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Esters and salts - 899 entries found

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  • Esters and salts

2010

CIS 11-0224 Diallo F.B., Bégin D., Gérin M.
The substitution of solvents with the fatty acid esters of vegetable oils
La substitution des solvants par les esters méthyliques d'acides gras d'huiles végétales [in French]
More and more companies are attempting to replace organic solvents due to their potential for flammability, toxicity and negative effects on the environment. It is in this context that replacement products are appearing on the market. This report reviews current knowledge on fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from vegetable oils as potential substitutes for volatile organic solvents.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. viii, 90p. Illus. 248 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
B-079.pdf [in French]

2009

CIS 11-0244 Engelen B., Antúnez Martel J., Baldini L., Barnes K., Blosser P., Diaz Garcia C., Elliott N.G., Fiolet G., Jansen E.B.M., Martinez Sánchez P.M., Mikkonen S., Pfisterer U., Schuermans K., Terschek R., Woldendorp J., Rose K.D., Spierings A.
Guidelines for handling and blending FAME
This report provides guidance on the handling and blending of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), as a neat product and at concentrations up to 10% by volume in diesel fuel. The major challenges associated with diesel fuels containing FAME are discussed as they relate to the conformity of the finished fuel to typical specifications, especially those in the European standard for automotive diesel (EN 590). This report focuses on the production, blending, distribution and supply of diesel containing up to 10% FAME by volume, as well as the storage and handling of neat FAME but does not address vehicle-related issues with the use of diesel fuels containing FAME. The potential future production and use of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE) in diesel fuel is also discussed.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, vi, 35p. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-755 Le Bacle C., Ganem Y., Falcy M.
Questions and answers. Three requests for assistance
Questions - Réponses. Trois demandes d'assistance [in French]
Three questions and answers are selected to illustrate the support activity of INRS: risks to workers exposed to moulds in humid premises; health hazards related to radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology; follow-up of workers exposed to PFOA (ammonium perfluorooctanoate).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2009, No.118, p.253-256.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/DMT_QR%2030/$File/QR30.pdf [in French]
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/DMT_QR%2028/$File/QR28.pdf [in French]
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/DMT_QR%2029/$File/QR29.pdf [in French]

2008

CIS 09-640 Loh C.H., Liou S.H., Jiau S.S., Cheng W.T., Shih T.S., Chen H.I.
Hepatic effects among workers exposed to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate
The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) was a hepatotoxin in exposed workers. A total of 29 workers from a silk-screening shop, using EGEEA as the major cleaning solvent, were recruited as high exposure group, while a group of 57 workers with indirect and low exposure to EGEEA were selected as the comparison group. Air concentrations of EGEEA were measured by 8-h personal sampling. The mean of air EGEEA concentration in the high and low exposure groups was 7.41-16.5 ppm and 0.07-3.62 ppm respectively. Liver function profiles in both male and female EGEEA-exposed workers were not significantly different from those in the comparison group. Furthermore, no significant change in hepatic function was noted after a two-year follow-up study of these EGEEA-exposed workers. These findings suggest that EGEEA is not a hepatotoxin in this workplace.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.463-469. 33 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_463.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-161 Kwapniewski R., Kozaczka S., Hauser R., Silva M.J., Calafat A.M., Duty S.M.
Occupational exposure to dibutyl phthalate among manicurists
The objective of this study was to measure manicurists' exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) contained in nail polish at work and to determine whether workplace characteristics influence this exposure. DBP has been found to be a reproductive and developmental toxicant in rats. Pre-shift and post-shift urine samples were collected from 40 manicurists. There was a statistically significant cross-shift increase of the urinary concentration of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MNBP), the major metabolite of DBP. Use of gloves reduced MNBP concentrations by 15.1ng/mL below the pre-shift concentration compared with a 20.5ng/mL increase if gloves were not worn.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.705-711. 46 ref.

2007

CIS 09-1105 Sakr C.J., Kreckmann K.H., Green J.W., Gillies P.J., Reynolds J.L., Leonard R.C.
Cross-sectional study of lipids and liver enzymes related to a serum biomarker of exposure (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or APFO) as part of a general health survey in a cohort of occupationally-exposed workers
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), a biomarker of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) exposure, and lipids and liver enzymes among 1025 workers with potential occupational exposure to APFO. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between PFOA and selected outcomes from a standard metabolic health screening survey. Most outcome parameters were within normal limits. However after adjusting for potential confounders, modest but statistically significant positive relationships were observed between serum PFOA and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein and γ-glutamyl aminotransferase.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.49, No.10, p.1086-1096. 39 ref.

