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Alcohols - 685 entries found

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  • Alcohols

2011

CIS 12-0026 Martin P., Galland B., Nicot T., Klingler J., Martin C., Vignaud M.C.
Exposure to organic solvents when placing electrodes for long-term electroencephalograms
Exposition aux solvants organiques lors de la pose d'électrodes pour électroencéphalogrammes de longue durée [in French]
Nurses responsible for placing and removing electrodes for long-term electroencephalograms use adhesives and adhesive removers which may contain varying proportions of volatile and unpleasant ethanol and diethyl ether. In this study, exposure to ethanol and diethyl ether was measured at several workplaces. Findings allowed to better understand the exposures of nursing personnel during specific tasks and to propose a number of preventive measures to be applied.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.397-408. Illus. 6 ref.
Exposition_aux_solvants_organiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

2009

CIS 11-0243 Stradling R., Antunez Martel F.J., Ariztegui J., Beeckmann J., Bjordal S.D., Blosser P., Canovas J., Clark A., Elliott N., Farenback-Brateman J., Gomez-Acebo P., Martinez Sanchez P.M., Scorletti P., McArragher J.S., Zemroch P.J., Rose K.D.
Volatility and vehicle driveability performance of ethanol/gasoline blends: A literature review
The effect of blending ethanol (up to 20% by volume) into gasoline on the volatility of the ethanol/gasoline blend and on the hot and cold weather vehicle driveability performance of these blends has been assessed from literature published over the past 20 years.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, viii, 68p. Illus. 50 ref.

2008

CIS 09-1339 Pan C.H., Chan C.C., Huang Y.L., Wu K.Y.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and malondialdehyde in male workers in Chinese restaurants
This study assessed the exposure of restaurant workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking oil fumes (COFs) in Chinese restaurants. Two hundred and eighty eight male restaurant workers (171 kitchen and 117 service staff) of 19 restaurants in Taiwan participated in this study. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) measurements were used to indicate COF exposure, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) was adopted as an oxidative stress marker. Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. Findings show that exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress was significantly higher in kitchen staff than in dining room service staff. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.65, No.11, p.732-735. 27 ref.

CIS 09-415 Gunderson PhD.
Biofuels and North American agriculture - Implications for the health and safety of North American producers
This article reviews the papers presented at a conference on safety and health related to the production of biofuels, held in Omaha, United States, 14-17 November 2007. The exposures experienced by workers included distiller's grains and bio-processing byproducts, spent catalyst, solvents, brine, microbial agents, genetically modified organisms and effluents. Other issues discussed included change in cropping patterns and resultant use of different seeding and harvesting technologies, pests and the intensive rural traffic resulting from the transport of large quantities of biomass and grain.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.4, p.219-224. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 08-1143 Mégarbane B., Baud F.J.
Poisoning from alcohols (other than ethanol) and glycols
Intoxication par les alcools (autres que l'éthanol) et les glycols [in French]
Poisonings from toxic alcohols or glycols are rare but potentially serious. The main clinical outcome is the occurrence of a metabolic acidosis, giving rise to Küssmaul's dyspnoea. Other more specific complications can also arise during more severe poisonings; ethylene glycol can cause acute renal insufficiency, while methanol can cause vision disorders leading to irreversible blindness. Treatment is based on the administration of an antidote such as fomepizol for blocking the metabolic transformation of alcohol into toxic products by alcohol dehydrogenase, along with symptomatic resuscitation measures and intravenous perfusions of sodium bicarbonate. In the most serious cases, haemodialysis should be systematically performed together with the antidote treatment.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2008, No.159, 9p. Illus. 81 ref.

2007

CIS 08-1310 Kampf G., Löffler H.
Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: A review
Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene was only found to be around 50%, and mostly consisted of washing hands with soap and water. Consequences of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.645-652. Illus. 52 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_645.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-758
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Supplementary reports XI (Nos. 2,11a,11b,13,83,85)
Ergänzungsberichte XI [in German]
This document includes translations of supplementary reports, finalized between October 1985 and February 1992, relating to six substances (o-chlorobenzene, m-chlorobenzene, p-chlorobenzene, nonylphenol, carbon disulfide and chloranil) evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to ecotoxicological aspects and the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. Toxic effects in humans are reported.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2007. 286p. (German); 240p. (English). Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 63.00.

