Water transportation - 485 entries found
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Idnani S..N., Wickramatillake H., Nguyen T.S., Tran Thi Q.C., Nguyen B.D., Saarni H., Balalla N.B.P., Lehtinen S.
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in the maritime sector of relevance to countries in the Asian-Pacific region. Contents: seafaring and health with an emphasis on Asian seafarers; strategy for maritime health services in Vietnam; occupational safety and health in a Vietnamese shipyard; fitness for work at sea; occupational health services in Brunei; policies, profiles and services in occupational safety and health. Other topics: brief report on an OSH conference held during 2011 in Espoo, Finland.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Sep. 2011, Vol.18, No.2, p.31-47 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Maritime_sector_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Schröder-Hinrichs J.U., Baldauf M., Ghirxi KT.
Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions
This article presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to ship engine-room space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out whether organizational factors were identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to engine room features was applied. Findings show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected, had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.1187-1196. Illus. 44 ref.
Psarros G., Skjong R., Eide M.S.
Under-reporting of maritime accidents
The objective of this article is to highlight evidence of serious under-reporting of maritime accidents in accident databases, which can be considered as the main contributor to questioning the direct and uncritical use of historical data. By analysing the 10-year tanker accident data from the Lloyd's Register (LRFP) and the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD) for vessels registered in Norway, it was found that the reporting performance has an upper bound of 41% for NMD and 30% for LRFP. Furthermore, based on comparison between LRFP data and self-assessment by Flag States, it is concluded that accidents reported by the Flag States are also incomplete.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2010, Vol.42, No.2, p.619-625. Illus. 36 ref.
Rachiotis G., Mouchtouri V.A., Schlaich C., Riemer T., Martinez C.V., Nichols G., Bartlett C.L., Kremastinou J., Hadjichristodoulou C.
Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: Results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT)
The aim of this study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS) with focus on communicable diseases. A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions on occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Findings reveal a wide heterogeneity regarding occupational health of maritime employees in EU MS. This work provides some evidence that further work at international and European level could be considered, in order to explore the potential for harmonized initiatives regarding occupational health of seafarers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:1, 7p. 19 ref.
Occupational_health_legislation.pdf [in English]
Salgado Don A., Bouza Prego M.A., De la Campa Portela R.M.
Rules and regulations on fatigue in seafarers and its prevention
Normas y reglamentos existentes sobre la fatiga en el marino y su prevención [in Spanish]
Both physical and mental fatigue constitute a problem for all means of transport, and particularly for sectors that operate 24 hours a day such as maritime transport. Fatigue causes concentration difficulties, anxiety, gradual reduction of body resistance, sleep disturbances and major light sensitivity. Every State of registry is responsible for production, acceptance, implementation and application of national and international legislation relative to the various aspects that involve the fatigue issue, namely work schedules, rest periods, crew qualification and watch keeping policies. This article examines the conventions and other instruments on fatigue promulgated by several international organizations (ILO, IMO).
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.70-76. 10 ref.
Gómez Muñiz F., Angulo Galánm.C., Vega Guerra
Maritime evacuations assisted by the Spanish Radiomedical Advice Centre and their relation to their medical history as noted in their occupational medical records
Relación entre las causas de las evacuaciones marítimas atendidas por el Centro Radio-médico Español y los antecedentes patológicos recogidos en sus historias clínicas laborales [in Spanish]
The objective of this retrospective descriptive study was to determine the relationship between the cause of the evacuation of seafarers by the Spanish Radio Medical Advice Centre (CRME) and their previous medical history. Over a one-year period (2009/2010), 1062 seafarers consulted the CRME. 58.19% were treated on board with telemedicine; 17.61% remained on board until arrival in port and 24.2% needed to be evacuated to land. 40.9% had not been subjected to a medical check-up prior to enrolement. 23% of the evacuated seafarers had evidence of a similar problem in their medical fitness examination. It is concluded that the information given in occupational medical records needs to be improved (past medical history, consequences from background pathologies) to reduce the number of evacuations.
