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Fluorocarbons - 50 entries found

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  • Fluorocarbons

2008

CIS 09-659
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 1,3-Butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide)
This volume re-evaluates the available evidence on the carcinogenic potential of 1,3-butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). Ethylene oxide is widely used as a sterilizing agent for hospital equipment. The largest single use for 1,3-butadiene is in the production of styrene-butadiene rubber for tyres, while vinyl chloride is primarily used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. Summary of final evaluations: ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene and vinyl chloride are classified in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans); vinyl bromide is classified in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), while there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of vinyl fluoride in humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2008. ix, 510p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol97/mono97.pdf [in English]

2006

CIS 07-511 Trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) (CAS No. 420-46-2)
Conclusions of this criteria document: a preliminary report on a human volunteer toxicokinetic study did not indicate any adverse effect in individuals exposed to 500 ppm for 2 hours; animal experiments indicate a low acute toxicity. In the USA an occupational exposure limit (8hr time-weighted average) of 1,000 ppm is recommended by the American Industrial hygiene Association.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 2006. 52p. 59 ref.

CIS 06-517 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) (CAS No.811-97-2) (Second edition)
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) is a colourless, non-flammable gas that is mainly used to replace hydrochlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The toxicity of HFC-134a is extremely low in experimental animals and no adverse health effects in humans have been reported. Animal experiments also suggest that the substance does not present a carcinogenic risk to humans at any foreseeable levels of exposure.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Ave. E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2nd ed., Jan. 2006. v, 74p. 136 ref.

2005

CIS 06-1264 Gribble M.
Vinylidene fluoride (CAS No. 75-38-7)
Conclusions of this criteria document on vinylidene fluoride (VDF): VDF has low acute and chronic toxicity in laboratory animals. It is not genotoxic either in vitro or in vivo. Although rats developed carcinomas in a one-year oral study, subsequent lifetime inhalation studies in rats and mice showed no adverse effects at high doses. It is therefore unlikely that VDF has significant long-term toxic or carcinogenic properties. VDF has no effects on rat fertility or reproduction. A teratology study did not indicate any embryotoxic, foetotoxic or teratogenic effects at high concentrations. There are no data on the effects of human exposure. The ACGIH has established a threshold limit value of 500ppm or 1300mg/m3.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 2005. 54p. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 06-643 Wallace G.M.F., Brown P.H.
Horse rug lung: Toxic pneumonitis due to fluorocarbon inhalation
Fluorocarbons are widely used in industry, and manifestations of inhalation toxicity include polymer fume fever, reactive airways dysfunction and bronchospasm. Only seven cases of alveolitis occurring acutely after inhalation have been reported. This paper presents four cases of toxic pneumonitis due to direct inhalation of industrial fluorocarbon used as a waterproofing spray for horse rugs. These cases differ from previous reports and show that chronic as well as acute alveolitis can result from fluorocarbon inhalation. Corticosteroid treatment may be beneficial. The need for stricter control in the workplace is emphasized.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.62, No.6, p.414-416. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 06-1 Hexafluoropropylene (CAS No.116-15-4)
Conclusions of this criteria document: hexafluoropropylene (HFP) has a low acute toxicity; animal experiments indicate that the kidney is the principal target organ; given the chemical similarity of HFP with tetraflurorethylene, it is recommended that consideration be given to the possibility of carcinogenic effects. In general, HFP is considered to be of low potential risk and of low priority for further work.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 2005. v, 67p. 99 ref.

2004

CIS 04-26 1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa) (CAS No. 460-73-1)
Conclusions of this criteria document: animal experiments show that 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa) presents a low level of acute inhalation toxicity; long-term exposures at concentrations of 50,000ppm were tolerated with minimal signs of toxicity; at that level, HFC-245fa demonstrated no developmental effects. In genetic testing, HFC-245fa was not mutagenic in bacteria, although it induced some chromosome aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes; no micronuclei were found in mice exposed to 100,000ppm. These data suggest that HFC-245fa does not represent a significant carcinogenic hazard. To date, no adverse effects have been reported in humans.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 2004. 44p. Illus. 51 ref.

