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Aldehydes - 487 entries found

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  • Aldehydes

2011

CIS 10-0853 Lavoué J., Gérin M., Vincent R.
Comparison of formaldehyde exposure levels in two multi-industry occupational exposure databanks using multimodel inference
This study compared formaldehyde measurements in the French (COLCHIC) and United States (IMIS) occupational exposure databases for 1986-2001 using multimodel inference. Modeled variables included data source, industry, year and sample type. The model set included 72 models corresponding to testing all variables and five interactions and estimation of 93 coefficients. Respectively, 3143 and 2646 IMIS and COLCHIC data, spread across 28 common industries, were analyzed. The full model explained 21% of the total variability. All fixed effects and the source-industry interaction were shown as strong predictors of exposure. The temporal trend (5% yearly decrease) and difference between short-term and long-term data (short-term greater than long-term by two-fold) were similar across the two databanks. Overall, the analysis showed that both databanks provide a similar multi-industry portrait of formaldehyde exposure despite a potential for very different occupational settings. The results offer encouraging insight about extrapolation of exposure data across countries.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2011, Vol.8, p.38-48. Illus. 42 ref.

2010

CIS 11-0542 Freixa Blanxart A., Torrado del Rey S.
Prevention of exposure to formaldehyde
Prevención de la exposición a formaldehído [in Spanish]
The control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde is a fundamental activity in industrial hygiene, both for its extensive presence and by its significant adverse effects on health. This technical note summarizes and discusses some of the existing methods for the identification and quantification of formaldehyde vapours in various work environments, together with procedures to minimize their presence in the air. Contents: formaldehyde characteristics and properties; health hazards; threshold values; control of exposure; contamination levels; exposure prevention methods. Replaces NTP 490 (see CIS 04-176).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 4p. Illus. 12 ref.
NTP_873.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0073 Viegas S., Ladeira C., Nunes C., Malta-Vacas J., Gomes M., Brito M., Mendonça P., Prista J.
Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production
Presently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans and in experimental animals. Numerous in vitro studies clearly indicated that formaldehyde can induce genotoxic effects in proliferating cultured mammalian cells. Furthermore, some in vivo studies have found changes in epithelial cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes related to formaldehyde exposure. This study was carried out in Portugal, using 80 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde vapours: 30 workers from formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins production factory and 50 from 10 pathology and anatomy laboratories. A group of 85 non-exposed subjects was used as control. Exposure was measured by NIOSH Method 2541, photo ionization detection and video recordings. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the micronucleus test in exfoliated epithelial cells from buccal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Time-weighted average concentrations did not exceed the reference value (0.75 ppm) in the two occupational settings studied. However peak concentrations were higher than reference value (0.3 ppm) in both. The frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in epithelial cells was significantly higher in both exposed groups than in the control group. Moreover, the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in the laboratories group than among the factory workers. A moderate positive correlation was found between duration of occupational exposure to formaldehyde (years of exposure) and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in epithelial cells.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:25, 8p. 49 ref.
Genotoxic_effects.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0250
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Read the label - How to find out if chemicals are dangerous
This booklet is aimed at persons using chemicals at work. Using the example of a typical label (glutaraldehyde), it explains how to find out more about the potential hazards of the chemicals and suitable means of protection.
The Stationery Office (TSO), P.O.Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2010. 7p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg352.pdf [in English]

2009

CIS 09-1137 Salonen H., Pasanen A.L., Lappalainen S., Riuttala H., Tuomi T., Pasanen P., Bäck B., Reijula K.
Volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde as explaining factors for sensory irritation in office environments
This study evaluated volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from 176 office buildings, including 23 buildings for which formaldehyde measurements had also been conducted. The 50 most abundant VOCs and their concentrations in 520 air samples were analyzed. At the concentrations observed in the buildings, formaldehyde was estimated to be a more likely cause of sensory irritation than the mixture of common VOCs. Subjective symptoms of workers in 20 buildings were obtained by means of a questionnaire on indoor air quality. The most frequent symptoms involved the upper respiratory tract. However, no relationship could be shown between the reported symptoms and the concentrations of VOCs and formaldehyde in these buildings.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2009, Vol.6, No.4, p.239-247. 49 ref.