Medicina Marítima, June 2010, Vol.10, No.1, p.59-64. Illus. 14 ref.
Lu C.S., Tsai C.L.
The effect of safety climate on seafarers' safety behaviors in container shipping
This study examined the safety climate and its effects on safety behaviour based on the perceptions of seafarers in the container shipping sector. Research hypotheses were formulated and tested using survey data collected from 608 seafarers working on 124 vessels. A structural equation model was used to examine the effects safety policy, perceived supervisor safety behaviour and safety management, on safety behaviour. Findings revealed a positive association between safety climate and seafarers' safety behaviour. Implications are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov 2010, Vol.42, No.6, p.1999-2006. Illus. 95 ref.
Fabiano B., Currò F., Reverberi A.P., Pastorino R.
Port safety and the container revolution: A statistical study on human factor and occupational accidents over the long period
This article investigates the relationship between work organization, job experience, productivity and occupational accidents, from the starting of the container expansion to the present time, considering port of Genoa, Italy, one of the largest of the Mediterranean Sea. In order to minimize possible reporting biases, such as underreporting or reclassification to a lower level of severity, injury statistics are elaborated starting from data collected directly on-site, from internal accident or medical-aid reports. An in-depth statistical analysis on occupational injuries in the years 1980-2006 was carried out, with reference to frequency indexes, mechanisms of injury and material causes. An increase of the frequency index (injuries per hundred thousand hours worked) from 13.0 to 29.7 was observed. Consideration of these and other findings may enable managerial solutions and workplace organization interventions for the prevention of injuries and safety performance improvement in port activities.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.980-990. Illus. 25 ref.
Mouchtouri V.A., Nichols G., Rachiotis G., et al.
State of the art: Public health and passenger ships
This report describes issues relevant to public health and reviews all passenger ship associated diseases and outbreaks. Moreover, legislation and practices on sanitation and diseases surveillance related to ships internationally were also reviewed. Some relevant historical information about infections on merchant ships is provided as well. The methods used to develop this state-of-the-art report included a scientific literature review, together with and an extensive and thorough search of the websites of organizations and government departments. The infections/outbreaks that occur on passenger ships include norovirus, Legionella, Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio and influenza A and B virus. The modes of transmission include person to person, waterborne, foodborne airborne and vectorborne, while shore excursions are responsible for some outbreaks. The industry (especially the ferry industry) and sanitary organizations can enhance collaboration in order to implement integrated hygiene programmes and prevent the occurrence of communicable diseases aboard passenger ships.
International Maritime Health, 2010, Vol.61, No.2, p.49-98. Approx. 150 ref.
Implementing WSH 2018 for the marine sector in Singapore - Towards a progressive and pervasive safety and health culture
This document consists of the sector-specific plan to guide collective effort in achieving significant and sustained improvements in occupational safety and health in the Singapore marine sector, including shipbuilding, ship repair, rig building, offshore engineering, marine surveying services, salvaging of distressed vessels and cargo, as well as work done at anchorages. Contents: key statistics of the marine sector in Singapore, including accident statistics; roles and responsibilities; implementing Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) 2018 strategy for the marine sector in Singapore; action plans.
Workplace Safety and Health Council, 5 Maxwell Road, 20-00 Tower Block, MND Complex, Singapore 069110, 2010. 31p. Illus.
Implementing_WSH_2018_marine.pdf [in English]
Workshop on safe handling of imported containers
6. Workshop - Sicherer Umgang mit Import-Containern [in German]
Some 20% of all imported shipping containers in Germany are contaminated with important concentrations of hazardous substances. This article consists of a review of a workshop on the safe handling in ports of potentially-contaminated shipping containers, held in Hamburg, Germany, on 11 November 2009, which mainly addressed the issued of health hazards due to fumigation, residues and toxic chemicals. Topics addressed included: sampling and analysis techniques for potentially-contaminated containers; City of Hamburg regulations concerning minimum requirements for sampling and analysis; thermal desorption gas chromatography couples with mass spectroscopy; issues raised by fumigation; electronic methods of gas detection; Hamburg database for fumigated containers; testing the gas-tightness of cargo holds in bulk carriers.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.184-185. Illus. 12 ref.