CIS 07-1372 Fustinoni S., Mercadante R., Campo L., Scibetta L., Valla C., Consonni D., Foà V.
Comparison between urinary o-cresol and toluene as biomarkers of toluene exposure
This case-control study compared urinary o-cresol (U-OC) and urinary toluene (U-TOL) as biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene. One hundred healthy male rotogravure printing workers and 161 male and female control subjects unexposed to toluene were studied. Personal exposure to airborne toluene (TOL-A) during the shift was determined as a time weighted average. Simple analytical procedures based on solid phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were applied to the determination of end-shift U-OC and U-TOL. Median TOL-A was 48mg/m3 in printers and 0.021mg/m3 in controls. U-OC was 0.185mg/g creatinine in printers and 0.027mg/g in controls. U-TOL was 7.6µg/L in printers and 0.140µg/L in controls. U-TOL was found to be a slightly more reliable biomarker to toluene exposure than U-OC.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2007, Vol.4, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 31 ref.

2006

CIS 12-0031
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh), Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
3,7-Dimethyloctane-3-ol
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge as of September 2004: 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol is of low acute toxicity. Eight-hour exposure to an atmosphere enriched with 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol does not cause symptoms of poisoning in rats. The oral and dermal LD50 in rats is higher than 200 mg/kg. Symptoms of poisoning after oral uptake are dyspnoea, apathy, lateral position, staggering, atony, narcotic condition with an absence of pain and corneal reflexes, a spastic gait, diarrhoea, salivation and lacrimation. In rabbits, 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol causes slight-to-moderate irritation to the skin and moderate irritation to the eye. In the maximization test in humans, a 4 % solution does not cause irritation or sensitization after 48-hour occlusive application. 3,7-Dimethyloctane-3-ol is not mutagenic in the mutagenicity test with various Salmonella typhimurium strains and V79 cells. It does not cause chromosome aberrations in V79 cells. Studies on the carcinogenic potential of 3,7-dimethyloctane-3-ol are not available. Other findings are discussed.
Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiv, 53p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 47.00.
BUA_Report_253_Summary_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
BUA_Report_253_[BUY_THIS_DOCUMENT] [in English]

CIS 08-1009
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for phenol - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of phenol is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; pneumotoxic effects, including hyperaemia, bronchopneumonia, bronchitis; arrythmia; haematological effects; hepatic effects; renal effects; neurological effects. The substance is not classifiable with regard to its carcinogenicity to humans (IARC Group 3). (Update of CIS 00-50).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 240p. Illus. Approx. 450 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp115.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1005
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for cresols - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of cresols is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the skin, eyes, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract; haematotoxic effects; renal damage. While the EPA had earlier classified cresols as possible human carcinogens (Group C), they are now considered as not being assessable with respect to their carcinogenic potential due to inadequate information.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 226p. Illus. Approx. 400 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp34.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-396 Rømyhr O., Nyfors A., Leira H.L., Smedbold H.T.
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy resin systems in industrial painters
A group of 2236 industrial painters employed in six companies of the Norwegian oil industry was followed between 1997 and 2001 to assess the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by exposure to epoxy resin systems. Commercially-available patch test series were supplemented with a series based on known or suspected sensitizers present at the workplaces. Of 57 patch-tested workers, 23 with ACD caused by epoxy resin systems were found, indicating an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 person years. Positive patch tests to 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP) and m-xylene-α,α'-diamine (XAD) were seen in seven and eight workers, respectively, indicating that both chemicals are important sensitizers in industrial painters. They are, however, not classified as skin sensitizers according to the European regulations on the classification and labelling of dangerous chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2006, Vol.55, No.3, p.167-172. 22 ref.