CIS 09-124 Smith P.A., Jackson Lepage C., Harrer K.L., Brochu P.J.
Hand-held photoionization instruments for quantitative detection of sarin vapor and for rapid qualitative screening of contaminated objects
Emergency responders and health care personnel may be in contact with patients from an incident involving exposures to hazardous chemicals. Using detectors could avoid additional contamination to workers, other patients, and to the treatment facility and associated equipment. In this study, the operating characteristics of several photoionization detectors (PIDs) were examined using sarin in a laboratory setting. Instrument response factors were calculated for the quantification of airborne sarin, and speed of detector response and recovery were examined with contaminated cloth material. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that within health care settings, hand-held PID instruments could fill an important need as a detector for liquid contamination from extremely dangerous chemicals.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2007, Vol.4, No.10, p.729-738. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-759
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary Reports XII (Nos. 39, 62, 67, 150, 151, 180,181, 194, 206)
Ergänzungsbericht XII [in German]
This document included translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1986 and May 1997, relating to nine substances or groups of substances (naphthalene, hexachlorobutadiene, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, chloracetic acid methyl ester, chloracetic acid ethyl ester, C10-C21-alkane sulfonic acids, phenyl esters, chloroalkane sulfonic acids, sodium salts, 3-methyl-2-butenal and surfactants) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Irritant effects and contact allergy in humans are reported respectively for methyl chloroacetate and ethyl chloroacetate.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 95p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.

CIS 08-671 Testud F., Grillet J.P.
Organophosphorus, carbamate, synthetic pyrethroid and various other insecticides
Insecticides organophosphorés, carbamates, pyréthrinoïdes de synthèse et divers [in French]
Insecticides consist of substances that are highly toxic for the central and/or peripheral nervous system. Their neurotoxicity is the reason behind both their effectiveness against insects and their toxic effects on humans. Recent regulatory trends have caused the withdrawal of many active substances, in particular organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. Pyrethroids are currently the most widely-used insecticides, in consideration of their effectiveness on insects coupled with their low mammalian toxicity. For each of the main classes of insecticides, this article presents the toxicokintetics, biochemical mode of action and toxic effects reported in humans in the main exposure settings, namely farming, public health and consumer use.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, No.155, 24p. Illus. 187 ref.

CIS 08-381 Protois J.C., Blachère V., Morèle Y.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)
Evaluation de l'exposition professionnelle au phtalate de di-(éthyl-2 hexyle) (DEHP) [in French]
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is mainly used as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride industry. This article reviews the findings of various studies on the exposure to DEHP, together with the results of the analysis of personal and environmental air samples collected during visits to twelve French plastics processing enterprises. In general, exposures to DEHP were found to be low. Because certain forms of processing generate DEHP-rich dusts or fumes, it is advisable to equip these installations with local exhaust ventilation or more simply to accelerate the switch less-toxic phthalates or other classes of plasticizers which is already well underway in areas such as textile fabric coating.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2007, No.206, p.51-58. 13 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202266/$File/ND2266.pdf [in French]

2006

CIS 08-1008
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for guthion - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of guthion is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards are primarily related to the neurotoxic properties of the substance. Its carcinogenic potential has not been established.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 184p. Illus. Approx. 280 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp188.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1006
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for diazinon - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of diazinon is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include neurotoxic effects (central nervous system) and pancreatic damage. The carcinogenic potential of the substance has not been established. (Update of CIS 97-210).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 246p. Illus. Approx. 450 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp86.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-643 Lichtenstein N., Jaschke M., Nies E., Möller A.
Basic principles for testing for the presence of harmful substances in hearing protectors
Grundlagen für die Prüfung von Gehörschützern auf ihren Gehalt an Gefahrstoffen [in German]
Hearing protectors marketed in Germany may be awarded a certificate by the statutory accident insurance carrier (Berufsgenossenschaft) to indicate that they contain low concentrations of harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony, lead, tin, tin-organic compounds and phthalates. Suitable analytical procedures for the identification of these substances were selected and standardized by round-robin tests. Concentration limits were derived from current knowledge of the availability of the substances and their dermal absorption. For example the concentrations of arsenic, antimony and lead in hearing protectors may not exceed 25 mg/kg. The certificate was introduced in response to a report on the harmful substances contained in hearing protectors that caused many noise-exposed workers not to use them.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft, Apr. 2006, Vol.66, No.4, p.135-141. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 07-376 Sudakin D.L.
Pyrethroid insecticides: Advances and challenges in biomonitoring
Pyrethroids are structurally diverse chemicals that are synthetically derived from naturally occurring pyrethrin insecticides. Significant advances in analytical chemistry have led to the development of biomarkers of exposure to pyrethroids, and these methods are currently being applied to study exposure in the general population. This article reviews the chemistry and toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides, with an emphasis on the development of biomarkers. Future challenges in the application of these biomarkers in epidemiological studies are explored, as is the need for improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of pyrethroids in humans.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 2006, Vol.44, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 36 ref.

