Inorganic acids - 33 entries found
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Pereira Vianna M.I., Sousa Santana V., Loomis D.
Occupational exposures to acid mists and gases and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa
To examine the hypothesis that acid mist or mixtures of acid mists and acid gases are associated with ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa, all 665 active male workers of a metal processing factory in Brazil were studied. Semi-quantitative measures of exposure were estimated from a job exposure matrix, and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa were identified with standardized clinical dental examinations. It was found that past exposure to acid mists were positively associated with ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa but only among workers without lip sealing, that is not having the ability to keep lips closed at rest (age- and alcohol consumption-adjusted prevalence ratio PR=3.40). The evidence of a chronic rather than acute irritative process suggests a possible step involving the aetiology of oral malignancies, which however needs further investigation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.45, No.3, p.238-245. 23 ref.
Check list - Acids and bases
Liste de contrôle - Acides et bases [in French]
Checkliste - Säuren und Laugen [in German]
Lista di controllo - Acidi e liscive [in Italian]
Check list of 20 safety measures for the handling and storage of acids and bases. Topics: acids; bases, alkalis; check lists; corrosive substances; personal protective equipment; plant safety organization; safe working methods; Switzerland; training manuals; training material.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, [1999?]. 4p. Illus.
Working with acids
Umgang mit Säuren [in German]
Replaces Merkblatt M 33 (CIS 89-1318). Topics: acids; Austria; data sheet; first aid; handling and storage; harmful substances; personal protective equipment; safe working methods; safety guides.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, 1996. 20p. Illus.
Goto H., Hosaka M., Ueda T., Yoshida M., Hara I.
Association between dental erosion and exposure to acids in a chemical factory
Ichi kagaku kojo ni okeru shokugyo sei shiga sanshoku sho to san bakuro tono kankei [in Japanese]
An examination of dental erosion status and a semi-quantitative assessment of exposure to acids were carried out for 134 workers in a chemical factory in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Some 30.6% of the workers showed dental erosion of grade + or above, on a scale of - to 3+. Most of the erosion was observed in the front teeth. There were more eroded teeth in the upper jaw than in the lower jaw. The workers were divided into 4 groups according to job type at the time of the examination: production, research, clerical work and others. The production group, those routinely handling a large amount of various kinds of acids, had the highest proportion of workers with eroded teeth. Because some of the clerical workers had previously handled acids, this group of workers included a larger number with dental erosion than the other two groups. More than half of the workers who had been engaged in production had eroded teeth, including grade ±. The intensity of exposure to acids, as a semi-quantitative index for cumulative exposure to acids, was calculated for each worker from a score for the job type and its duration. A significant association was observed between the intensity and the manifestation of dental erosion.
Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Aug. 1996, Vol.38, No.4, p.165-171. Illus. 10 ref.
Bowes S.M., Francis M., Laube B.L., Robert F.
Acute exposure to acid fog: Influence of breathing pattern on effective dose
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1995, Vol.56, No.2, p.143-150. Illus. 42 ref. ###
Beije B., Lundberg P.
Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1992
English translations of five criteria documents published previously as individual documents in Swedish: CIS 93-1673 (inorganic acid aerosols), CIS 93-1674 (aluminium), CIS 93-1675 (cadmium), CIS 93-1676 (inorganic lead), CIS 93-1677 (selenium).
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 267p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Nordic Expert Group for the Documentation of Exposure Limits. 102. Inorganic acid aerosols
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 102. Uorganiske syreaerosoler [in Norwegian]
Review and evaluation of data on sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric and phosphoric acid aerosols. Occupational exposure limits should be based on their corrosive and inflammatory properties. Their possible role in the development of laryngeal cancer should also be taken into account.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 45p. 154 ref.
Guindo Nignan M., Garnier R., Telolahy P., Auger J., Ditcharles D., Dossier E., Klein E., Nguyen-Auvier D., Renault B.
Urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid in workers engaged in the production of gallium arsenide semi-conductors
Excrétion urinaire d'arsenic minéral, d'acide méthylarsonique et d'acide diméthylarsinique lors de la fabrication de micro-composants sur substrat d'arséniure de gallium [in French]
The determination of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic methylarsonic acid (M.A.A.) and dimethylarsinic acid (D.M.A.) through direct hydride generation from urine is an easy, inexpensive and reliable method for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic arsenic. This method was used for the biological monitoring of 79 workers engaged in the manufacturing of gallium arsenide semi-conductors in 7 different plants. 238 urine samples were obtained. The results presented are in agreement with those of two similar studies of smaller groups of gallium arsenide-exposed workers. Increases in urinary inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were rare and always small. The mean total urinary arsenic concentration was low (<20µg/g creatinine); more than 90% of all measurements were consistent with dietary-only arsenic absorption; no-one showed inorganic arsenic absorption corresponding to an 8h TWA of 100µg/m3 or more (i.e. half the French TLV).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.5, p.375-381. Illus. 33 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids and other industrial chemicals
These monographs consist of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 15-22 Oct. 1991). IARC final classification: occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); diethyl sulfate and 1,3-butadiene are probably carcinogenic in humans (2A); diisopropyl sulfate is possibly carcinogenic in humans (2B); sulfur dioxide, sulfites, metabisulfites and hydrochloric acid are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 336p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 65.00.
Acids and bases - Directive [Switzerland]
Säuren und Laugen - Richtlinie [in German]
Acidi e liscive - Direttive [in Italian]
Acides et bases - Règles [Suisse] [in French]
Safety rules applicable to the use and storage of acids and bases. They concern: generalities (documentation, ventilation, warning labels, prevention of spills, review of safety measures, waste treatment provisions); rules for safe use (installations, personal protection, working methods); storage; construction, equipment and configuration of workplaces; maintenance; training; first aid; personal hygiene; environmental protection. List of other applicable legal texts and standards. Extensive commentary.
Eidgenössische Koordinationskommission für Arbeitssicherheit, Richtlinienbüro, Fluhmattstrasse 1, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1990. 18p. 1 ref.
Soskolne C.L., Pagano G., Cippolaro M., Beaumont J.J., Giordano G.G.
Epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence for chronic health effects and the underlying biologic mechanisms involved in sub-lethal exposures to acidic pollutants
Since the 1880s, an extensive literature has evolved examining the biological effects of acidification on cells. More recently, effects on the health of human and other species of acidic agents contained, for example, in pollutants have been suggested, particularly relating to long-term exposures. This paper provides a review of the epidemiological and toxicological evidence concerning health effects - particularly carcinogenicity - attributable to acid exposure. Underlying biological mechanisms that explain adverse health outcomes include pH modulation of toxicity for a number of xenobiotics (including carcinogens, genotoxins, and teratogens), and low-pH-induced changes of cells involving, for example, alterations in mitotic and enzyme regulation. More focused research is recommended to test the relationship between long-term exposures to acidic agents (with a consequent lowered cellular pH) and various health effects.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1989, Vol.44, No.3, p.180-191. 160 ref.
Tuominen M., Tuominen R., Ranta K., Ranta H.
Association between acid fumes in the work environment and dental erosion
A sample of 186 workers was drawn from four factories. Among the 157 dentulous (having natural teeth) participants, 76 were working in departments containing acid fumes, and 81 had never worked under such conditions and were used as referents. Of the acid workers 18.4% had one or more teeth with erosion, and the corresponding figure for the referents was 8.6%. With a longer duration of exposure the proportion of subjects with erosion increased. The acid workers had more teeth with erosion than the referents, especially upper anterior teeth. The findings suggest that even today exposure to inorganic acid fumes from the work environment may increase the erosion of teeth, especialy of the upper anterior teeth, which are not continuously protected by saliva and the lips.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.335-338. 16 ref.
The use of foam for vapor mitigation
Guide on the choice and use of extinguishing foams for the suppression of vapours evolving from spills of organic, acidic or basic materials.
Fire Command, Apr. 1988, Vol.55, No.4, p.18-20. Illus.
Umgang mit Säuren [in German]
Having described the properties of mineral acids and organic acids, this safety guide deals with: storage, handling, premises, personal protective measures, first aid.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 19p. Illus.
Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis
Industrial airborne irritant or allergic contact dermatitis is commonly observed in many factories. Examples of airborne irritants include fibres (such as fibreglass or rockwood), various kinds of dust particles (such as cement, slag, sludge, insulating foam, wood chips), acids and alkalis, gases and vapours. Airborne contact allergens are unequivocally numerous. The clinical symptoms of both irritant and allergic airborne contact dermatitis are reviewed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1986, Vol.14, No.3, p.137-145. Illus. 37 ref.
Safe well stimulation by acidizing
This data sheet describes a technique in which acid solutions are injected into oil wells in carbonate formations to dissolve some of the carbonate and thereby increase the flow capacity of the wells. The acids used most commonly are hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, acetic, and formic. Other aspects covered: safe acidizing procedures; transporting acid in bulk for offshore operations; personal protective equipment; first aid.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 4p. Illus. Bibl.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Polymer-coated materials for protective clothing and hand and arm protection - Method for determining their resistance to acids and alkalis
Materialy s polimernym pokrytiem dlja special'noj odeždy i sredstv zaščity ruk - Metod opredelenija stojkosti k dejstviju kislot i ščeločej [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) applies to materials with polymeric coatings (synthetic leather and rubberized materials) and defines a method to be used for determining their resistance to alkalis and acids. The method is based on the measurment of rigidity and of resistance to abrasion and repeated bending. Contents: method of sampling; testing equipment; materials and reagents; preparation for testing and testing; treatment of results; safety requirements.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984, 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Synthetic leather for hand and arm protection - Method for determination of acid and alkali permeability
Iskusstvennye koži dlja sredstv zaščity ruk - Metod opredelenija pronicaemosti kislot i ščeločej [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) establishes a method to be used for determining the resistance of synthetic leather for hand and arm protection to alkalis and acids at different concentrations. The method is based on the measurement of the time required for these substances to penetrate a test sample. Contents: method of sampling, testing equipment, preparation for testing and testing, treatment of results, safety requirements.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Leather boots and shoes protecting against petroleum, petroleum products, acids, alkalis, non-toxic and explosive dust - Technical requirements
Obuv' special'naja kožanaja dlja zaščity ot nefti, nefeproduktov, kislot, ščeločej, netoksičnoj i vzryvoopasnoj pyli [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1985) covers leather safety boots and shoes protecting against crude petroleum, products of heavy petroleum fractions and mineral oils, acids and alkalis in concentrations up to 20%, non-toxic and explosive dust. Contents: types and sizes (in tables); technical requirements (methods of sole attachment in accordance with the use to be made of the footwear); materials for footwear components, permissible thicknesses, strength criteria for seams, soles and heels, criteria for stiffness of counter and toe, mass and flexibility; acceptance criteria; methods of testing; marking, transport, storage; instructions for use; guarantee by the manufacturer.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 16p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Zavgorodnij I.P., Berezner A.S.
Techniques for transferring corrosive liquids
Tehnologija perevozki agressivnyh židkostej [in Russian]
Industrial acids delivered to a factory in railway tank cars are safely distributed around the factory by means of truck-drawn tank wagons (2m3 capacity) and smaller wheeled tanks (0.5m3). The acids are transferred by siphoning. Transfers are carried out by specially trained teams under the supervision of a factory official. The drivers who transport the containers must likewise undergo special instruction and be certified for competence in the handling of dangerous substances. The supply department of the factory includes an emergency squad which is trained and equipped to neutralise and clean up spills.
Promyšlennyj transport, Nov. 1982, No.11, p.7-9. Illus.
Il'in L.A., Ivannikov A.T., Popov B.A., Altuhova G.A., Parfenova I.M.
The effectiveness of decontamination procedures for skin contaminated by 241Am in concentrated acid
Ėffektivnost' dezaktivacii koži, zagrjaznennoj 241Am v koncentrirovannoj kislote [in Russian]
Animal experiments showed that the effectiveness of washing with soap and water to remove 241Am in 0.05,1 and 8n HNO3 depends on the acid concentration, the time between burning and treatment, and the washing agent used. Most effective was a 3% soap solution which, if applied within 5min, removes up to 98% of the radionuclide. Soap also alleviated the chemical burn and inhibited the penetration of 241Am into the derma and its skin absorption.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1980, No.12, p.34-37. 10 ref.