CIS 07-509 Hahn S., Kielhorn J., Koppenhöfer J., Wibbertmann A., Mangelsdorf I.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Resorcinol
Conclusions of this criteria document on resorcinol: in humans, dermal exposure to resorcinol has been reported to be associated with thyroid effects, CNS disturbances, red blood cell changes and a low incidence of skin sensitization; the substance does not appear to be irritating to the skin in the concentrations reported; in animal studies, the reported toxicological effects include thyroid dysfunction, irritation to skin and eyes, CNS effects and altered adrenal gland weights. Abstracts in French and Spanish.
WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. vi, 72p. Illus. 252 ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad71.pdf [in English]

2005

CIS 06-1167 Bégin D., Moumen M., Gérin M.
The substitution of solvents with benzyl alcohol
La substitution des solvants par l'alcool benzylique [in French]
This report analyses published data on the occupational safety and health and environmental aspects of benzyl alcohol. It aims to provide guidance for industrial hygienists and other safety and health specialists on its possible use as a substitute for traditional solvents. It is concluded that, given the low toxicity of benzyl alcohol in humans and in the environment, it constitutes an acceptable replacement for more toxic solvents such as dichloromethane. However, adequate ventilation is recommended, in particular if products containing benzyl alcohol are sprayed or heated. The use of protective gloves and glasses is also recommended.
Institut de recherche Robert Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. v, 33p. 139 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/B-068.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-384 Teschke K., Chow Y., van Netten C., Varughese S., Kennedy S.M., Brauer M.
Exposures to atmospheric effects in the entertainment industry
Theatrical fogs are commonly used in the entertainment industry to create special atmospheric effects during filming and live productions. This study examined exposures to mineral oil and glycol-based theatrical fogs to determine what fluids were commonly used, to measure the size distributions of the aerosols and to identify factors associated with personal exposure levels to these substances. Airborne concentrations of inhalable aerosol, aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in a range of production types (television, film, live theatre and concerts), and observations about the sites and tasks performed were collected. Findings are discussed. It is important to consider these exposures in light of any health effects observed, since existing occupational exposure limits were developed in other industries where the aerosol composition differs from that of theatrical fogs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2005, Vol.2, No.5, p.277-284. 9 ref.

CIS 06-258 Howe P.D., Dobson S., Malcom H.M.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
2,4,6-Tribromophenol and other simple brominated phenols
This criteria document evaluates the health and environmental effects of 2,4,6-tribromophenol and other simple brominated phenols. Main conclusions: no studies have been identified on the effects of brominated phenols on human health; animal studies indicate that 2,4,6-tribromophenol is non-irritating to the skin but moderately irritating to the eyes. Insufficient data are available for setting tolerable concentration levels. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. iv, 47p. 186 ref.

2004

CIS 06-1263 Ethanol
Etanol [in Spanish]
Chemical safety data sheet on ethanol. Inhalation of high concentrations of ethanol may cause effects on the central nervous system, including unconsciousness and coma. Ingestion may cause gastrointestinal irritation and depression of the central nervous system. Contact with the skin may cause moderate irritation and cyanosis. Contact with the eyes causes severe irritation and may cause sensitization to light, chemical conjunctivitis and corneal damage. Long-term effects include reproductive effects and damage to the liver, kidneys and heart. The liquid and vapour forms of ethanol are inflammable.
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Carrera 20, No.39-62, 6839 Bogotá, Colombia, 2004. 4p. Illus.