2005

CIS 06-1408 Hauser R., Calafat A.M.
Phthalates and human health
Phthalates are a group of man-made chemicals with a wide spectrum of industrial applications. High molecular weight phthalates are primarily used as plasticizers in the manufacture of flexible vinyl and low molecular weight phthalates are used in personal-care products, as solvents and plasticizers for cellulose acetate, and in making lacquers, varnishes, and coatings. Animal and human studies indicate that potential human health effects include developmental anomalies, male and female reproductive health effects and respiratory health effects. Occupational studies on the health risks of phthalates are very limited.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2005, Vol.62, No.11, p.806-818. Illus. 120 ref.

CIS 06-1168 Bégin D., Heng S., Gérin M.
The substitution of solvents with ethyl lactate
La substitution des solvants par le lactate d'éthyle [in French]
This report analyses published data on the occupational safety and health and environmental aspects of ethyl lactate. It aims to provide guidance for industrial hygienists and other safety and health specialists on its possible use as a substitute for traditional solvents. It is concluded that, given the low toxicity of ethyl lactate in humans and in the environment, it constitutes an acceptable replacement for more toxic solvents such as dichloromethane. However, adequate ventilation is required and the use of protective gloves and glasses is recommended.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 41p. 135 ref. Price: CAD 6,42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/B-069.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1020
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate
Conclusions of this criteria document (status February 2004): dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate irritates the skin and can cause lasting eye damage in rabbits; long-term or repeated administration can cause skin irritation in humans; there are indications of fetotoxic and teratogenic effects at maternally toxic doses in rats; epidemiological studies give no indication of a teratogenic effect in humans.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. xiv, 56p. 98 ref. Price: EUR 54.50.

CIS 06-1017
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
2-Phenyl-2-imidazoline and its salts with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid
Conclusions of this criteria document (status October 2003): in animal studies, 2-phenyl-2-imidazoline and its salts with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (pyromellitic acid mono(phenylimidazolinium) salt and pyromellitic acid di(phenylimidazolinium) salt) have an irritant effect on the eyes and/or skin of animals; no data are available for humans.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. xvi, 138p. 99 ref. Price: EUR 54.50.

CIS 06-1015
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
4-Chloroacetoacetic acid ethyl ester
Conclusions of this criteria document (status February 2003): no data are available on effects in humans; in animal experiments, the substance causes central nervous system depression after acute administration; it is caustic to the skin and eyes and sensitizing in guinea pigs.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. xiii, 53p. 33 ref. Price: EUR 36.00.

CIS 06-663 Vermeulen R., Jönsson B.A.G., Lindh C,H., Kromhout H.
Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry
Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of carbon disulfide (CS2), and phthalic acid (PA), a metabolite of phthalates, were studied across factories and departments in the rubber industry. Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine factories were collected on different days. Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly during the working week compared to Sunday. Levels of both biomarkers did not differ markedly between working days. Increases seemed to be restricted to specific factories and or departments, such as moulding and curing. Findings confirm that rubber workers are exposed to various levels of phthalates and CS2 depending on the specific conditions of the factories and departments. Biological monitoring appears to be a reliable means of evaluating exposures to these substances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.663-669. 22 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/c5v8d0rqrq7yuhuq9evl/contributions/u/1/1/7/u1179348521147g6.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-256 Copestake P., Heath M.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Butyl acetates
This criteria document evaluates the health and environmental effects of n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl and tert-butyl acetates. Main conclusions: occupational exposure to butyl acetate particles and vapour may occur in workplaces involving painting, printing, lacquering or gluing; human studies indicate that inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate may cause slight irritation to the eyes, nose and throat; sensitivity to odour occurs at much lower concentrations than those at which irritation is reported; only very limited data are available on the human health effects of the other isomers. Based on limited data for n-butyl acetate, a tolerable concentration of 0.4mg/m3 has been derived. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. iv, 49p. Illus. 180 ref.