2003

CIS 03-1527 Tetrafluoroethylene (CAS No.116-14-3)
Conclusions of this criteria document: in laboratory animals, the primary effect of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is damage to the kidney. Long-term exposures result in a low level of toxicity manifesting as kidney effects and anaemia in rats and mice, and possibly testicular changes in hamsters. No specific study of the reproductive effects of TFE is available. TFE is not genotoxic either in vitro or in vivo. The main metabolite (cysteine conjugate) of TFE, S 1,1,2,2- tetrafluoroethyl-L-cysteine, is also not mutagenic in vivo. In long-term carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice, repeated inhalation of high doses of TFE produced tumours of the kidney in rats and mice and in the liver of mice. In mice, a higher number of tumours of the haematopoietic system were also observed. The current lack of knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the development of these three tumours types precludes a full evaluation of the hazard to humans from exposure to TFE .
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2003. 75p. Illus. 141 ref.

2002

CIS 02-1861 Kondo S., Takahashi A., Tokuhashi K., Sekiya A.
RF number as a new index for assessing combustion hazard of flammable gases
A new index called "RF number" has been proposed for assessing the combustion hazard of several flammable gases and their mixtures. The RF number represents the total expectancy of combustion hazards in terms of flammability limits and heat of combustion for each known and unknown constituents. The advantages of the RF number over other indices such as R-index and F-number for classification of the combustion hazard of hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 2002, Vol.93, No.3, p.259-267.11 ref.

2000

CIS 02-1322 Lyons R.A., Wright D., Fielder H.M.P., McCabe M., Gunneberg A., Nash P., Routledge P., Rees H.
Investigation of an acute chemical incident: Exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons
Symptoms experienced by 254 people present at an accident in a sewer in the United Kingdom (including 2 fatalities) suggested a chemical hazard. The prevalence of symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in the serum of 83 patients were recorded. Among all workers, symptoms (shortness of breath and sore throat) were not significantly associated with concentrations of creatine phosphokinase as biomarker of fluorinated hydrocarbons intoxication. Freon 11 was detected in two blood samples. In a nearby chemical company there had been a Freon 11 spill months earlier.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.577-581. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 02-277 Testud F., Martin J.C., Descotes J., Conso F.
Poisoning induced by the substitution of halogenated hydrocarbons - Literature review
Intoxications liées à la substitution des hydrocarbures halogénés - Revue de la littérature [in French]
The Montreal Protocol of 1996 called for the elimination of certain halogenated hydrocarbons, namely chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), due to their detrimental effects on the environment, including ozone layer depletion and global warming. However, these substitution products have been responsible in recent years for a number of poisonings, including fatal poisonings. This article reviews cases reported in literature on poisonings from CFC substitutes, and concludes that it is necessary to improve our understanding of the hazards associated with these chemicals.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.278-281. 16 ref.

1998

CIS 04-263 Barker P., Cary R., Dobson S.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals ((IOMC)
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluroroethane
Conclusions of this criteria document: most available data on the toxicological properties of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluroroethane have been derived from studies conducted with laboratory animals. 1,1,1,2-tetrafluroroethane exhibits relatively low toxicity. There are indications of developmental toxicity following maternal exposure in rats and rabbits. The evidence for carcinogenicity is limited to an increased incidence of Leydig cell adenomas following exposure to 50,000ppm. The substance has not been found to be genotoxic in studies conducted to date.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. iv, 18p. Illus. 48 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad11.pdf [in English]

CIS 99-1432 Tetrafluoromethane
Topics: arrhythmia; tetrafluoromethane; data sheet; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire hazards; first aid; frostbite; glossary; health hazards; limitation of exposure; New Jersey; personal protective equipment; storage; threshold limit values; toxic gases; unconsciousness; USA.
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Right to Know Program, PO Box 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1998. 6p.