CIS 05-374 Zapór L.
Toxicity of some phenolic derivatives - In vitro studies
The cytotoxicity of five phenolic compounds (phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone and phloroglucinol) was tested using a mouse 3T3 fibroblast cell line. Linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to characterize the relationship between cytotoxicity expressed as IC50 and physicochemical parameters of compounds or their toxicity in vivo expressed as LD50. The studies showed that the physicochemical properties of the compounds seemed to have less influence on their cytotoxic potency than did their structural properties. The cytotoxicity of the compounds probably depends on the number of hydroxyl groups and their location in the aromatic ring more than on physicochemical properties of compounds. The best correlation was obtained for IC50 values and LD50 values determined following rabbit skin administration and experimental skin irritation score.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.319-331. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 04-254
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Pentachlorophenol (No. 3). 3-Trifluoromethylaniline (No. 44). Chlorotoluidines (No. 55). 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (No. 74). Chlorinated paraffins (No. 93). 4-Chloro-2-methylphenol (No. 134). Dimethyldicykan (No. 143). Isodecanol (No. 149). Propargyl Alcohol (No 213)
This document comprises supplementary reports, finalized between December 1999 and June 2002, relating to nine substances evaluated in earlier BUA reports: pentachlorophenol (CIS 94-995), 3-trifluoromethylaniline (CIS 92-565), chlorotoluidines, benzothiazolethiol (CIS 97-1265), chlorinated paraffins (CIS 96-286), 4-chloro-o-cresol (CIS 95-2188), 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dimethyldicyclohexylmethane, isodecyl alcohol (CIS 97-1269) and propargyl alcohol (CIS 02-572). The new data relate mainly to the results of ecotoxicity and animal studies carried out following recommendations made in the original reports. No new effects on humans are reported. Protective measures are recommended when handling some of these substances.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2004. 152p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 54.50.

2003

CIS 05-627 Matthieu L., Godoi A.F.L., Lambert J., Van Grieken R.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from bisphenol A in vinyl gloves
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by polyvinyl chloride gloves is rarely reported, and in only two cases was bisphenol A considered to be the responsible sensitizer. In this case report, a patient developed occupational hand dermatitis after the use of a new type of high-density vinyl (HDV) gloves. Patch tests showed positive reactions to both used and new HDV gloves and to bisphenol A. Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of bisphenol A in the HDV gloves. Replacement by nitrile rubber gloves resulted in complete clearance of the hand dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2003, Vol.49, No.6, p.281-283. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 05-527 Jakubowski M.
Phenol
Fenol [in Polish]
Phenol is used primarily as a feedstock for phenolic resins, caprolactam, xylenols and aniline. The substance is readily absorbed by all routes of exposure. The retention of phenol vapours in the lungs is about 60-80%. The rate of penetration through the skin ranges from 0.08 to 0.3mg/cm2/h. The half-time of excretion of phenol in urine after inhalation exposure is 3.5h. Solutions of phenol are corrosive to the skin and eyes; phenol vapours can irritate the respiratory tract. An RD50 of 624mg/m3 has been reported in mice. Evidence for the carcinogenicity of phenol in laboratory animals was considered by the IARC to be insufficient. Time-weighted average occupational exposure limits vary in different countries between 4 and 19mg/m3. Based on the NOAEL value obtained from an inhalation study in rats, a time-weighted average value of 7.8mg/m3 was proposed. No short-term exposure limit value has been proposed.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2003, Vol.35, No.1, p.87-113. Illus. 78 ref.

CIS 03-1533
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
2-tert-Butylphenol
Conclusions of this criteria document: 2-tert-butylphenol is harmful to health. Studies on repeated administration are unavailable. 2-tert-butylphenol is strongly irritating to caustic to the skin and eyes. The substance is non-sensitizing in animal tests. The odour threshold is 50µg/L air and the taste threshold 30µg/L water.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2003. xii, 70p. 62 ref.
http://www.hirzel.de/bua-report/PDF/Summary_Report231.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1528 sec-Butanol (CAS No. 78-92-2)
Conclusions of this criteria document: acute toxicity of sec-butanol (sBA; also: sec-butyl alcohol) is low in laboratory animals. It is non-irritant to rabbit skin, but is severely irritant to the eye. It is not a skin sensitizer in guinea pigs. sBA is not genotoxic and there is no concern for a carcinogenic potential. sBA showed some foetotoxicity in laboratory animals at high concentrations. In humans, no adverse systemic effects associated with acute or repeated exposure to sBA have been reported. As sBA is volatile, high exposure levels may result in acute central nervous system effects, including headache and dizziness. sBA, after transformation to methyl ethyl ketone, may potentiate the neurotoxicity of certain neurotoxic ketones; such effects, however, have not been reported so far.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2003. 76p. Illus. Approx. 200 ref.