Collaborative, cross-national studies on health and safety in seafaring for evidence-based maritime policy and regulations
Seafarers from eleven countries completed a questionnaire concerning their working conditions. Data were subjected to multivariate regression analyses. Significant disparities were pointed out among the nationalities concerning lengths of the tours at sea, proportions of officers and non-officers, age structures, injury rates and occupational safety standards.
International Maritime Health, 2009, Vol.60, No.1-2, p.10-13. 11 ref.
The relationship between culture and safety on offshore supply vessels
The article examines the relationship between culture and safety on offshore supply vessels in the Norwegian petroleum sector, relying on both qualitative and quantitative data. The analysis makes a general description of cultural traits, epitomized through the notion of "good seamanship", and discusses the way these traits influence safety. Findings show a great deal of friction between aspects of culture and aspects of structure. In particular, there appear to be incompatibilities between the occupational culture on the vessels and the strict rule-based safety management approaches of the petroleum industry. The role of inter-group asymmetries in power and status in the definition of what constitutes safe working conditions are highlighted. Finally, whether culture can (and should) be changed is discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1118-1128. 69 ref.
Designing of integrated quality and safety management system (IQSMS) for shipping operations
This article proposes a systematic approach for exploring the compliance level of the international safety management (ISM) code with the ISO 9001:2000 in order to structure an integrated quality and safety management system (IQSMS) for shipping operations. Multi-attribute fuzzy axiomatic design was determined to be a suitable methodology. To illustrate the proposed approach, a mechanical failure on board an oil tanker is analysed. The advantages of IQSMS as an operational tool for enabling ship management companies implement the ISM code are highlighted.
Safety Science, May 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.569-577. Illus. 45 ref.
Celik M., Cebi S.
Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents
Despite marine technology improvements and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of accident investigation reports is a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. This article presents a Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation for a quantitative assessment of shipping accidents.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2009, Vol.41, No.1, p.66-75. Illus. 34 ref.
Håvold J.I, Nesset E.
From safety culture to safety orientation: Validation and simplification of a safety orientation scale using a sample of seafarers working for Norwegian ship owners
Measuring safety performance is becoming increasingly important in high-risk sectors. Based on the safety orientation model and a review of items and scales used in surveys of safety climate and safety culture, a safety orientation scale (SOM) was developed and refined through the use of multivariate statistics. It was then applied in this study with a sample of seafarers sailing on Norwegian-owned vessels. A total of 2558 questionnaires were returned from 141 vessels and 16 shipping companies, giving a calculated response rate of 70%. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.3, p.305-326. Illus. 87 ref.
Paperwork at the service of safety? Workers' reluctance against written procedures exemplified by the concept of "seamanship"
Efforts to reduce accidents in seafaring have led to a proliferation of procedures such as workplace assessments and checklists. Unfortunately, written procedures are perceived by many seafarers as counteracting the use of common sense, experience, and professional knowledge epitomized in the concept of seamanship. Their objections fit the Dreyfus and Dreyfus' model of skill acquisition according to which while novices steadily follow context-independent rules, the expert's behaviour goes beyond analytical rationality, and is situational, experience-based and intuitive. This article discussed the issues raised when written procedures are perceived as a hindrance to safety.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.295-303. 45 ref.
Howland J., Rohsenow D.J., Minsky S., Snoberg J., Tagerud S., Hunt S.K., Almeida A., Greece J., Allensworth-Davies D.