1997

CIS 02-584 m-Chlorobenzotrifluoride
m-Chlorobenzotrifluorid [in German]
There is no information available on the effects of m-chlorobenzotrifluoride on humans. Animal experiments show a very low toxicity upon acute oral administration. The substance does not induce gene mutations or chromosome aberrations. Because of the structural relationship of m-chlorobenzotrifluoride with p-chlorobenzotrifluoride and 3,4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride, similar effects on the liver and kidney may be expected.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 15p. 15 ref.

1996

CIS 97-758 Trifluoromethane
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. It is a mutagen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate the skin and respiratory tract. May cause dermatitis, dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting and irregular heartbeat.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

1995

CIS 02-564 Fluorobenzene
Fluorbenzol [in German]
Toxicological criteria document. There are no data available on the effects of exposure to fluorobenzene in humans. Animal experiments show a low acute toxicity upon oral and inhalation exposure. The substance is not clastogenic. Fluorobenzene is not neurotoxic in rats following inhalation exposure for 28 days.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 22 ref.

CIS 99-606 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards XVI
Vetenskapligt Underlag för Hygieniska Gränsvärden 16 [in Swedish]
This volume consists of the consensus reports submitted by the Criteria Group at the Swedish National Institute for Working Life between July 1994 and June 1995. Topics: 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane; 2-nitropropane; aluminium; butoxyethoxyethyl acetate; diethylaminoethanol; isopropoxyethanol; propyl acetate; diethylenetriamine; diethylene glycol butyl ether; dimethyl ether; pentaerythritol; diphenylamine; diethylene glycol isobutyl ether; ethylene glycol monoisopropyl ether acetate; trimethylolpropane; criteria document; determination of exposure limits; gallium and compounds; lactates; limitation of exposure; literature survey; Sweden; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 94p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-580 Difluoromethane (HFC-32) CAS No.75-10-5
Conclusions of this criteria document: there are no reports of adverse human health effects due to difluoromethane. Animal studies indicate that acute inhalation toxicity is very low; toxic effects were apparent only at very high concentrations. No mutagenic effects have been observed.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, May 1995. v, 23p. 30 ref.

CIS 95-1440 Standing P., Maidment S.C., Ogunbiyi A.O., Groves J.A., Cocker J.
Health and Safety Executive
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane HFC 134a. Criteria document for an occupational exposure limit
No data are available on the effects of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a) in humans. Animal studies provide no indication that the substance presents any serious health implications under occupational exposure conditions; in most studies there has been a clear no observed effect level of 10,000ppm. Proposed occupational exposure standard: 1000ppm (8-hour TWA).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 19p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

1994

CIS 95-1768 Kaufman J.D., Silverstein M.A., Moure-Eraso R.
Atrial fibrillation and sudden death related to occupational solvent exposure
Two cases of atrial fibrillation and one case of sudden death are described in workers exposed to trifluorotrichloroethane used as a solvent/degreasing agent. This agent and related halogenated hydrocarbons have been previously linked to ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac sudden death when inhaled in excessive concentrations. These reports suggest that occupational overexposure to a fluorocarbon may cause atrial fibrillation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1994, Vol.25, No.5, p.731-735. 15 ref.

CIS 94-2008 Pentafluoroethane (HFC 125)
Pentafluoroethane is a non-flammable colourless gas that is currently under development as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons and is not yet available commercially. Its toxicity is very low (the 4h LC50 in rats is greater than 3,928,000 mg/m3 = 800,000ppm). Cardiac sensitization in dogs is observed above 100,000ppm. No mutagenicity or developmental toxicity has been seen in laboratory experiments. No effects on human beings have been reported. An occupational exposure limit (8h time-weighted average) of 1000ppm is recommended by producers.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Ave. E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, May 1994. i, 25p. 30 ref.