CIS 09-408 Ackermann L., Aalto-Korte K., Jolanki R., Alanko K.
Occupational allergic contract dermatitis from cinnamon including one case from airborne exposure
This article reports cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact allergy from cinnamon based on patient records from two dermatological clinics in Helsinki, Finland. Six patients with delayed contact allergy to cinnamon were identified. Five of the patients showed positive reactions to cinnamal alone and in fragrance mix I in skin tests. Occupational contact allergy to cinnamon is rare but needs to be considered in workers handling food. Cinnamal is likely to be the main allergen in cinnamon.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2009, Vol.60, No.2, p.96-99. 24 ref.

2008

CIS 09-1339 Pan C.H., Chan C.C., Huang Y.L., Wu K.Y.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and malondialdehyde in male workers in Chinese restaurants
This study assessed the exposure of restaurant workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking oil fumes (COFs) in Chinese restaurants. Two hundred and eighty eight male restaurant workers (171 kitchen and 117 service staff) of 19 restaurants in Taiwan participated in this study. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) measurements were used to indicate COF exposure, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) was adopted as an oxidative stress marker. Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. Findings show that exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress was significantly higher in kitchen staff than in dining room service staff. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.65, No.11, p.732-735. 27 ref.

CIS 09-1098 Lavoué J., Vincent R., Gérin M.
Formaldehyde exposure data in U.S. industries from OSHA air sampling data
Formaldehyde exposure data recorded in the United States Integrated Management Information System between 1979 and 2001 were collected to elaborate a multi-industry retrospective picture of formaldehyde exposures and to identify exposure determinants. A total of 5228 personal measurement results were analyzed with linear mixed-effect models. The results provide useful insight on formaldehyde occupational exposure in the United States in the last two decades.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.575-587. 37 ref.

CIS 09-411 Aalto-Korte K., Kuuliala O., Suuronen K., Alanko K.
Occupational contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers
Between 2001 and 2007, 81 patients with formaldehyde allergy and 18 with an independent allergy to formaldehyde release agents were patch tested at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Of the formaldehyde allergies, 60 were new sensitizations, 25 of which were considered to be occupational. The most common source of occupational sensitization was metalworking fluids followed by protective creams and liquid soaps. Occupational formaldehyde allergy was common and occurred in metalworkers, hairdressers, masseurs and workers using protective creams, detergents, and liquid soaps.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2008, Vol.59, No.5, p.280-289. 22 ref.

CIS 09-424 Kielhorn J., Mangelsdorf I., Ziegler-Skylakakis K.
2-Butenal
Conclusions of this criteria document: 2-Butenal causes irritation and inflammation of the skin, respiratory tract and eyes in humans and experimental animals. Its strong odour and irritancy may limit exposure to this substance. Most studies identified a genotoxic potential of 2-butenal. Positive results were found in a range of in vitro tests for genotoxicity. Owing to a lack of reliable data, it is not possible to adequately evaluate the toxicity of 2-butenal in humans or to derive a tolerable concentration. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2008. v, 47p. Illus. Approx. 200 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad74.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-145 Duhayon S., Hoet P., Van Maele-Fabry G., Lison D.
Carcinogenic potential of formaldehyde in occupational settings: A critical assessment and possible impact on occupational exposure levels
This literature survey reviewed epidemiological studies investigating the association between occupational exposure to formaldehyde and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) risk having led to a change in the classification of formaldehyde by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2004, as well as studies published thereafter, with the objective to examine whether occupational exposure levels for formaldehyde should be changed. Human studies concerning the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde are not conclusive. Experimental data indicate that in rats, the carcinogenic activity of formaldehyde is associated with cytotoxic mechanisms. Current exposure limits are sufficient for protecting from these effects and should therefore be sufficient to protect from potential carcinogenic effects, if any in humans.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.695-710. Illus. 54 ref.