Determination of acid vapours and mists at the workplace with the use of miniature absorbers
Die Bestimmung von Säuredämpfen und Säurenebeln am Arbeitsplatz unter Verwendung von Kleinabsorbern [in German]
Personal monitoring methods making use of miniature absorbers for determination of acid concentrations in workplace air are compared with regard to accuracy limits, suitability, and, in particular, degree of absorption. Use of an appropriate quantity of 0.01N NaOH (or KOH) as absorption fluid and back titration of the unused solution by means of automatic titration provides the most accurate results with a minimum of work.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, June 1978, Vol.24, No.6, p.425-428. Illus.
A case history report: An investigation into the safe handling of acid carboys and drums.
Description of 2 accidents due to the bursting of steel drums containing sulphuric acid (one in a metal cleaning room and a case on the mid deck of a ship). The article discusses events leading up to the incidents: leaving the drums in hot sun or overheated rooms, causing internal pressure build-up; rolling, trucking and handling, causing the acid to wash iron sulphate off the drum lining and expose new steel surface for the acid to attack, releasing additional hydrogen gas, with consequent pressure increase; insufficient ullage (space left in drum to allow for gas expansion; the ullage space necessary as the temperature increases is shown graphically); failure to vent drums regularly; no attention paid to the fact that the drums were obviously bulging. Preventive measures are indicated, and the article considers problems of contamination, corrosion, leakage, explosions and bursting; safe working methods: venting, drums not to be stored in the open exposed to weather, storage in upright position, labelling and marking, personal protective equipment, inspection, draining, cleaning and disposal of drums.
Protection, Mar. 1977, Vol.14, No.3, p.6-10. Illus.
Duprat P., Delsaut L., Gradisky D.
Irritative power of common acids and bases on the rabbit skin and eye mucosa
Pouvoir irritant des acides et bases usuels sur la peau et les muqueuses oculaires du lapin. [in French]
Report on studies with various concentrations of ammonia, sodium and potassium hydroxides, and sulfuric, hydrochloric and chromic acids in aqueous solution based on Draizo's method, the official cosmetics testing method, and Kay and Calandra's method of interpretation. The nature, severity and course of the lesions caused by each product according to concentration is recorded, and findings obtained by other authors in animals and man are compared. Concentrations causing little or no irritation were determined, and skin and eye irritation scales established.
Notes scientifiques et techniques de l'INRS, No.10, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Aug. 1976. 63p. 27 ref.
Safe well stimulation by acidizing.
This data sheet describes methods and hazards of injecting acid solutions under pressure into predominantly carbonate formations, to dissolve some of the carbonate, thereby increasing the permeability of the formation and increasing the flow capacity of the well. Sections are devoted to: acidising methods; toxicity of inhibitors mixed with acids; characteristics of hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, hydrogen sulfide; list of 14 rules for safe acidising procedures; personal protective equipment; first aid (deluge showers, etc.); dealing with acid spills.
Data Sheet 634, Revision A (Extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1976. 3p. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and safety in treatments for the preparation of metal surfaces
Hygiène et sécurité dans les traitements de préparation de surface des métaux. [in French]
Study on pickling and acid vat hazards submitted to the Regional Technical Committee for the Metal Trades (Comité technique régional de la métallurgie), Lille, France. Required specifications for acid storage premises and tanks, and precautions to be taken in filling tanks (especially by the compressed-air method); hazards of pickling processes (splashes when preparing acid vats or dipping metal parts, acid fumes during hot pickling processes); preventive measures (fixing of metal part to prevent slipping, limitation of height of pickling vats, drainage of overspill towards neutralising baths, safe distances for workers, rim of pickling vats sufficiently high to prevent workers from falling in, fume exhaust (rim exhaust plus push-pull ventilation on vat lip). The hazards involved in the regeneration of sulfuric acid baths are mentioned.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 1976, No.109, p.13-21. Illus.
H50, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Prevention Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ.
Mixed acid (nitric-sulphuric acid mixtures).