The effects of transdermal scopolamine on simulated ship navigation and attention/reaction time
Transdermal scopolamine is commonly used by mariners to prevent or treat seasickness. Most studies indicate that scopolamine administered transdermally via an adhesive patch does not impair performance of skills required to navigate a vessel, but trials have not been conducted testing navigation and ship handling under realistic conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effects of transdermal scopolamine on performance using training simulators to assess complex vessel navigation and rough-weather ship handling abilities. A randomized double-blind crossover study assessed 32 Swedish maritime cadets under transdermal scopolamine and placebo conditions on simulated navigation and ship handling performance, sleepiness and subjective measures of fitness and performance. There were no significant differences on occupational outcomes by medication condition, but sustained reaction time was significantly increased under transdermal scopolamine, relative to placebo. It is concluded that the transdermal scopolamine patch does not impair simulated ship handling.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.250-256. 21 ref.
Risikko T., Remes J., Hassi J.
Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the Finnish maritime administration
Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in the occupational safety, health and quality systems of enterprises. An approach was developed for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration. This study evaluates the results of implementing this approach three years after its introduction. Although findings showed an increased awareness about cold work, there were few concrete improvements or policy implementations. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.433-446. Illus. 39 ref.
Wadsworth E.J.K., Allen P.H., McNamara R.L., Smith A.P.
Fatigue and health in a seafaring population
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of fatigue among United Kingdom seafarers, identify fatigue risk factors and assess possible links with poor performance and ill-health. Data were collected by means of questionnaires among seafarers working in the offshore oil support, short-sea and deep-sea shipping industries. In all, 1855 questionnaires were completed giving an overall response rate of 20%. Fatigue symptoms were associated with a range of occupational and environmental factors, many unique to seafaring. Reporting a greater number of risk factors was associated with greater fatigue. There was also a strong link between fatigue and poorer cognitive and health outcomes, with fatigue the most important of a number of risk factors.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.198-204. 28 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/198 [in English]
Fatal work-related accidents in UK merchant shipping from 1919 to 2005
The objective of this study was to establish the causes of all fatal accidents and their trends among seafarers who were employed in United Kingdom merchant shipping from 1919 to 2005. During this period, there were 17,386 deaths, including 6,074 from shipping disasters and 11,312 from personal accidents. Over time, there were large reductions in mortality rates for all the main types of fatal accident, except accidents on deck. Major causes of mortality from shipping disasters were vessels foundering in typhoons, storms and severe gales, explosions in cargo holds and collisions in poor visibility. Fatal accident rates were higher among British seafarers than among Asians. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.129-137. Illus. 34 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/129 [in English]
Leszczyńska I., Jeżewska M., Jaremin B.
Work-related stress at sea - Possibilities of research and measures of stress
The present concept of stress is related with triangulation in research. Triangulation requires collecting data on stress from three sources: precursors (moderating factor), direct consequences and state of health. This article discusses some of the specific issues involved in collecting such data among seafarers.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.93-102. Illus. 16 ref.
Allen P., Wadsworth E., Smith A.
Seafarers' fatigue: A review of the recent literature
Fatigue has been noticeably under-researched in the maritime domain compared to other transport sectors. In a review of the literature 11 databases were searched in order to assess recent developments in the field and distil those issues of greatest concern and challenge to the seafaring community. Whilst diversity in the seafaring population has the potential to make global fatigue estimates meaningless, evidence of misrecorded working hours shows how commercial pressures are universally shared.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.81-92. 37 ref.
Dahl E., Ulven A., Horneland A.M.
Crew accidents reported during 3 years on a cruise ship
The objective of this study was to analyze data from crew injuries reported to the medical center of a cruise ship and to determine high risk activities, equipment and behavior. During three years, 361 injuries (23% women) were reported. Thirty percent involved loss of work time. The marine department accounted for 14% (deck 5%; engine 9%), the hotel department for 79% and contractors for 7% of the reports. Filipinos comprised half the crew, reported 35% of the accidents, and their rate of serious injuries were lower than non-Filipino crew. Hotel crew had a higher rate of accident absenteeism than marine crew. The upper extremity was the most frequently injured body part (51%), open wounds the most common injury type (37%), and galleys the most common accident location (30%).
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.19-33. 18 ref.