CIS 03-1526 n-Butanol (CAS No.71-36-3)
Conclusions of this criteria document: n-butanol (nBA; also: butyl alcohol) is readily absorbed through the lungs of humans and laboratory animals and can also penetrate the skin. It is of low toxicity in animals when administrated by gavage, inhalation or application to the skin. The typical effect of exposure to high doses of nBA is a transient, depression (narcosis) of the central nervous system. Specific neurotoxicity is not observed. Specific target organs and selective toxicity have not been identified. nBA is not genotoxic and there is no concern for carcinogenic potential. It showed some foetotoxicity in laboratory animals at high concentrations. Earlier reports describing neurotoxicity and hearing loss in workers exposed to nBA have not been substantiated. Toxic effects in humans: slightly to moderately irritant to the skin on prolonged contact, and moderately irritant to the eyes.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2003. 116p. Illus. Approx. 390 ref.

CIS 03-1076 2,4-Xylenol
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: the substance is corrosive to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; corrosive on ingestion; inhalation of aerosol may cause lung oedema; effects may be delayed. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated exposure may cause skin sensitization. Threshold limit value not established. Synonyms: 2,4-dimethyphenol; m-xylenol, 1-hydroxy-2,4-dimethylbenzene.
Internet documents, 2003, 2p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc04/icsc0458.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-355
Health and Safety Executive
Hydroquinone in air: Laboratory method using high performance liquid chromatography
This document describes a laboratory method for the determination of the concentration of hydroquinone in air. Air samples are collected in the breathing zone in a dust sampler backed with a sorbent tube. After desorption into acetonitrile, the samples are analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Contents: legal requirements; health effects, safety and health precautions and exposure limits; principle and scope of the method; sampling equipment; laboratory apparatus; reagents; preparation and collection of samples; sample analysis; calculation of results; method performance; quality control measures; recommendations for the test report
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2003. 5p. 10 ref. Price: GBP 12.00.

2002

CIS 05-514 Piotrowski J., Szymańska J.
Cyclohexanol
Cykloheksanol [in Polish]
Cyclohexanol is mostly used as a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of adipic acid. Information on the toxicity of cyclohexanol in humans is fragmentary. Acute exposures are characterized by irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Among workers of a caprolactam-producing plant exposed by inhalation for a long period, nonspecific disorders of the autonomic nervous system were observed. The proposed maximum admissible concentration for cyclohexanol is based on the toxic effects on the male reproduction system in experimental animals, which is considered to be the critical effect. In the present document, the proposed threshold limit value (time-weighted average) for cyclohexanol is set at 10mg/m3.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.33, No.3, p.5-20. 39 ref.

CIS 05-508 Konieczko K., Czerczak S.
3-Methyl-1-butanol
3-Metylobutan-1-ol [in Polish]
Animal experiments show isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) to be an irritant to mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. Exposure to isoamyl alcohol can produce corneal damage. Following exposure at high concentrations, it produced narcosis. Human volunteers complained of slight throat irritation at 360mg/m3 and of ocular and upper respiratory tract irritation after exposure at 540mg/m3 for three to five minutes. Based on these human data, the Polish Expert Group for Chemical Agents established a threshold limit value (8-hour time-weighted average) of 200mg/m3, and a short-term exposure limit value of 400mg/m3.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2002, Vol.31, No.1, p.79-98. 41 ref.

CIS 03-1773 Tsai P.J., Shieh H.Y., Lee W.J., Chen H.L., Shih T.S.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon black workers
In this study, a total of 30 workers exposed to carbon black were selected, including eight wet pelletizing workers and 22 packaging workers. For all selected workers, urine samples were collected on the first day pre-shift, first day post-shift and fifth day post-shift, and their urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels (1-OHP) were determined (denoted as BM1pre, BM1post and BM5post, respectively). Personal respiratory exposures, including both inhalable particle-bound PAHs (Cipb) and gaseous PAHs (Cgas), together with dermal exposure to particle-bound PAHs (Cskin) were measured. Personal background information, including age, sex and smoking habit, was registered. Pyrene exposure was statistically significantly correlated with exposure to PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs. The resultant regression coefficients for sex, smoking habit and age were statistically insignificant. In conclusion, this study suggests BM5post could be a suitable indicator for PAH exposures of carbon black workers, on the condition that both respiratory and dermal exposures are assessed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.229-235. 24 ref.