2007

CIS 09-115 Sutton P.M., Quint J., Prudhomme J., Flattery J., Materna B., Harrison R.
Glutaraldehyde exposures among workers making bioprosthetic heart valves
This investigation was undertaken to describe exposure to glutaraldehyde among workers making bioprosthetic heart valves at two large manufacturers in California. The work process was observed, employer representatives and glutaraldehyde-exposed workers were interviewed, and employer records including industrial hygiene data were analyzed. Approximately 600 workers (mostly women) had continuous airborne exposure to glutaraldehyde. Short-term exposures were all well below the current regulatory ceiling level (0.20ppm). However, approximately 40% of the glutaraldehyde-related job tasks involved exposures above the ACGIH threshold limit value ceiling of 0.05ppm. Two cases of physician-diagnosed asthma were recorded in one company in the previous 5-year period. Employers should implement additional engineering controls to limit workers' exposures to at a maximum level of 0.015ppm, require the use of gloves and implement a medical surveillance programme for glutaraldehyde-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.311-320. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 08-759
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary Reports XII (Nos. 39, 62, 67, 150, 151, 180,181, 194, 206)
Ergänzungsbericht XII [in German]
This document included translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1986 and May 1997, relating to nine substances or groups of substances (naphthalene, hexachlorobutadiene, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, chloracetic acid methyl ester, chloracetic acid ethyl ester, C10-C21-alkane sulfonic acids, phenyl esters, chloroalkane sulfonic acids, sodium salts, 3-methyl-2-butenal and surfactants) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Irritant effects and contact allergy in humans are reported respectively for methyl chloroacetate and ethyl chloroacetate.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 95p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.

CIS 08-763
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for acrolein (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of acrolein is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: eye and skin irritation, ulceration and necrosis; irritation of the gastrointestinal tract; irritation of the respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema and lung haemorrhage, possibly leading to death; in vitro studies shows the product to be weakly mutagenic; IARC has stated that the product is not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans. (Update of CIS 91-1256).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2007. xx, 176p. Illus. Approx. 420 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp124.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-653 Nayebzadeh A.
The effect of work practices on personal exposure to glutaraldehyde among health care workers
Glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory irritation and asthma among health care workers. In order to evaluate the effect of work practices and the ventilation system on exposure to glutaraldehyde, 42 breathing zone air samples were taken in five hospitals in Quebec, Canada. In addition, work practices and the presence or otherwise of local or general ventilation system were noted, and the rate of air change and the quantity of glutaraldehyde used were recorded. Geometric mean concentration of all samples was 0.025ppm. Statistical analysis indicated that work practice was the most important factor affecting the level of exposure to glutaraldehyde. In locations where poor or unsafe work practices were employed, the geometric mean concentrations were much higher (0.05 and 0.08ppm respectively). There was a higher prevalence of headache and itchy eyes among employees who worked where unsafe work practices were observed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.45, No.2, p.289-295. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 08-657 Chaala A.
Reducing formaldehyde emissions - Changes in the formulation of binders in particleboard manufacturing plants
Réduction de l'émission de formaldéhyde - Modification de la formulation du liant dans les usines de panneaux de particules [in French]
In partnership with the IRSST and with the collaboration of particle board manufacturers, the Forest Product Processing Research and Expertise Services (SEREX) of Quebec was given the assignment to optimize formaldehyde resins currently used by modifying their formulation so that their processing would give rise to lower levels of emissions. This project involved modifying commercial urea formaldehyde resins, producing panels in the laboratory and on an industrial scale, characterizing these panels and determining the concentration of formaldehyde in the gases emitted during resin modification and panel manufacture and degassing. Not only were the formaldehyde emissions reduced, but the quality of the panels was also slightly improved. The immersion tests also showed that the panels thus produced were more water resistant than the panels manufactured using conventional resins.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. vii, 47p. Illus. 24 ref. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-528.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-169 Ameille J., Guillemin M., Luce D., Straif K., Vincent R.
Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and its effects on health
Exposition professionnelle au formaldéhyde et effets sur la santé [in French]
According to the French public health surveillance institute (Institut de veille sanitaire), more than 200.000 persons in France are regularly exposed to formaldehyde at work. Information extracted from the COLCHIC database also show that threshold limit values are frequently exceeded. Contents of this criteria document on occupational exposure to formaldehyde and its effects on health: general aspects; occupational exposure to formaldehyde in France: exposure to formaldehyde and cancer risk; asthma and rhinitis caused by formaldehyde; skin diseases caused by formaldehyde; cognitive or neuropsychological effects of formaldehyde exposure.
Institut de veille sanitaire, 12, rue du Val d'Osne, 94415 Saint-Maurice cedex, France, 2007. 73p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.invs.sante.fr/publications/2007/expo_pro_formaldehyde/expo_pro_formaldehyde.pdf [in French]