Hansen H.L., Laursen L.H., Frydberg M., Kristensen S.
Major differences in rates of occupational accidents between different nationalities of seafarers
Earlier studies have shown that merchant seafarers from South-East Asia had considerably lower accident rates when compared with seafarers from Western Europe. The purposes of this study were to confirm the earlier observations and to identify specific causes of excess accident rates among certain nationalities. Occupational accidents aboard Danish merchant ships during one year were identified from various sources. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for East European seafarers was 0.88 and for South East Asians 0.38 using West European seafarers as reference. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.7-18. 17 ref.
Oldenburg M., Jensen H.J., Latza U., Baur X.
Coronary risks among seafarers aboard German-flagged ships
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of coronary risk factors among male seafarers on vessels sailing under the German flag and to assess their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Data were collected from 161 participants by means of interviews, blood sampling and blood pressure measurements. In the total sample, 55 seamen (34.2%) had at least three CHD risk factors. The most prominent risk factors were hypertension (49.7%), high triglycerides (41.6%), older age (39.8%) and smoking (37.3%). Compared with non-Europeans, European seafarers were significantly more likely to have more than three CHD risk factors after adjusting for age (OR 2.4). German seamen showed a similar predicted 10-year CHD risk as the German population working ashore. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.735-741. Illus. 27 ref.
Oldenburg M., Latza U., Baur X.
Occupational health risks due to shipboard cockroaches
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sensitization to cockroaches in seafarers. In July 2005, 145 seamen sailing under the German flag were recruited from a medical surveillance programme for a cross-sectional study. Standardized interviews and skin prick tests (SPT) with nine common inhalant allergens and a cockroach extract (Blatella germanica) were performed. Furthermore among cockroach-sensitized seafarers, total and cockroach-specific IgE was measured and lung function tests conducted. In total, 39 seamen (26.9%) were cockroach-sensitized according to the SPT results. Presence of cockroach sensitization in seamen from the tropical zone (37.3%) was significantly higher than in seamen from the temperate zone (21.3%) (odds ratio 2.20). Other findings are discussed. Longitudinal studies and bronchial cockroach challenge tests are necessary to for a more complete assessment of the clinical relevance of cockroach sensitization on board ships.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2008, Vol.81, No.6, p.727-734. 31 ref.
Phan Chan Thé E.
Addictive behaviour and safety-critical jobs
Conduites addictives et postes de sécurité [in French]
This article discusses the management of addictive behaviour in occupational settings, with an emphasis on screening for the abuse of drugs and alcohol among persons assigned to safety-critical jobs. Two examples of safety-critical jobs are presented: truck drivers and dock handlers. The article also presents various statistics that help understand the importance and the severity of the problem of substance addiction in France.
Préventique-Sécurité, Jan.-Feb. 2008, No.97, p.76-81. Illus.
Proposal for Guidelines for port state control officers carrying out inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MELCBS); Proposal for Guidelines for flag State inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MEFS)
Projet de directives pour les agents chargés du contrôle par l'Etat du port effectuant des inspections en application de la convention du travail maritime, 2006 (MELCBS); Projet de directives pour les inspections des Etats du pavillon en vertu de la convention du travail maritime, 2006 (MEFS) [in French]
Propuesta de Pautas para los funcionarios encargados del control por el Estado del puerto que realizan inspecciones con arreglo al Convenio sobre el trabajo marítimo, 2006 (MELCBS); Propuesta de Pautas para las inspecciones por el Estado del pabellón en virtud des Convenio sobre el trabajo marítimo, 2006 (MEFS) [in Spanish]
Proposed guidelines for flag State ship inspections and for port State control officers carrying out ship inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention of 2006 (see CIS 06-864).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2008. 54p. Illus. (MELCBS); 54p. Illus. (MEFS).