CIS 06-365 Meuling W.J.A., Ravensberg L.C., Roza L., van Hemmen J.J.
Dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos in human volunteers
Doses of either 5mg or 15mg chlorpyrifos (CPF) diluted in ethanol were applied to the skin of healthy male volunteers. Duration of dermal exposure was 4h, after which the non-absorbed fraction was washed off. Urine samples of CPF and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) were collected at pre-determined intervals up to 120h after application. A relatively large fraction of CPF (42%-67% of the applied dose) was washed off. There was no significant difference in total urinary excretion of TCP after 120h for the 5mg and 15mg CPF exposures, showing that an increase in the dermal dose does not increase absorption. Furthermore, it was observed that the clearance of CPF by the body was not completed within 120 h, suggesting that CPF or TCP was retained by the skin and/or accumulated in the body. Daily occupational exposure to CPF may therefore result in adverse effects.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.44-50. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 06-254 Saillenfait A.M., Laudet-Hesbert A.
Phthalates (II)
Phtalates (II) [in French]
This article presents a summary of current knowledge on the toxic properties of the most commonly-used phthalic acid esters. Based on published information regarding their physical and chemical properties and their toxicology, phthalates can be classified into three broad classes. Those of low molecular weight (including methyl and ethyl phthalate) are used as solvents and in the cellulosic polymer industry; they are slightly more soluble in water than other phthalates. Phthalates with high molecular weights are practically only used as polyvinyl chloride plasticizers; they are insoluble in water and have very low vapour pressure. Phthalates whose molecular weight lies in between are characterized by having a far greater toxic potential, particularly with respect to reproduction and development.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2005, No.149, 10p. Illus. 134 ref.

CIS 05-254 Saillenfait A.M., Laudet-Hesbert A.
Phthalates
Phtalates [in French]
Phthalic esters or organic phthalates consist of a family of chemicals that are widely used, mainly as PVC plasticizers for numerous consumer and industrial products. Their volatility and water solubility are low. This information note covers the six phthalates whose use is currently the most important. Among rodents, the main observed toxic effects concern the liver, and include liver tumours in the case of diisononyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. However, it is generally accepted that in view of the mode of action of these substances these effects cannot be extrapolated to humans. The effects of certain phthalates that are the cause of most concern relate to reproductive and pre-birth developmental effects: di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate can affect the male reproductive system (both during development and among adults) and are embryotoxic and foetotoxic.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2005, No.146, 9p. 102 ref.

2004

CIS 06-149 Schettgen T., Broding H.C., Angerer J., Drexler H.
Dimethyl sulphate; a hidden problem in occupational medicine
IARC has classified dimethyl sulfate as a group 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans). Blood levels of N-methylvaline were monitored in sixty-two workers with potential exposure to dimethyl sulfate in a chemical plant producing surfactants for the textile industry. Controls consisted of ten laboratory workers without exposure to methylating agents. While 52 of the 62 workers showed N-methylvaline levels similar to those of the control group, a large exposure to dimethyl sulfate was seen in a group of ten employees working in an area where the substance was processed. These workers exceeded the German exposure equivalent value for dimethyl sulfate (40µg/L blood) by up to four times. In contrast, dimethyl sulfate was not detectable in workplace air in this area. Skin contact was therefore considered to be the main route of uptake for this substance.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.61, No.1, p.73-75. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 05-375 Krzemińska S., Nazimek T.
Selection of sorption material for tests of pesticide permeation through protective clothing fabrics
This article presents the results of studies on selecting a solid sorption material for absorbing liquid crop protection agents which permeate protective clothing fabrics. The selected substances (dichlorvos, cypermethrin, 2,4-D and carbofuran) were tested with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The tests demonstrated that polypropylene melt-blown type nonwoven fabric had high recovery coefficients for all four active ingredients studied. The highest recovery coefficient, 0.97, was obtained for carbofuran. The recovery coefficients obtained for the three remaining substances were lower: 0.89 for cypermethrin and 2,4-D, and 0.84 for dichlorvos.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.387-397. Illus. 13 ref.