2006

CIS 12-0034
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
4-Methoxybenzaldehyde
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of February 2004: The toxicity of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde after oral administration is weak. The lowest LD50 in the rat and guinea pig are 1510 mg/kg and 1260 mg/kg, respectively. Dermal LD50 values reported in rabbits and guinea pigs are 5000 mg/kg and 11200 mg/kg, respectively. In humans, a 48h administration of a 20% solution to the skin of the back causes no irritation. 10% solutions are neither irritant nor sensitizing. It is not mutagenic in the mutagenicity tests with Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli. 4-Methoxybenzaldehyde showed no tumour-promoting effect in an initiation-promotion experiment with the endpoint skin papillomas. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xv, 77p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 54.00.
BUA_Report_250_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_250_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT].pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1439 Best practices for the safe use of glutaraldehyde in health care
This guide describes best practices for the safe use of glutaraldehyde in health care facilities. Glutaraldehyde is used widely as a cold sterilizing agent to disinfect a variety of heat-sensitive instruments, such as endoscopes, bronchoscopes and dialysis equipment. In addition, health care employees may be exposed to glutaraldehyde in its uses as a hardener in X-ray developing and as a tissue fixative in histology and pathology labs. Glutaraldehyde has been linked with a variety of health effects including asthma, breathing difficulties, respiratory irritation, and skin rashes. This guide describes engineering controls, work practices and facility design considerations that will help reduce employee exposure to glutaraldehyde. It includes recommendations for personal protective equipment, employee training, exposure monitoring, disposal practices, and spill and cleanup procedures. The use of alternatives to glutaraldehyde is also addressed.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 44p. 51 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/glutaraldehyde.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1148 Goyer N., Bégin D., Beaudry C., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Lavoué J., Noisel N., Gérin M.
Prevention guide - Formaldehyde in the workplace
Guide de prévention - Le formaldéhyde en milieu de travail [in French]
For three years, the IRSST carried out a study to evaluate the economic and health effects of lowering the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde in Quebec. The aim of this guide and collection of safety data sheets is to bring together all the safety and health aspects related to formaldehyde. Contents: general information on formaldehyde; health effects and first aid; regulations; exposure measurement; control of exposure; recommendations for specific sectors of the economy.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. 51p. 55 ref. Price: CAD 21.20. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-471.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-473.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1141
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol
This volume re-evaluates the available evidence on the carcinogenic potential of formaldehyde, a substance that is widely used in binders for wood, paper; glass wool and rock wool, in plastics and coatings, textile finishing and chemical synthesis, and as a disinfectant and preservative. Also evaluated are two glycol ethers, 2-butoxyethanol and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol, which are widely used as solvents in paints and paint thinners, coatings, glass and surface cleaners, inks, adhesives, personal-care products, and as chemical intermediates. Summary of final evaluations: formaldehyde is classified in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans); 2-butoxyetahnol and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol are classified in Group 3 (cannot be classified as to carcinogenicity to humans).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. v, 478p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 40.00.