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_096998.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_096999.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_097020.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_097812.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_097840.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_097019.pdf [in French]
Seafarers - Occupational safety and health goes to sea
Les travailleurs de la mer - La prévention s'amarine [in French]
Topics addressed in the collection of articles on the hazards of working at sea: hazards caused by understaffing which leads to risk-taking; day-to-day account of a 15-day fishing campaign on board a trawler; key statistics of occupational accidents and diseases among French seafarers; remote medical consultation; stability of vessels at sea; hazards related to older vessels; occupational safety and health (noise attenuation on ships, first aid, personal protective equipment).
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2008, No.681, p.16-28. Illus.
Swan J.R.M., Blainey D., Crook B.
Health and Safety Executive
The HSE grain dust study - Workers' exposure to grain dust contaminants, immunological and clinical response
This study investigated the role of microorganisms and their associated contaminants in the development of clinical symptoms and immunological response in workers exposed to grain dust. A cohort of 321 workers exposed to grain dust (farmers at 27 farms and dock workers at two ports) was constituted. Workers were subjected to several immunoassay and clinical assessments over two study phases: phase 1 from 1990 to 1993 and phase 2 from 1997 to 2003. It was found that grain workers are exposed to high levels of endotoxin, microorganisms and dust. The levels of endotoxin were greatly in excess of those shown to cause adverse health effects. Exposure levels to grain dust were high, and still frequently over maximum exposure limits. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 98p. Illus. Approx 150 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr540.pdf [in English]
Saarni H., Niemi L.
Medical handbook for seafarers
This handbook provides instructions on the medical first aid and treatment required on board ships until the patient has either recovered or is transported to land for more suitable treatment. It helps persons responsible for medical treatment on board decide on the best course of action, including when to consult a doctor by radio or when to urgently have the patient transported to land for medical treatment.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 213p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 39.00.
Guidelines for port state control officers
Directives pour les agents chargés du contrôle par l'Etat du port [in French]
Pautas para los funcionarios encargados des control por el estado del puerto [in Spanish]
The Guidelines for port State control officers carrying out inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC, 2006), contained in this book are an important international resource for implementing port State responsibilities under the MLC, 2006. These guidelines provide practical advice to port State control officers (PSCOs) verifying compliance of foreign ships with the requirements of the MLC, 2006. Chapter 1 contains an overview of the special features of the MLC 2006 and its key concepts. Chapter 2 relates to the required profile of PSCOs under the MLC, 2006. Chapter 3 covers the required review of documents in the case of ships that carry certification under the MLC, 2006. It explains when a more detailed inspection may be carried out. The main inspection tool is provided by chapter 4, indicating the basic requirements to be complied with, sources of information for checking compliance and examples of deficiencies, in the 14 areas of working and living conditions that are mainly concerned. Chapter 5 provides guidance when deficiencies are found and when a ship may have to be detained in port. Chapter 6 relates to the handling of onshore complaints by seafarers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. xi, 77p. Price: CHF 15.00.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/publication/wcms_101787.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/publication/wcms_106170.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/publication/wcms_106169.pdf [in French]
Guidelines for flag state inspections
Directives pour les inspections des Etats du pavillon [in French]
Pautas para las inspecciones por el Estado del pabellón [in Spanish]
The Guidelines for flag State inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC, 2006), contained in this booklet are an important resource for implementing flag state responsibilities under the MLC, 2006. They provide practical advice to competent authorities in flag States and to flag State inspectors, or recognized organizations, on how to carry out ship inspections and certifications to verify compliance with the requirements of the MLC, 2006 as implemented nationally. Chapter 1 contains an overview of the special features of the MLC 2006 and its key concepts. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the procedures for ship inspection and certification, including areas of national flexibility, and processes for responding to complaints. The main inspection tool is provided by chapter 3, indicating the basic requirements to be complied with, a list of items showing how to check the basic requirements and examples of deficiencies, in connection with these requirements. Chapter 4 provides guidance on actions to be taken when deficiencies are found and when a ship may have to be detained.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. xi, 76p. Price: CHF 15.00.