1993

CIS 95-1208 Vinylidene fluoride
International chemical safety card. Synonym: 1,1-difluoroethylene. Short-term exposure effects: may cause asphyxia in confined areas; frostbite; chemical burns (eyes).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-72 Vinyl fluoride
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); frostbite.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1854 Tetrafluoromethane
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: risk of suffocation in confined areas; frostbite.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

1992

CIS 93-889 Goetting A.T., Carson J., Burton B.T.
Freon injection injury to the hand - A report of four cases
In each of these cases, workers in the athletic shoe manufacturing industry inadvertently injected concentrated hexafluoroethane into a finger while holding the shoe component and attempting to inject hexafluoroethane. Each case presented symptoms of oedema, limitation of motion, and crepitation. Hand roentgenogrammes revealed subcutaneous gas. Treatment was non-surgical, consisting of splinting, tetanus immunisation, and antibiotics. Rapid resolution of symptoms occurred in all four cases. Hexafluoroethane is relatively inert when injected and has low toxicity. However, potential rapid gaseous expansion warrants observation for pressure injury.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.34, No.8, p.775-778. Illus. 8 ref.

1991

CIS 97-1460 Carbon tetrafluoride
Tetrafluoruro de carbono [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0575. International Chemical Safety Card. Synonym: tetrafluoromethane. Short-term exposure effects: risk of suffocation in confined areas; frostbite.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 94-1834 1,1-Difluoroethylene (liquefied)
1,1-Difluoroetileno (licuado) [in Spanish]
Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 9-0687. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: may cause asphyxia in confined areas; frostbite; chemical burns (eyes).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 93-425 Refrigerant safety in ice recreation facilities
Guidelines for handling ammonia/fluorocarbon refrigerants in public recreation facilities are detailed in this training brochure. Topics covered: general information about types of refrigerants; facility owner's responsibilities; emergency procedures; safety equipment requirements; first aid; maintenance procedures; basic preventive maintenance; design considerations.
Alberta Occupational Health and Safety, 5th Floor, 4920 - 51 Street, Red Deer, Alberta T4N 5Y5, Canada, 1991. 20p. Illus.

1986

CIS 86-1073 Campbell D.D., Lockey J.E., Petajan J., Gunter B.J., Rom W.N.
Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons
A study of 27 refrigeration repair workers (intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products) and of 14 controls revealed no differences in nerve conduction velocities between the 2 groups. There were no differences either in the incidence of physiological or psychological symptoms, except that the exposed group had a significantly higher incidence of palpitations and lightheadedness. In a 3-year follow-up study of 8 refrigeration repair workers, there were no clinical neurological or electroneurophysiological abnormalities.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1986, Vol.43, No.2, p.107-111. Illus. 17 ref.

1985

CIS 86-1054 Changshuo Y.
Toxicity and mutagenic effects of perfluoromethylperfluorocyclohexane
The results of in-vitro experiments suggest that perfluoro(methylcyclohexane) (C7F14) is of low microgenotoxicity. It was positive in Ames' test using TA100 and TA98 cells with S-9 liver extract, but negative in chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange tests with human peripheral lymphocytes.
Industrial Health and Occupational Diseases, 1985, Vol.11, No.3, p.143-147. Illus. 5 ref.

1984

CIS 85-1692 Reichelt H.
Toxicity and mode of action of practically important fluorocarbons - Prophylaxis and therapy of intoxications
Toxizität und Wirkungsweise praktisch bedeutsamer Fluorcarbone - Prophylaxe und Therapie von Intoxikationen [in German]
Review of the toxicity and effects on the body of industrially important fluorinated hydrocarbons: monofluorocarbons (inhibitors of the enzyme aconitase); benzenoid and saturated aliphatic poly- and perfluorocarbons (anaesthetic, narcotic and convulsant effects); unsaturated poly- and perfluorocarbons (capillary wall poisons). The most important toxicological data on representative compounds of these 3 groups are tabulated and their pathological mechanisms are described. A table of current exposure limits in the German Democratic Republic is included.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1984, Vol.30, No.4, p.204-208. 34 ref.