CIS 07-890 Maison A., Pasquier E.
Formaldehyde
Le formaldéhyde [in French]
Formaldehyde has been implicated in the incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer. The substance has widespread uses and is encountered in numerous occupational settings including woodworking, hospitals and the textile and food industries. It is produced by many natural and man-made sources, and is omnipresent in the environment. It has potent sensitizing and irritating properties, the latter suspected of being linked to the incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer. Contents of this information sheet on formaldehyde: properties; uses; health hazards; prevention measures.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2006. 4p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_catalog_view_view/2D6C295FEF0E2D8DC12571F70044AC0E/$FILE/ed5032.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-646 Ernstgård L., Iregren A., Sjögren B., Svedberg U., Johanson G.
Acute effects of exposure to hexanal vapors in humans
n-Hexanal is a major component in emissions from stored wood pellets. The production and use of wood pellets as a source of renewable energy is increasing rapidly. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute health effects of n-hexanal vapours. Twelve healthy volunteers were exposed to 0, 2 and 10ppm n-hexanal for two hours at rest. Ratings of discomfort in the eyes and nose, solvent smell and headache increased significantly with the level of exposure. Frequency of blinking was significantly increased at 10ppm. No effects on pulmonary function and nasal swelling were detected, except a non-significant tendency to increased nasal obstruction at 10ppm. No clear effects on plasma inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were observed. It is concluded that two hours of exposure to n-hexanal results in mild irritation at 10ppm, with no apparent adversity at 2ppm.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2006, Vol.48, No.6, p.573-580. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 07-633 Katagiri H., Suzuki T., Aizawa Y., Kadowaki T.
Indoor glutaraldehyde levels in the endoscope disinfecting room and subjective symptoms among workers
This study measured glutaraldehyde (GA) levels in the work environment during the disinfection of endoscopes and also investigated the subjective symptoms of the workers engaged in that work. Eight rooms for cleaning and disinfecting endoscopy equipment were surveyed at six hospitals in the Tokyo and Kanagawa area. The geometric mean environmental GA levels in the eight rooms were 1.3 to 19.6ppb. The personal exposure levels at the time of replacing the antiseptic solution containing GA in two of the disinfecting rooms were 94.2 and 84.9ppb. Subjective symptoms such as ophthalmic, nasal, respiratory and pharyngeal symptoms and nausea were more prevalent among workers than controls as evidenced from the questionnaire survey.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.225-229. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_2_225.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-406 Pontén A.
Formaldehyde in reusable protective gloves
Following clinical findings in a case of hand dermatitis, formaldehyde was suspected to be present in reusable protective gloves. Nine types of gloves were investigated with the semi-quantitative chromotropic acid method. It was found that six gloves emitted some formaldehyde and that four gloves emitted ≥40µg of formaldehyde. Most of the formaldehyde was found on the inside of the gloves. To get an indication of the clinical relevance, a comparison with a protective cream containing the formaldehyde-releasing agent diazolidinyl urea was performed by comparing areas of gloves with areas of cream layers with thickness 1-2mg/cm2. The amounts of formaldehyde emitted from the gloves were in the same range as those emitted from a layer of cream.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.268-271. 17 ref.

CIS 07-383 Vincent R., Jeandel B.
Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in France: Information provided by the COLCHIC database
Exposition professionnelle au formaldéhyde en France: informations fournies par la base de données COLCHIC [in French]
Formaldehyde is a chemical that is widely used as a disinfectant and as a synthesis intermediate in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. It also enters into the composition of melamine and phenolic resins, glues and varnishes. This widespread use of formaldehyde in many industrial sectors is confirmed by analysis of formaldehyde exposure measurements in the French database of occupational exposure to chemicals (COLCHIC). Exposures exceeding recommended occupational exposure limits for this chemical agent are frequently encountered in hospitals, wood panel production facilities and foundries. Combustion and thermal degradation of certain materials also represent a significant cause of formaldehyde exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2006, No.203, p.19-33. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view/1F0F1DB38644E9FEC125719D0038EAD7/$File/nd2247.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1414 Carrier G., Bouchard M., Noisel N., Bonvalot Y., Fradet S.
Impact of lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Health impact of an occupational exposure to formaldehyde
This study provides an updated evaluation of the dose-response relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and the incidence of health effects reported in literature. Findings indicate that exposure to formaldehyde concentrations below 0.75ppm is unlikely to cause severe or moderate irritation of the eyes, nose or throat. Between 0.75 and 1ppm, 6.3% of the subjects may present signs of moderate eye irritation. At formaldehyde concentrations between 1 and 2ppm, this proportion increases to 10.1%, while between 2 and 3ppm, it increases to 12.5%. There are limited data on the carcinogenic effects of formaldehyde. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde from 2ppm to 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, as a maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average value (see CIS 04-642 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Jan. 2006. iii, 113p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 8.48. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA13-386.pdf [in French]