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/publication/wcms_101788.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmwfci03/tmwfci-r.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/publication/wcms_106157.pdf [in French]
Jensen O.C., Sørensen J.F.L., Thomas M., Canals M.L., Nikolic N., Hu Y.
Working conditions in international seafaring
The objective of this questionnaire survey was to assess the self-rated health status and the main characteristics of seafarers' working conditions. A total of 6461 seafarers in 11 countries responded. In general, the seafarers' self-rated health was good, but it declined significantly with age. Seafarers from South-East Asian countries spent longer time periods at sea, and had lower numbers of officers and older seafarers than found among seafarers from western countries. Most seafarers worked every day of the week and on average for 67-70h a week during periods of 2.5-8.5 months at sea. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.56, No.6, p.393-397. Illus. 15 ref.
Hetherington C., Flin R., Mearns K.
Safety in shipping: The human element
This literature survey reviews causal factors of shipping accidents, with emphasis on common themes of accidents, the influence of human error and interventions to make shipping safer. The review included 20 studies across the following areas: fatigue, stress, health, situation awareness, teamwork, decision-making, communication, automation and safety culture. It is concluded that by monitoring and modifying some of the human factors identified in this review, it would be possible to achieve improvements in maritime safety performance.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.4, p.401-411. Illus. 60 ref.
Lucas D., Jegaden D., Lodde B., Arvieux C., Dewitte J.D.
Occupational asthma in maritime environment
In the maritime environment, employees are exposed to various chemical and biological substances, some of which may cause occupational asthma. This is the case for some fished products such as crustaceans and molluscs, but also for cereals carried as cargo or for certain chemicals, either carried as cargo or used in the maintenance of ships. This article consists of a literature review of known etiological factors of occupational asthma to which seafarers and other maritime workers are likely to be exposed.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.177-187. 72 ref.
Baur X., Yu F., Poschadel B., Veldman W., Knol-De Vos T.
Health risks by bromomethane and other toxic gases in import cargo ship containers
Containers are increasingly used for the worldwide transport of all kinds of goods. Consistent with national and international regulations on pest controls, a growing proportion of these containers undergoes fumigation. Frequently, the prescribed labelling is missing, leading to accidents and a significant health risk to dock workers, inspectors and custom workers. Furthermore, contact with these toxic fumigants such as bromomethane can also occur among warehouse workers and even among final consumers of the transported goods. The consequences of container fumigation should always be carefully weighed up, and alternatives such as heat treatment or atmospheres with reduced oxygen should be considered whenever possible. Finally, the compliance with international regulations should be strictly controlled and sanctions should be considered if IMO's recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships are not followed.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.46-55. Illus. 13 ref.
Hänninen S., Rytkönen J.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Transportation of liquid bulk chemicals by tankers in the Baltic Sea
This report analyses data concerning the handling of liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea ports in 2004. The data is based on public registers, data files and declarations of port authorities and operators. A special questionnaire on transported chemicals, and specifically on bulk chemicals, was prepared for ports. Some of the most dangerous or most common chemicals are discussed in terms of their environmental impact if released into the water (ammonia, epichlorohydrin, soybean oil, styrene, vinyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol). The risk of chemical outflow is also discussed in cases of collision and grounding. A special chapter related to the Northern Baltic waters covers the risk of winter navigation for chemical transportation. The fates of chemicals spilled on water and on the methods for their neutralization are also discussed. Finally, some scenarios are presented on potentially high-risk areas.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2006. 121p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/2006/P595.pdf [in English]
O'Connor P.J., O'Connor N.
Work-related maritime fatalities
During the period 1992-1998 there were 74 fatalities among seafarers in Australia, including 46 commercial fishermen, 12 seamen involved in the transport of cargo and 16 miscellaneous workers. The main contributing factors were hazardous weather conditions, errors of judgment, unsafe practices and failure to wear personal flotation devices (PFDs) in circumstances where they would have saved life. Attention should be focused on reducing alcohol use and increasing PFD availability and usage.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2006, Vol.38, No.4, p.737-741. Illus. 19 ref.