CIS 03-811 Screening information data set - SIDS - for high production volume chemicals - Volume 7, Parts 1, 2 and 3
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of: acetic anhydride; D & C Red No. 9; benzyl chloride; 2-butoxyethanol; 4-chloro-o-cresol; 2,6-dichlorotoluene; dicyclopentadiene; cresyl diphenyl phosphate; pentaerythritol; hydroquinone; melamine; 3-methyl butynol; α-methyl styrene.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2002. viii, 328p. Index (Part 1); viii, 322p. Index (Part 2); viii, 295p. Index (Part 3).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/oecdsids/indexcasnumb.htm [in English]

CIS 03-538 Gomes R., Liteplo R., Meek M.E.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Ethylene glycol: Human health aspects
Conclusions of this criteria document: data available from acute poisoning indicate that the kidney is a critical organ for the toxicity of ethylene glycol; neurological and neurobehavioural disorders have been reported but available data are inadequate to assess potential neurological and immunological effects associated with ethylene glycol. Data from animal studies indicate that ethylene glycol has nephrotoxic and teratogenic effects; there is evidence of reproductive toxicity in mice (at very high doses) but not in rats.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 38p. Illus. 134 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad45.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-1560 Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 8, Parts 1 and 2
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of 7 chemicals: 1,4-butanediol, p-tert-butylphenol, diacetone alcohol, 4-5-dihydroxy-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one (synonym: dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea), glycidyl methacrylate, 4,4'- methylenedianiline and 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
United Nations Environment Programme, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, Nov. 2002. viii, 264p. Bibl.ref. (Part 1); viii, 302p. Bibl.ref. (Part 2).

CIS 02-1831 Caux C., O'Brien C., Viau C.
Determination of firefighter exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene during fire fighting using measurement of biological indicators
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene among firefighters was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and trans,trans-muconic acid (TTMA), respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period extending for 20h following the end of exposure during a fire. A control sample was also obtained from each participant after at least four days without involvement in fire fighting activities. Following exposure to fire, the level of 1-hydroxypyrene exceeded 0.32µmol/mol creatinine value in 38% of the cases. 17 firefighters had measurable TTMA in the urine samples, among which only 6 had concentrations exceeding 1.1mmol/mol creatinine considered to correspond to a benzene concentration of approximately 1ppm. The low exposure evaluations could be due to either low concentrations of the contaminants during fire fighting or to the efficiency of protective equipment worn.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.379-386. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 02-52 Isobutylmethylcarbinol
Carbinol isobutílico de metilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: TWA 100mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin and eyes; drowsiness; headache.
Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 2002, Vol.64, No.2, 4p. Insert.

2001

CIS 03-68
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for pentachlorophenol (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of pentachlorophenol is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; hepatic damage; possible thyroid effects; developmental effects (congenital cataract) and possible reproduction effects immunological effects; neurological effects; carcinogenic effect (Hodgkin's disease, soft tissue sarcoma and acute leukaemia); haematological effects; skin rashes. (Update of CIS 98-1385).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2001. xix, 269p. Illus. Approx. 775 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp51.html [in English]

CIS 02-1114 Methyl isobutyl carbinol
Carbinol isobutílico de metilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: 4-methyl-2-pentanol. Exposure limit: 100mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin and eyes; headache; vertigo; narcotic effects.
Noticias de seguridad, Sep. 2001, Vol.63, No.9, 4p. Insert.

CIS 02-572
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Propargyl alcohol
Conclusions of this criteria document: the sensitization capacity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of propargyl alcohol cannot be adequately evaluated on the basis of available data. Animal experiments are recommended to clarify the sensitizing properties of the substance. Genotoxicity studies showed no signs of genotoxic potential.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. x, 118p. Bibl.ref.