CIS 85-772 May D.C., Blotzer M.J.
A report of occupational deaths attributed to fluorocarbon-113
Report of 2 occupational deaths resulting from exposure to FC-113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane) in enclosed and confined spaces. One incident involved a worker who was exposed to FC-113 after entering a small degreasing tank to clean it. The second case involved a significant spill of FC-113 on board a marine vessel. In both cases, the cause of death was determined to be cardiac arrhythmia with the possibility of anoxia due to the displacement of air by FC-113.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Vol.39, No.5, p.352-354. 17 ref.

1982

CIS 83-142 Edling C., Söderkvist P.
Criteria document for threshold limit values: Fluorocarbons
Kriteriedokument för gränsvärden: Fluorocarboner [in Swedish]
A literature survey of the health hazards of fluorocarbons (Freons 11, 12, 22 and 113) designed to provide the basis for setting on appropriate TLV for these substances. The main acute effects are on the CNS and heart. A questionnaire survey shaved an excess of CNS symptoms in workers with long-term exposure to Freons 11 and 12. Arrythmia has been reported in experimental animals and palpitations in man following long-term exposure to Freon 22. Liver effects have also been reported. There were no reports of experimental or epidemiological findings of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity of teratogenicity. Freons 11 and 13 are the most toxic of the fluorocarbons studied and should receive particular attention when the TLV is being set.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 38p. 86 ref.

CIS 82-1861 Seufert W.D., Bessette F., Lachiver G., Merdy H.
The liquid barrier filter - A new concept to eliminate particulate contaminants from gases
A liquid barrier filter (LBF) consisting of a nylon fabric matrix and a continuous film of a non-toxic, chemically-inert, perfluorocarbon liquid was evaluated for removal of a fine grade Sephadex powder from a gas stream. The LBF allowed passage of 0-23.4 particles (95.7-100% efficiency) in tests of 5-30 minutes exposure compared to passage of 100±29 to 790±105 particles through the fabric filter alone. The liquid phase in the LBF remains intact and allows only diffusion transfer of the gas. The LBF principle can be developed for use in equipment to protect against highly toxic particles contained in an atmosphere and, possibly, to replace self-contained breathing apparatus.
Health Physics, Feb. 1982, Vol.42, No.2, p.209-216. Illus. 20 ref.

1981

CIS 83-228 Raffi G.B., Violante F.S.
Is Freon 113 neurotoxic? A case report
A case of neuropathy in a woman occupationally exposed (cloth cleaning) to Freon 113 (trichlorotrifluoroethane) for about 7 years is described: exposure, clinical signs, electromyographic examination, clinical improvement after cessation of exposure. It is suggested that this fluorocarbon has a neurotoxic action, and the need of further research to confirm this hypothesis is emphasised.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1981, Vol.49, No.2, p.125-127. 8 ref.

1980

CIS 80-1984 Åkesson B., Högstedt B., Skerfving S.
Fever induced by fluorine-containing lubricant on stainless steel tubes.
Three men, all smokers, handling a particular batch of stainless steel tubes suffered repeated attacks of malaise, chills, and fever, mainly after gas brazing, but also simply after handling the tubes. The presence of fluorine on the tubes and in the tobacco they used was shown. A fluorocarbon polymer lubricant was suspected of causing the attacks, which were avoided by heating the tubes to 1000°C.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.37, No.3, p.307-309. Illus. 4 ref.

1978

CIS 82-1332 Bales R.E.
Vinyl fluoride and vinyl bromide industrial hygiene survey report
Exposure to vinyl fluoride (VF) and vinyl bromide (VB) in manufacturing plants and to VF in a polymerisation plant were evaluated for 8h periods during 3 work shifts in each plant. In production operations VF exposure was <2ppm and in polymerisation operations the time-weighted average exposure was 1.9ppm. VB exposure ranged from <0.5 to 6.3ppm and exposure to ethylene dibromide, in VB manufacturing, ranged from 0.2-0.57ppm.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Helath, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Nov. 1978. 22p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 81-1038 Bales R.E.
Fluorocarbons - Worker exposure in four facilities.
Worker exposure levels for normal plant operations in 4 fluorocarbon facilities were less than current permissible levels for the various jobs in all of the plants. Detailed industrial hygiene surveys were made to conduct personal and area sampling in 2 facilities manufacturing fluorocarbons and 2 in which fluorocarbons were used in products. The report describes the types of plants, processes and operations surveyed, employment and job descriptions, medical and industrial hygiene programmes, past exposures, sampling procedures and methods, current worker exposures and exposure control efforts. Recommendations are made to achieve minimal worker exposures.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978. 49p. 14 ref.