2005

CIS 06-889 Ghasemkhani M., Jahanpeyma F., Azam K.
Formaldehyde exposure in some educational hospitals of Tehran
Formaldehyde exposure was investigated in pathology laboratories, surgery rooms and endoscopy wards in eight large hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 160 air samples were collected in various environments. It was found that the concentration levels of formaldehyde in pathology laboratories exceeded the recommended AGCIH threshold limit value of 0.3ppm. It is recommended that local exhaust ventilation be installed to minimize workers' exposure to formaldehyde.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.703-707. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-4-13.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-383 Jeong J.Y., Paik N.W.
Laboratory and field validation of the GC-NPD method for the measurement of formaldehyde in the workplace
The aim of this study was to develop a new analytical method for measuring airborne formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces and to evaluate the performance of the method through laboratory and field tests. The method involves adsorption on a sampling tube containing a coated silica gel, followed by gas chromatography on a chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). In laboratory tests, the GC-NPD method was as sensitive as the NIOSH analytical method, which uses high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet detector. The analytical precision and 95% confidence limit of the estimated error for the GC-NPD method satisfied the OSHA sampling and analytical criteria. In field tests, the overall uncertainty of the GC-NPD method satisfied the NIOSH criteria for sampling and analytical methods.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2005, Vol.2, No.4, p.244-250. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 06-379 Aalto-Korte K., Mäkela E.A., Huttunen M., Suuronen K., Jolanki R.
Occupational contact allergy to glyoxal
Allergic contact dermatitis from glyoxal has been described in several occupations. In this study, data from patients in the dermatology department of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health from 1998 to 2004 were analysed for allergic reactions to glyoxal. Twenty patients had allergic reactions to glyoxal on patch testing. Five of the patients worked in dentistry and four of these had present exposure to glyoxal. Nine patients were machinists without obvious exposure to glyoxal. The case of a grinder with work-related facial dermatitis is described in detail. The chemical analysis of air samples from his workplace revealed 9.4-21µg/m3 glyoxal. Glyoxal was found to be present in the metalworking fluid used. The remaining six patients worked in miscellaneous occupations and had no present exposure to glyoxal. It is recommended that glyoxal be added to the antimicrobial patch test series.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2005, Vol.52, No.5, p.276-281. 17 ref.

CIS 06-396 Roberge B., Gravel R.
Real time evaluation of formaldehyde vapours
Evaluation en temps réel de vapeurs de formaldéhyde [in French]
As part of a broader programme on the impact of lowering the threshold limit value for formaldehyde, this study involved measuring formaldehyde concentrations in air using different direct reading instruments including two infrared spectrometers, an electrochemical cell analyser and a colorimetric reader. Some of the readings were inconsistent, possibly related to the presence of other organic compounds in the air. The report comments on these findings and presents the detailed results for the four instruments evaluated.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. ii, 31p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-430.pdf [in French]

2004

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA12-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-654 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Gravel R., Hébert F., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Plastics converting industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la transformation des matières plastiques [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of plastics converting industry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 52p. Illus. 52 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA11-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-653 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Textile finishing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de finition textile [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of textile finishing industry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-654 and CIS 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 24p. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA10-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-651 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Funeral service industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie des services funéraires [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of funeral service workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-650 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 42p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA9-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-650 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Pathology laboratories
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Laboratoires de pathologie [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in pathology laboratories in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-649, CIS 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 38p. 40 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA8-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-649 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Lobo Gutierrez C.L., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Foundries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Fonderies [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of foundry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-648, CIS 04-650 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 56p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA7-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-648 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resin manufacturing industries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industries de fabrication de formaldéhyde et de résines à base de formaldéhyde [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resin manufacturing industries in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-647, CIS 04-649 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 54p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA6-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-647 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Wooden furniture manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de meubles en bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wooden furniture manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-646, CIS 04-648 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 50p. 35 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA5-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-646 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Gravel R., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Other wood industries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Autres industries du bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wood product industries other than furniture and particle-board manufacture in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-645, CIS 04-647 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 49p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA4-386.pdf. [in French]