2003

CIS 06-1008 Sodium lauryl sulfate
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet on the dangers of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Synonym: sodium dodecylsulfate. Overall, there are no data in the OECD and CIR reports on SLS and their formulations to indicate SLS to be a skin sensitiser, or a genotoxic, carcinogenic, or a reproductive toxicant. The toxicity of SLS appears to be restricted to acute toxicity and skin and eye irritation. Indeed, for chronic toxicity, an oral study in the rat indicates that the primary health effect of SLS appears to be local irritation. However, these health effects are primarily based on the effects of SLS at high doses in studies in laboratory animals. The risk to humans from SLS will depend on the amount of exposure to the chemical. The amount of SLS used in cosmetics, and hence the potential for human exposure, is significantly smaller than that used in animal studies. Consequently, considering the human health effects associated with SLS together with data indicating potentially extensive use in both industrial and consumer areas, it appears that the human health hazards for both consumers and workers are low.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 6p. 8 ref.
http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/Information_Sheets/Existing_Chemical_Information_Sheets/ECIS_sls_PDF.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-1001 Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS)
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. There seems to be very low risk to workers or consumers exposed to this substance. Animal experiments at high doses have resulted in eye and skin irritation.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 3p. 5 ref.
http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/Information_Sheets/Existing_Chemical_Information_Sheets/ECIS_ALS_PDF.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-413 Machera K., Goumenou M., Kapetanakis E., Kalamarakis A., Glass C.R.
Determination of potential dermal and inhalation operator exposure to malathion in greenhouses with the whole body dosimetry method
This study evaluated the potential dermal and inhalation exposure of operators during the spraying of malathion on greenhouse tomatoes at low and high spraying pressures. Inhalation exposure was monitored using personal air pumps and sampling tubes. For the monitoring of hand exposure, cotton gloves were used in two trials and rubber gloves in a further three. The volumes of spray solution contaminating the body of the operator were 25.37-35.83mL/h in the case of low pressure knapsack applications and 160.76-283.45mL/h in the case of hand lance applications with tractor-generated high pressure. The potential inhalation exposures were estimated at 0.07 and 0.09mL/h in the case of low pressure knapsack applications, based on a ventilation rate of 25L/min. Both potential dermal operator exposure (excluding hands) and potential inhalation exposure were increased approximately sevenfold when the tractor-assisted application pressure was increased from 3 to 18 bar.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.61-70. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-1540
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of pyrethrins and pyrethroids is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurological effects; allergic reactions; slight skin irritation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xx, 287p. Illus. Approx. 780 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp155.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1539
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for malathion
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of malathion is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: effects on the nervous system (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase); cardiovascular effects (bradycardia, low blood pressure, atrio-ventricular conduction disturbances); ocular effects (irritation, blurred vision).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xix, 284p. Illus. Approx. 615 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp154.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1062 n-Butyl acetate
Acétate de n-butyle [in French]
Acetato de n-butilo [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 2003. Exposure routes: inhalation. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; effects on the central nervous system; lowering of consciousness when exposure is far above OEL. Long-term exposure effects: defatening of the skin. Threshold limit value: 150ppm as TWA; 200ppm as STEL (ACGIH 2003); pregnancy risk group C (DFG 2003). Synonyms: acetic acid, n-butyl ester; butyl ethanoate.
Internet documents, 2003, 2p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc03/icsc0399.pdf [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0399.html [in French]
http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn0399.htm [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1086 Sekizawa J., Dobson S., Touch R.J.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Diethyl phthalate
Conclusions of this criteria document: a few cases of skin irritation and potential contact dermatitis to diethyl phthalate have been reported; dermal sensitization has been described but seems to be rare. Data from animal studies showed no carcinogenic effect after dermal exposure; no adverse immunological or neurological effects have been reported in general toxicity studies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. iv, 36p. Illus. 154 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad52.pdf [in English]