CIS 79-1622
ZH 1/409, Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Sep. 1978.
Data sheet on handling of fluorocarbons
Merkblatt für den Umgang mit Fluorkohlenwasserstoffen [in German]
Fluorocarbons may be harmful or flammable, or give rise to toxic thermal decomposition products. Their physical characteristics and health hazards are reviewed. Directives are given for storage, general safety, personal protection and first aid. Relatively safe, harmful, and flammable hydrocarbons are presented in tabular form, with the addresses of German poison centres.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed. Rep.). 12p. Price: DM.0.70.

1977

CIS 78-453 Saharova L.N., Tolgskaja M.S.
Toxicity and mode of action of some halogen derivatives of ethylene: dichlorodifluoroethylene, chlorotrifluoroethylene and tetrafluoroethylene
Toksičnost' i harakter dejstvija nekotoryh galoidproizvodnyh ėtilena - diftordihlorėtilena, triftorhlorėtilena i tetraftorėtilena [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments to compare the toxic effects of these 3 fluoroethylenes. Dichlorodifluoroethylene was found to be the most toxic. Toxicity diminished in proportion to the increase in the number of fluorine atoms in the molecules of these compounds, which all affect the nervous system, liver and kidneys. Recommended TLVs: 1mg/m3 for dichlorodifluoroethylene; 5mg/m3 for chlorotrifluoroethylene; and 20mg/m3 for tetrafluoroethylene.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1977, No.5, p.36-42. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 78-430 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to decomposition products of fluorocarbon polymers.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to inorganic fluorides, including hydrogen fluoride, and monitoring of the workroom air should be in accordance with the requirements of the standards for these substances. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equipment and clothing, information of employees, work practices and engineering controls, sanitation. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data, development of standard, research needs. Useful additional information is given in an appendix.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-193, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1977. 112p. 92 ref.

1976

CIS 77-1944 Korbakova A.I.
Comparative toxicity of chlorinated and fluorinated methane and ethane derivatives
Sravnitel'naja toksičnost' hlorirovannyh i ftorirovannyh proizvodnyh gruppy metana i ėtana [in Russian]
Studies of Freon 22, 141 and 113 in mice. Introduction of a fluorine atom into the molecule markedly reduces the toxicity of these hydrocarbons, and modifies their effect on the organism, especially on long-term exposure to low concentrations. It is recommended that the highly toxic chlorinated compounds be replaced by fluorinated or chlorofluorinated ones. Comparative toxicity data on chlorinated, chlorofluorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1976, No.11, p.38-41. 7 ref.

CIS 77-1042 Ivanova N.I.
Toxicity of trifluorostyrene
O toksičnosti triftorstirola [in Russian]
Studies in mice and rats to determine the acute, subacute and chronic toxicity of trifluorostyrene (TFS; C6H5CF-CF2). Acute exposure to TFS produced central nervous system (CNS) disturbances with symptoms of general depression of functions. Threshold for CNS effects was 0.03mg/l. TFS has cumulative properties (cumulation coefficient: 0.69). Chronic exposure to 0.02mg/l reduced oxygen uptake, increased urinary hippuric acid levels, etc.). Given the moderate toxicity of TFS a TLV of 5mg/m3 is proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1976, No.5, p.55-56. 6 ref.