CIS 04-645 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Duguay P., Gely O., Gérin M., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Particle-board manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de panneaux agglomérés [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the particle-board manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-644, CIS 04-646 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA3-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-644 Perrault G., Baril M., Lefebvre P.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Costs of a respiratory protection programme
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Coûts d'un programme de protection respiratoire [in French]
The objective of this study was to calculate the cost to enterprises of a lowering of threshold limit values for formaldehyde to levels that would require the implementation of a prevention plan, the adoption of technical preventive measures and the use of personal protective equipment. Based on hypotheses concerning occupational safety and heath organization, the size of enterprises and the number of exposed workers, the study concludes that the cost per worker would be CAD 656 for the first year and CAD 101 in subsequent years. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see also CIS 04-642, CIS 04-643, CIS 04-645 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 18p. 5 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA2-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-643 Carrier G., Bouchard M., Noisel N., Bonvalot Y, Fradet S.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Impacts of formaldehyde exposure on human health
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Impacts de l'exposition au formaldéhyde sur la santé humaine [in French]
This study consists of a literature survey on the dose-response relationships between exposure to formaldehyde and the incidence of health effects. Findings indicate that exposures to formaldehyde concentrations below 0.75ppm are unlikely to cause severe or moderate irritation of the eyes, nose or throat. Between 0.75 and 1ppm, 6.3% of subjects may present signs of moderate eye irritation. At formaldehyde concentrations of between 1 and 2ppm, this proportion increases to 10.1%. There is limited data on the carcinogenic effects of formaldehyde. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642, CIS 04-644 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iii, 120p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA1-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-642 Goyer N., Perrault G., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde [in French]
The objective of this research programme was to evaluate the socio-economic and health impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure level for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. The gains for workers' health and the costs and economic advantages for enterprises were evaluated. An approach combining expertise with a classic industrial hygiene approach was adopted in order to develop a matrix linking activity sectors and formaldehyde exposure concentrations. The addition of data on workstations and emission sources made it possible to consolidate the results obtained by sector, manpower and distribution of exposed workers. This project has also resulted in the acquisition of knowledge on a large number of economic activity sectors in Quebec as well as expertise on the evaluation of occupational health and safety impacts. Results for various sectors of activity are published in a series of reports (see also CIS 04-643 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. vi, 99p. Illus. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-256 Kielhorn J., Pohlenz-Michel C., Schmidt S., Mangelsdorf I.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Glyoxal
Conclusions of this criteria document on glyoxal (synonyms: ethanedial, diformyl, ethanedione, biformal, oxal): there is only limited information on effects of glyoxal on humans. Glyoxal is irritating to the skin and mucous membranes and may cause dermatitis and sensitization. It is genotoxic in vitro as well as in vivo in rats. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Marketing and Dissemination, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2004. iv, 43p. Illus. 205 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad57.pdf [in English]