Details are given of uses of nitric-sulfuric acid mixtures, hazards, fire precautions, fire fighting, relevant British regulations, source of further information, physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, Sep. 1976, No.115, p.49-50.
Plastic recipients for hazardous liquids
Kärl av plast för farliga vätskor [in Swedish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 Jan. 1976) concern liquids which are hazardous for man and for the environment, such as acids stored and transported in recipients made of polyethylene and similar materials. Contents: regular inspection and rejection of reusable plastic containers (leakage test, etc.); storage, transport, marking and handling (special precautions to be observed in handling recipients cooled to 0°C or below).
Anvisningar nr.106, National Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, Sep. 1975. 8p. Price: Swe-cr.4.50.
Caution - Inorganic metal cleaners can be dangerous.
This profusely illustrated booklet, intended as a handy information sheet for workers, deals with the following points: uses of inorganic acids and caustics in metalworking; chemical burn hazards and other health hazards (causes and symptoms); preventive measures (handling, dispensing, mixtures, storage; dangerous chemical reactions; correct ways to clean up spills; local exhaust ventilation; protective clothing and respirators); first aid.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-110, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1975. 21p. Illus.
Neutralising the acidity of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines
Neutralisation de l'acidité des gaz d'échappement des moteurs à combustion interne. [in French]
The acidity of the gases emitted by internal combustion engines constitutes a health hazard for workers in their vicinity. Use of water tanks or baths to dissolve the acids may lead to the opposite of the result sought, when the acid saturation point is reached. To overcome this danger, a neutralising product should be added to the water. Tests were carried out with iron ore limestone, lime and chalk; the results showed that chalk was the best additive. Even when a neutralising product is added, tanks and vats should be rinsed out daily and pH readings of the solution should be constantly taken.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May-June 1975, No.3, p.112-115. Illus.
Examination of cutaneous tolerance to strong and weak acids and bases at various pH values
Essai de tolérance cutanée à l'action d'acides et de bases fortes et faibles à des pH variables. [in French]
M.D. thesis. The results are reported of cutaneous tolerance tests on guinea pigs, in order to study, among irritants, those that are corrosive to skin on account of their acidity or basicity. The experiments with histological tests were made with sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric and acetic acids and with sodium, potassium and ammonium hydroxides. The results do not confirm the hypothesis that acids of low pH are not harmful to the skin. For bases, below pH9, the harmlessness is confirmed. All cutaneous lesions due to industrial products whose pH is equal to or less than 4, or equal to or greater than 12 should be considered as compensatable as occupational injuries.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1975. 33p. Illus. 23 ref.
Reinhardt J., Kittner E.
Occupational dental disease due to acids
Berufsbedingte Säureschäden der Zähne [in German]
Statistical analysis, by industrial sector, sex and length of exposure of 1,016 cases notified between 1971 and 1973 in the Fed.Rep. of Germany. 90% of the dental decay was due to organic acids (bakers' caries), most of the cases being found among workers in bakeries, pastry and confectionery establishments, and flour mills. The other 10% of dental decay cases was due to inorganic acids used in various industries. The article examines the aetiology of dental decay due to organic acids, dietary habits being considered the prime cause of caries. Description of the causes and signs of dental damage due to inorganic acids. Because microbial action is involved in bakers' caries, whereas dental disease due to mineral acid is caused by a decalcification process, the signs and location of dental decay are different in the 2 cases.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Mar. 1975, Vol.25, No.3, p.72-75. Illus.
Microdetermination of acetic, formic and inorganic acids in air
Oznaczanie śladowych ilości kwasu octowego, mrówkowego oraz kwasów nieorganicznych w powietrzu [in Polish]
Described is a colorimetric method using methyl red for determining acetic, formic and hydrochloric acid, which is based on colour change in the acid solution in 50% glycerine in relation to solution pH. Sampling and determination procedures are described in detail. The method is simpler and more sensitive than acidimetric and iodometric techniques; accuracy is 20µg for acetic acid, 5µg for formic acid and 4µg for hydrochloric acid in 5mL of solution. It can be used in the presence of carbon dioxide and can be employed for the determination of other volatile organic acids and certain inorganic acids.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1972, Vol.22, No.73, p.83-91. 14 ref.