2000

CIS 03-275 Dor F., Haguenoer J.M., Zmirou D., Empereur-Bissonnet P., Jongeneelen F.J., Nedellec V., Person A., Ferguson C.C., Dab W.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure of workers on a contaminated site: Influence of exposure conditions
The aim of the study was to determine the exposure levels of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on gasworks sites through the measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Start-of-shift and end-of-shift urine samples were collected during five consecutive days, once in November and a second time in June. Four groups of workers were selected according to their activity. Increased exposure was only found among workers involved in the remediation of a site, with levels of 0.16 to 2.31µmol/mol creatinine, while the median level among the nonsmoker referent group was 0.02µmol/mol creatinine. Smokers had greater exposure levels than non-smokers in every group. It is concluded that this method allows the assessment of exposure of persons on contaminated soil on the condition that the exposed subjects be in direct contact with the soil.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.42, No.4, p.391-397. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1134
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Diphenylamine (No.15); Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (No.21); Naphthalene (No.39); Tetrachloromethane (No.45); Biphenyl (No.50); N,N-Dimethylaniline (No.91); Trichloroethene (No.95); Hexachlorobenzene (No.119); Bisphenol A (no.203)
These short reports concern 9 substances suspected of having a hazardous potential, but for which available data are insufficient. The purpose of these reports is to establish a basis for assessment, identify gaps in knowledge and recommend areas for further investigation.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. 136p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-67 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol; 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
2,4,5-Trichlorophénol; 2,4,6-Trichlorophénol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-408. Acute toxicity: irritation of the skin and conjunctival irritation in the case of eye splashes. Chronic toxicity: chloracne; disturbances of the hepatic functions; neuromuscular weakness; porphyria cutanea tardiva; psychological disorders; respiratory impairment; suspected carcinogenicity. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 22 ref.

CIS 02-335
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some industrial chemicals
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 15-22 February 2000. 16 industrial organic chemicals were reviewed: three were rated 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), five were rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and eight were classified 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). For each chemical, the following aspects are covered: exposure data; studies of cancer in humans; studies of cancer in experimental animals; other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary of reported data and evaluation.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 2000. iv, 563p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 01-1362
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 6, Part 2
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of dimethyl-2,6 naphthalenedicarboxylate, 2 propanol (isopropyl alcohol), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate and trichloroacetic acid.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2000. viii, 301p. Bibl.ref.
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/volume6/part2/COVOL62.PDF [in English]

CIS 01-1361
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 6, Part 1
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of acetone, 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) or azobisisobutyronitrile, hexamethylene glycol (1,6-hexanediol), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and isocyanuric acid.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2000. viii, 319p. Bibl.ref.
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/volume6/part1/COVOL61.PDF [in English]

CIS 01-1355
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Ethanol - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of ethanol based on the evaluation of studies on its effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 1 (substances known to impair fertility in humans) and R60 (may impair fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 (may cause harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 33p. 54 ref.
http://www.gr.nl/overig/pdf/00@01OSH.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-827 Pavanello S., Genova A., Foà V., Clonfero E.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by analysis of urinary 1-pyrenol
Valutazione dell'esposizione professionale ad idrocarburi policiclici aromatici mediante l'analisi del livelli urinari de 1-pirenolo [in Italian]
Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed by analysing urinary levels of 1-pyrenol. A total of 231 non-smokers exposed to PAH (in industries and occupations including fuel oil power plants, used oil recovery, rubber production, road surface asphalting operations, aluminium anodizing, chimney-sweeping and coke-oven production) were enrolled, together with 53 non-smoker unexposed controls. In the overall population (controls and exposed), multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of urinary 1-pyrenol were significantly influenced by occupational exposure to PAH in asphalt workers, anodizing plant workers, chimney-sweeps, and coke-oven workers, but not in power plant workers, workers recovering exhausted oils, or rubber production workers. In chimney sweeps and top side coke-oven workers, respectively 2 and 4 subjects exceeded the precautionary level of 1.4µmoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine; of these, 1 chimney sweep and 3 top side workers exceeded the recommended biological threshold of 2.3µmoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.192-205. 40 ref.