2002

CIS 05-518 Sapota A., Skrzypińska-Gawrysiak M.
Dimethoate
Dimetoat [in Polish]
Dimethoate is used as an insecticide to fight against numerous insects and acarids on crops. The most frequent symptoms of dimethoate poisoning are inhibitions of cholinesterase activity of the brain, plasma and enrythrocytes and symptoms characteristic for poisoning with organophosphorus compounds. In experiments on volunteers, a dimethoate dose of 0.2mg/kg administered daily for 39 days did not result in any significant biological changes (NOAEL), but when administered at 0.43mg/kg, it resulted in decreased plasma ChE by 24% (LOAEL). Based on these findings, a threshold limit value (time-weighted average) of 0.2mg/m3 was proposed for dimethoate in workplace air, with a short-term exposure limit value of 0.6mg/m3. In accordance with WHO recommendations, a biological exposure index that decreases AChE activity to 70% of its initial activity should be determined.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.67-92. Illus. 94 ref.

CIS 03-1058 Bensulide
Bensulide [in French]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 2002 (Spanish version already abstracted under CIS 00-650). Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: effects on the nervous system (convulsions, respiratory failure, cholinesterase inhibition, death); exposure may result in death; effects may be delayed. Long-term exposure effects: cholinesterase inhibition; cumulative effect is possible. Threshold limit value not established. Synonyms: O,O-diisopropyl S-2-phenylsulfonylaminoethyl phosphorodithioate; phosphorodithioic acid; O,O-bis(1-methylethyl)S-(2-((phenylsulfonyl)amino)ethyl)ester.
Internet documents, 2002. 2p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc03/icsc0383.pdf [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/Niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0383.html [in French]

CIS 03-811 Screening information data set - SIDS - for high production volume chemicals - Volume 7, Parts 1, 2 and 3
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of: acetic anhydride; D & C Red No. 9; benzyl chloride; 2-butoxyethanol; 4-chloro-o-cresol; 2,6-dichlorotoluene; dicyclopentadiene; cresyl diphenyl phosphate; pentaerythritol; hydroquinone; melamine; 3-methyl butynol; α-methyl styrene.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2002. viii, 328p. Index (Part 1); viii, 322p. Index (Part 2); viii, 295p. Index (Part 3).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/oecdsids/indexcasnumb.htm [in English]

CIS 02-57 n-Propyl nitrate
Nitrato de n-propilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: TWA 1000mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: cyanosis; methaemoglobinaemia; anaemia; headache; weakness; irritability; nausea; increase of pulse rate; skin irritation and thickening.
Noticias de seguridad, Apr. 2002, Vol.64, No.4, 4p. Insert.

CIS 97-60 2-Ethoxyethylacetate
Data sheet. Synonym: cellosolve acetate. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. It is a teratogen and should be handled with extreme caution. Irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting. May damage the kidneys.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0840.pdf [in English]

CIS 97-57 Diethyl phthalate
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. Irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May damage the nervous system.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0707.pdf [in English]

CIS 97-49 Chlorpyrifos
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause organophosphate poisoning with headache, sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and loss of coordination. May damage the liver and nervous system.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0426.pdf [in English]

2001

CIS 03-65
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for di-n-butyl phthalate (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of di-n-butyl phthalate is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Based on findings from animal studies, toxic effects in humans would not be expected at typical exposure levels, since effects in animals were seen only at very high doses. Main effects on animals are developmental and reproductive alterations. (Update of CIS 91-1265).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2001. xix, 185p. Illus. Approx. 610 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp135.html [in English]

CIS 03-64
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for methyl parathion (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of methyl parathion is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurological effects due the inhibition of the activity of acetylcholinesterase (tremor, convulsions, death); arrhythmia; cardiovascular lesions; miosis (pinpoint pupils). Neuropsychiatric disorders have been reported after chronic exposure.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2001. xix, 226p. Illus. Approx. 770 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp48.html [in English]

