that of ethyl glycol acetate; both substances exhibit a low toxicity; they are absorbed through the skin; there are reports of haematological and spermatotoxic effects in occupationally exposed workers.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997. xviii, 159p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 97.00.

1996

CIS 00-1242 Ethylene glycol dibutyl ether
Ether dibutylique de l'éthylène glycol [in French]
Etilenglicol dibutil éter [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: periodic medical examination is indicated; insufficient data are available on the effect of this substance on human health, therefore utmost care must be taken.
Available on the Internet: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcs/icstart.html; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 2p.

CIS 99-604 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVII
Vetenskapligt underlag för hygieniska gränsvärden 17 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1995 and June 1996. Topics: 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol; amylase; glyoxal; morpholine; cristobalite; quartz; tridymite; methoxyethoxyethyl acetate; criteria document; determination of exposure limits; enzymes; limitation of exposure; literature survey; propylene; proteolytic enzymes; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1996. 62p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-1820 Dipropylene glycol methyl ether
Eter dipropilenglicolmetílico [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; narcotic effects; irritation of the eyes and nose.
Noticias de seguridad, July 1996, Vol.58, No.7. 4p. Insert.

CIS 97-1813 2-Butoxyethanol
2-Butoxyéthanol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes; may have haematotoxic effects on ingestion.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1996. 5p. 33 ref.

CIS 97-745 2-Methoxyethanol
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. It is a teratogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May damage the testes. May irritate the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May cause neurotoxic effects, anaemia and kidney damage.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-737 2-Ethoxyethanol
Data sheet. Synonym (trade name): Cellosolve. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. It is a teratogen and should be handled with extreme caution. It may damage the testes, resulting in decreased fertility. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause anaemia, affect the central nervous system and damage the kidneys.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 96-2235
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Dipropylene glycol
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in Dec. 1993: dipropylene glycol causes skin irritation in humans. Animal studies indicate a low acute toxicity after oral application; repeated oral application has caused damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidney.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. xiv, 58p. 120 ref. Price: DEM 48.00.

CIS 96-845 Correa A., Gray R.H., Cohe R., Rothman N., Shah F., Seacat H., Corn M.
Ethylene glycol ethers and risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility
Occupational exposures to ethylene glycol ethers (EGE) are of concern since their reproductive toxicity has been well documented in animal studies. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among workers at two semiconductor manufacturing plants in the eastern United States in 1980-1989. Assessment of potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was based on reported processes and company records. Among female workers potential exposure to mixtures containing EGE was associated with increased risks of spontaneous abortion and subfertility. Both of these risks exhibited a dose-response relation. Among spouses of male worker potentially exposed to mixtures containing EGE, there was no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, but a nonsignificant increased risk of subfertility was ascertained.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1996, Vol.143, No.7, p.707-717. 38 ref.

CIS 96-792 Vincent R.
Glycol ethers. Job-exposure matrix
Ethers de glycol - Matrice emplois-expositions [in French]
A campaign to assess exposure to glycol ethers was conducted by INRS from 1988 to 1993 in 55 firms, covering 63 workshops or work situations. Exposure was measured by atmospheric and biological sampling. A total of 944 employees took part in the survey; 1,746 atmospheric samples and 2,315 urine samples were taken. Based on the results, a job-exposure matrix for glycol ethers was drawn up. For each occupational activity the likelihood, intensity and frequency of exposure were codified.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1996, No.162, Note No.2009-162-96, p.5-17. 18 ref.

1995

CIS 05-391 The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man
This report is an update of a previous ECETOC report (see CIS 85-1358). It includes a larger number of glycol ethers, presents updated relevant toxicological information in animal and man, and reviews the knowledge of mechanisms underlying the observed toxicology. Contents: haematological and testicular effects; nephrotoxicity; hepatotoxicity; lymphatic tissue and immunotoxicity; neurological effects; genotoxicity and carcinogenicity; developmental and reproductive effects; absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination; human exposure (general population and occupational exposure, air monitoring, biological monitoring); human health effects (haemotological, effects behavioural and neurological effects, reproductive effects, other effects); exposure limits; substance profiles.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Aug. 1995. 350p. Illus. Approx. 550 ref.

CIS 99-606 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVI
Vetenskapligt Underlag för Hygieniska Gränsvärden 16 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1994 and June 1995. Topics: 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane; 2-nitropropane; aluminium; butoxyethoxyethyl acetate; diethylaminoethanol; isopropoxyethanol; propyl acetate; diethylenetriamine; diethylene glycol butyl ether; dimethyl ether; pentaerythritol; diphenylamine; diethylene glycol isobutyl ether; ethylene glycol monoisopropyl ether acetate; trimethylolpropane; criteria document; determination of exposure limits; gallium and compounds; lactates; limitation of exposure; literature survey; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 94p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-584 Frentzel-Beyme R., Domizlaff I.
Epidemiologic study on solvent-induced diseases
Studie über die Epidemiologie lösemittelbedingter Erkrankungen [in German]
The present knowledge of the toxic and carcinogenic effects caused by exposure to solvents in the varnish industry from published case studies and epidemiologic studies is reviewed. The following solvents are covered: butyl alcohol, butyl acetate, carbon disulfide, chloromethane, dichloromethane, dimethylformamide, ethyl acetate, glycol ethers, methoxyethanol, cellosolve, hexane, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, 2-hexanone, butanone, styrene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and xylene.
Umweltbundesamt, Postfach 33 00 22, 14191 Berlin, Germany, 1995. 235p. 436 ref.

CIS 96-54 Methyl cellosolve
Celosolve de metilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: methoxyethanol. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract; haematopoietic system disturbances; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); encephalopathy; haematotoxic effects; anaemia.
Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 1995, Vol.57, No.10. 4p. Insert.

CIS 96-234 Chan T.L., Olson M.J., Baker J.A., Farley D.L., Hutchins H.F.
Exposure assessment and hazard evaluation of a polyoxyalkylene glycol aerosol released from a non-CFC mobile air-conditioning system
Four scenarios were chosen to simulate worst-case exposures to drivers, mechanics or test engineers during an unintentional release of an aerosol containing polyoxyalkylene glycol (PAG). The time-averaged total airborne particulate concentration over a 20-min period ranged from 0.1 to 42mg/m3. Given the measured concentrations, the remote likelihood of the four release scenarios, and the relatively low toxicity of a PAG aerosol with this molecular weight (1700), an adverse pulmonary response in humans exposed to PAG aerosols in actual conditions is unlikely. Similarly, an unexpected exposure of less than 0.1mg/m3 to mechanics while servicing an mobile air conditioning system represents a minimal health risk.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1995, Vol.56, No.9, p.898-904. Illus. 13 ref.

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