2003

CIS 06-354 Ryan T.J., Burroughs G.E., Taylor K., Kovein R.J.
Video exposure assessments demonstrate excessive laboratory formaldehyde exposures
Following frequent complaints about room air quality in an anatomy laboratory using formaldehyde-preserved animals, formaldehyde concentrations were measured using a photo-ionization detector with an integral data logger and videotapes of laboratory tasks were recorded simultaneously. Use of this video monitoring method revealed very short-lived, excessively high peak exposure events, whereas conventional time-weighted averages indicated that the majority of personal exposures were below the OSHA limit of 0.75ppm. Transient peak formaldehyde concentrations could be responsible for the self-reported health effects (burning nose and eyes and eye irritation). Close dissection work, opening peritoneal cavities, and specimen selection activities were most likely the causes of elevated student exposures. Teaching assistants' exposures were the highest, exceeding OSHA limits on several occasions.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2003, Vol.18, No.6, p.450-457. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 03-802 Clifford D.
Report of a Ministerial Enquiry into the Management of Certain Hazardous Substances in Workplaces [New Zealand]
Report of a government enquiry into the current management of hazardous substances in New Zealand workplaces. The focus of the inquiry was into the use of glutaraldehyde in the health sector, but other substances and occupational settings were also considered. Contents: introduction to hazardous substances, including their characteristics and their use in industry; the legislative framework governing safety and health issues in relationship with hazardous substances; issues of causation relating to the nature and extent of adverse health consequences arising from exposure to hazardous substances; best practices; management of hazardous substances and adoption of best practices; relationship among various parties in connection with the manufacture, storage, transportation, use and disposal of hazardous substances; lessons learned, recommendations and priorities. In annex: terms of reference; list of submissions and of participants in the enquiry.
Internet copy, Wellington, New Zealand, July 2003. v+87p. 47 ref.
http://www.hazsubstancesinquiry.osh.govt.nz/docs/Hazardous-Substances-Inquiry-Final-Report.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-765 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Pulido E.V.
Using respirators and goggles to control exposure to air pollutants in an anatomy laboratory
This study explored the feasibility of wearing one or a combination of respirators and goggles to control exposure to chemicals in laboratories of anatomy. A total of 28 subjects were trained in wearing protective equipment and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their subjective reaction after having worn the assigned protective equipment while carrying out their normal work. The subjects' exposure to formaldehyde was also measured and it generally exceeded the recommended limits. When a full-face respirator or the combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles were worn, a majority of subjects reported no odour problem and no irritation to the eyes or the upper respiratory system. Subjects accepted the protective equipment to a certain degree, but those using respirators encountered difficulties communicating with others. The combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles was found to be the best combination to control exposure to air pollutants in a laboratory of anatomy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.326-331.19 ref.

CIS 03-927 Linnainmaa M., Kiviranta H., Laitinen J., Laitinen S.
Control of workers' exposure to airborne endotoxins and formaldehyde during use of metalworking fluids
The study evaluated workers' exposure to bacteria, endotoxins and formaldehyde during the use of metalworking fluids (MWFs). Air sampling was used to estimate workers' exposure to endotoxins at workplaces near enclosed and open machines. Concentrations of triazine used as a biocide in MWF and formaldehyde in the air were measured. Recirculating local exhaust ventilation systems were also tested. The endotoxin and bacteria concentrations in MWF rapidly increased when the biocide levels decreased below 500ppm. Airborne concentrations of endotoxins were substantially lower near enclosed machines than near open ones. Concentrations of airborne formaldehyde were below the Finnish occupational exposure limit. The results showed that the triazine levels in MWF should continuously be kept high enough (>500ppm) to prevent workers' exposure to endotoxins and bacteria. Overdosing with triazine, however, should be avoided, so that the levels of airborne formaldehyde remain low.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2003, Vol.64, No.4, p.496-500. Illus. 25 ref.

2002

CIS 03-1783 Svendsen K., Jensen H.N., Sivertsen I., Sjaastad A.K.
Exposure to cooking fumes in restaurant kitchens in Norway
Personal air sampling was carried out among kitchen workers of four hotels, two fast-food restaurants, ten traditional restaurants and three small local restaurants serving mostly fried food. Each subject carried two sampling devices connected to pumps. One pump was connected to a filter cassette with a 37mm glass fibre filter and the other to a sampling device for aldehydes. The measurements were repeated during three days in each kitchen. The level of fat aerosols varied between the different types of kitchen. Overall exposure levels to fat aerosols were low, but in some cases was up to 50% of the Norwegian threshold limit value (TLV) for dust (10mg/m3). The levels of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were well below the TLVs. However, aerosols of fat produced during frying contain a mixture of fat from the meat being fried, hydrolyzed vegetable fat and degradation products, such as fatty acids, other organic acids and aldehydes. Consequently, cooking fumes should be considered as being harmful to the lungs.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 2002, vol.46, No.4, p.395-400. 17 ref.

CIS 03-63
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Acrolein
Conclusions of this criteria document: acrolein is a strong upper respiratory tract and eye irritant in humans, as well as a mild skin irritant. Other reported effects of acute accidental exposure include weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, shortness of breath, bronchitis and pulmonary oedema, possibly leading to death. Animal experiments show acrolein to have high acute toxicity. There are indications of genotoxicity in vitro. There is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in animal studies. The overall evaluation of IARC is that acrolein is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 46p. 248 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad43.pdf [in English]

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