CIS 01-838 Svendsen K., Rognes K.S.
Exposure to organic solvents in the offset printing industry in Norway
The purpose of this study was to document current conditions regarding solvent exposure in offset printing shops in Norway at present and to study the variation of exposure between print shop technologies. The measurements consisted of 5 to 10 whole-day personal exposure measurements over a period of 2 months. Variables that may influence the level of exposure were registered by the occupational hygienist using a check list. The main contributor to the "additive factor" was isopropanol. Its concentration sometimes exceeded the Norwegian TLV. The exposure increased when the machine had automatic cleaning; it decreased when an exhaust ventilation was used. The "automatic cleaning" and "separate exhaust ventilation" variables explained 59% of the variation in the "additive factor". The results indicate that the most important source of solvent exposure in printing shops at present is the moisturizer used in the printing machines.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2000, Vol.44, No.2, p.119-124. 8 ref.

CIS 01-518 Chemical advisory and notice of potential risk: Skin exposure to molten 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) can cause rapid death
2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is a chemical intermediate used to produce pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Based on information from recent worker fatality cases, skin exposure of relatively small amounts (1% of body surface) to molten 2,4-DCP can cause rapid death. This information sheet describes four cases of fatalities and gives advice on work practices to protect workers (increase risk awareness, safe procedures, selection of material for pipes and equipment, engineering process control, exposure guidelines, selection of proper protective equipment) and on emergency, first aid and decontamination procedures.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Publications Office, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington D.C. 20210, USA, 2000. 13p. 12 ref.

CIS 01-179
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical hazard alert notice - Hydroquinone (1,4 Benzenediol)
This guidance note provides information on the health effects of exposure to hydroquinone. In view of the information now available, the HSC is studying the possible withdrawal of the current exposure limits from 2001. Hydroquinone is used in the manufacture of photographic developing reagents. It is also used as an intermediate in a number of processes, such as the production of p-benzoquinone for use in agrochemical production, and the manufacturing of methacrylate and methacrylic acid, UV curable resins for printing ink production, acrylonitrile and thermoplastic monomer. There is clear evidence showing that hydroquinone is mutagenic; it is a skin and eye irritant and can cause skin sensitization reactions and damage to the eyes. Exposure to hydroquinone should be controlled by a combination of engineering, process and control measures (ventilation, personal protective equipment).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. 3p.

CIS 01-177
Health and Safety Executive
Chemical hazard alert notice - Phenol
This guidance note provides information on the health effects of exposure to phenol. In view of the information now available, the HSC is studying the possible withdrawal of the current exposure limits from 2001. Phenol is used as a starting material for the production of a variety of chemicals, mostly for the production of phenolic resins. It is corrosive and can be absorbed by the skin; diluted preparation may cause chemical burns or skin irritation. It can be genotoxic. Exposure to phenol should be controlled by a combination of engineering, process and control measures (ventilation, personal protective equipment).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. 3p.

CIS 00-1260 Dobson S.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Ethylene glycol: Environmental aspects
Two-thirds of the word production of ethylene glycol is used as a chemical intermediate and one-fourth as an antifreeze in engine coolants. It is also used as a runway de-icer in airports; in this case the local release is important. Tests show that ethylene glycol is readily biodegradable. Pure ethylene glycol has generally low toxicity in organisms; ethylene glycol-based de-icers however show greater toxicity. Studies in the vicinity of an airport have reported toxic signs in aquatic organisms, fish kills and reduced biodiversity, but these effects cannot be attributed with certainty to ethylene glycol. Terrestrial organisms are less exposed and show low sensitivity. The appropriate International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC) is given. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. iii, 24p. Illus. 88 ref. Price: CHF 13.00 (CHF 9.10 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad22.pdf [in English]

1999

CIS 03-1072 3,5-Dichlorophenol
3,5-Dichlorophénol [in French]
3,5-Diclorofenol [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card published in 1998. Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: strong irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; chloracne. Insufficient data is available on long-term effects of the substance, therefore utmost care must be taken. Threshold limit value not established. Synonym: 1-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobenzene.
Internet documents, 1998, 2p.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_icsc04/icsc0440.pdf [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0440.html [in French]
hhttp://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn0440.htm [in Spanish]

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