1975

CIS 76-1969 Filičeva A.P.
Nervous system changes due to the chronic action of fluorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons
Izmenenija nervnoj sistemy pri hroničeskom vozdejstvii ftorirovannyh alifatičeskih uglevodorodov [in Russian]
Results of studies in 196 chemical workers exposed for some years to various fluorinated or chlorofluorinated ethylene derivatives. Most of them complained of persistent headaches. It was concluded that the symptoms were due to autonomic dysfunction, often combined with neurasthenia. Measures recommended: periodic screening examinations and temporary or permanent changes of workpost.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1975, No.10, p.14-16. 3 ref.

CIS 76-1018 Paulet G., Roncin G., Vidal E., Toulouse P., Dassonville J.
Fluorocarbons and general metabolism in the rat, rabbit and dog.
The metabolic effects of the inhalation of monofluorotrichloromethane (FC11) and difluorodichloromethane (FC12) were studied in various animal species, both in single exposure and repeated exposure experiments. The results are presented in tabular form and discussed. FC12 at 20% in a single exposure or at 5% in prolonged exposure (15 days) does not induce metabolic reactions. The same is true for FC11 at 2.5%; however, FC11 at 5% does produce significant effects which can be explained by a slowing down of cellular oxidation. With FC11/FC12 mixtures, the effects are clearly due to the presence of FC11.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Nov. 1975, Vol.34, No.2, p.197-203. 11 ref.

CIS 76-432 Flowers N.C., Hand R.C., Horan L.G.
Concentrations of fluoroalkanes associated with cardiac conduction system toxicity.
Experiments in dogs showed that when respiratory changes associated with inhalation of fluorocarbons was eliminated by continuous control of ventilation and of blood gases during and after exposure, 10-min exposure to trichloromonofluoromethane never caused death at concentrations below 15%. At 15-17%, 9 animals survived and 7 died, and none survived concentrations above 21%. Death was generally due to profound sinus bradycardia and ultimate asystole. 10-min. exposure to dichlorodifluoromethane caused death only at concentrations above 95%.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1975, Vol.30, No.7, p.353-360. Illus. 14 ref.

1974

CIS 75-1827 McHale E.T.
Life support without combustion hazards.
Fire research has shown that combustion can be prevented by increasing the heat capacity of the atmosphere. This can be effected by addition to the air of perfluorocarbons such as carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and octafluoropropane (C3F8), which being physiologically inert permit life to be sustained; they can also be used to extinguish existing fires. On account of the production of toxic decomposition products by C2F6 and C3F8, however, only CF4 appears acceptable from the toxicity standpoint for use in habitable atmospheres.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1974, Vol.10, No.1, p.15-24. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-1363 Carter V.L., Bafus D.A., Warrington H.P., Harris E.S.
The acute inhalation toxicity in rats from the pyrolysis products of four fluoropolymers.
The potential toxicity of the pyrolysis products from polymeric formulations containing vinylidene fluoride (VF2), hexafluoropropene (HFP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) was studied in rats, gross and histological examinations being performed. The hydrogen-containing elastomers VF2 and HFP produced a less toxic pyrolysate than PTFE. No correlation could be established between hydrolysable fluoride levels and lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48h as a result of pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Dec. 1974, Vol.30, No.3, p.369-376. Illus. 9 ref.

1973

CIS 74-256 Hümpfner K.
New dry-cleaning solvent
Ein neues Lösemittel für die Chemischreinigung [in German]
Presents a fluorinated hydrocarbon (FKW11, Dional, CCl3F) with a relatively low cost price and greater cleansing efficiency than trichloro-trifluoroethane (FKW 113). Its physical properties are given and compared with those of other solvents. Threshold limit value is fixed at 1,000 ppm; experimental studies did not reveal any organic disorder. Olfactory threshold and narcotic effects.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Oct. 1973, Vol.23, No.10, p.309-315. Illus. 8 ref.

1972

CIS 73-1383 Terrill J.B.
Determination of common fluorocarbon propellants in blood
Description of a quantitative method developed to determine the levels of Freons 11, 12 and 114 in blood. The apparatus and analytical procedure (solvent extraction) enable fluorocarbon blood levels to be determined in the ppm range. The percentage recovery rates of the 3 fluorocarbons and their mixtures from blood are given.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.433-435. Illus. 4 ref.