CIS 03-59 Bonnard N., Brondeau M.T., Jargot D., Lafon D., Protois J.C., Schneider O., Serre P.
Ethyl lactate
Lactate d'éthyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: ethyl DL-lactate; propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester; ethyl 2-hydroxypropionate. Acute toxicity: the substance is an irritant to the ocular and respiratory mucous membranes, and is a mild skin irritant. Chronic toxicity: there is insufficient data from human studies; animal experiments indicate irritation of the nasal epithelium following inhalation exposure. In vitro genotoxicity tests are negative. EEC numbers and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-129-00-7 (ethyl lactate), No.211-694-1 (L-ethyl lactate), Xi, R10, R37, R41, S24, S26, S39. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 02-1128
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (No.20); 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (No.30); Hexachloroethane (No.34); 2-Chloro-4-nitroaniline (No.43); 1,2-Dibromoethane (No.66); Methallyl chloride (No.109); Ethyl acrylate (No.128); Tetramethyllead / Tetraethyllead (No.130); Acrolein (No.157); Thiourea (No.179)
These short reports concern 11 substances suspected of having a hazardous potential, but for which available data are insufficient. The purpose of these reports is to establish a basis for assessment, identify gaps in knowledge and recommend areas for further investigation.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. 95p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1235 Salinas M.L., Ogura T., Soffchi L.
Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations
Needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, such as raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03mL) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500µm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only one third of workers in agave plantations involved in harvesting agave plants complain of the irritation. This questionnaire study confirms that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the workers' skin in the course of their work.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2001, Vol.44, No.2, p.94-96. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1397 Hervé-Bazin B., Laudet-Hesbert A., Mahieu C., Dornier G.
Phthalates
Les phtalates [in French]
Approximately 3m tons of phthalates are produced worldwide each year. They are mainly used as plasticizers for flexible PVC products such as coated textiles, waterproofing membranes, adhesives, lubricants, electrical cable sheathing, medical products (in particular tubes and pouches for dialysis, transfusion and infusion), toys and floor-covering. Studies carried out during the last ten years have highlighted antifertility and carcinogenic effects of certain phthalates on rodents. This information sheet summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to risks to human health from phthalates. Contents: toxicology (low oral toxicity, non irritant, long-term animal studies showing risks of hepatic tumours and antifertility effects, low risk from inhalation due to the low vapour pressures); European regulations concerning classification and labelling; protective measures; threshold limit values; substitution by higher molecular-weight products.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2001. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 02-1360 Cattani M., Cena K., Edwards J., Pisaniello D.
Pest control operators: Risk perception of the use of chlorpyrifos
A questionnaire survey addressing the health symptoms and work practices of 31 Western Australian pest control operators who used chlorpyrifos was conducted. Task observations were also made. All operators reported that: all washed their hands when "dirty" or following a job; 58% spilt the concentrate at least once a week; 74% had recently spilt or splashed diluted chlorpyrifos in their eyes and 90% on their boots; and 52% believed that they would benefit from more education concerning chlorpyrifos. No significant adverse health symptoms were reported. Observations showed that: all operators were exposed to chlorpyrifos; 26% washed their hands; 78% had a spill or splash; and 48% wore inappropriate gloves or no gloves. A discrepancy therefore exists between the operators' perceptions of risk and their actual exposure.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.295-299. 15 ref.

CIS 01-979 TEDP
TEDP [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.2mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Acute toxicity: cholinesterase inhibition; effects may be delayed; respiratory symptoms; blurred vision; watering of the eyes; blueish skin; sweating; tremors; spasms; respiratory failure; vertigo; confusion; arrhythmia. Chronic toxicity: increased susceptibility to other chemicals.
Noticias de seguridad, May 2001, Vol.63, No.5, 4p. Insert.

CIS 01-974 Dibutylphthalate
Ftalato dibutílico [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 5mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: nausea, vertigo and watering of the eyes; photophobia (ingestion); irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract (inhalation of vapours).
Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 2001, Vol.63, No.2, 3p. Insert.

2000

CIS 02-1393 Wibbertmann A., Kielhorn J., Koennecker G., Mangelsdorf I., Melber C.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate
Conclusions of this criteria document: Benzoic acid is slightly irritating to the skin and eyes while sodium benzoate is only a slight eye irritant. The acute toxicity of the two substances is low but they are known to cause non-immunological contact reactions (pseudoallergy). Data from animal studies indicate embryotoxic and foetototoxic effects for sodium benzoate. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 48p. Illus. 251 ref. Price: CHF 17.00 (CHF 11.90 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad26.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-555 Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl phosphate
Fosfato de dimetil-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dicloroetilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: naled. Exposure limit: 3mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: eye ailments (watering of the eyes, burred vision) and respiratory system impairment; digestive disorders; irritation and itching of the skin; neurological disorders; arrhythmia; cholinesterase inhibitor. Repeated exposure leads to sensitization to the substance and to related products.
Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 2000, Vol.62, No.11, 4p. Insert.

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