López Montiel M.
Analysis of permanent incapacity among seafarers. Ceuta, 1955-2005.
Análisis de la incapacidad permanente en los trabajadores del mar. Ceuta, 1955-2005. [in Spanish]
Medical files for permanent incapacity opened between 1995 and 2005 by the Marine Institute of Ceuta, Spain, were analysed to determine the diseases responsible for permanent incapacity and the profile of the affected seafarers. Results indicate that permanent incapacity in seafaring affects mainly men in their fifties working under precarious conditions, and is mainly caused by musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Occupational accidents affect younger seafarers (average age 44.2 years).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct. 2006, Vol.LII, No.204, p.43-51. Illus. 12 ref.
Proposed Consolidated Maritime Labour Convention 2006
Projet de convention du travail maritime consolidée 2006 [in French]
Proyecto de convenio refundido sobre el trabajo marítimo 2006 [in Spanish]
This CD-ROM contains the text of a proposed ILO consolidated Maritime Labour Convention and related documentation. This convention was adopted at the International Labour Conference in Geneva in February 2006. The new instrument provides a firm set of principles and rights for seafarers and is designed to have a simplified amendment procedure and to ensure a more effective implementation of maritime standards. It is intended to become the fourth pillar of the international regulation of the maritime sector, as a complement to the basic conventions of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. CD-ROM.
The ILO's new Convention on maritime labour: An innovative instrument
La nouvelle convention sur le travail maritime: un instrument novateur [in French]
(SITITL): El nuevo Convenio marítimo, una norma innovadora [in Spanish]
This article comments on the new ILO Convention on maritime labour adopted in 2006. It reviews the historical developments leading to this Convention and presents the structure and content of the new Convention, highlighting its innovative aspects. The Convention sets minimum requirements for seafarers to work on a ship and contains provisions on conditions of employment, hours of work and rest, accommodation, recreational facilities, food and catering, health protection, medical care, welfare and social security protection. The new Convention consolidates and updates 68 existing ILO maritime Conventions and Recommendations adopted since 1920.
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, 2006, Vol.145, No.1-2, p.135-142 (English), p.157-164 (French); 2006, Vol.125, No.1-2, p.150-157 (Spanish). 10 ref.
Under the Polish flag: Occupational safety and health in sea transport
Pod polską banderą: Bhp w transporcie morskim [in Polish]
Polish legal regulations concerning occupational safety on seagoing ships are examined and EU directives already implemented are listed. The need for further regulations is also discussed.
Inspektor Pracy, 2006, No.3, p.17-19. Illus.
Bianchi C., Bianchi T., Nicotra M., Grandi G.
Asbestos-related pleural mesothelioma among workers of the port of Trieste, Italy
Mesotelioma pleurico da asbesto in lavoratori del porto di Trieste [in Italian]
Twenty-three cases of pleural mesothelioma observed among dockworkers in Trieste between 1968 and 2004 were reviewed. Necropsy findings were available in 18 cases. The patients, all males, aged between 39 and 80 years (mean 61 years), had been generally employed in loading and unloading of a variety of goods, including asbestos. Of the 18 cases, 12 had begun their activity after 1950. Most had worked for more than 20 years. Latency periods between the start of exposure and tumour diagnosis ranged between 25 and 60 years (mean 38 years). Asbestos bodies were found in histological sections of lung tissue of 15 of the 17 cases examined. When compared with other occupational groups investigated in the Trieste area, port workers showed shorter latency periods and higher prevalence of asbestos bodies in routine lung sections. Findings indicate heavy exposure to asbestos.
European Journal of Oncology, Dec. 2005, Vol.10, No.4, p.287-290. Illus. 13 ref.
Kaerlev L., Hansen J., Hansen H.L., Nielsen P.S.
Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers: A population based cohort study
A cohort consisting of all Danish seafarers employed during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) was linked with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated using the corresponding national rates. The SIR of all cancers was 1.26 for men and 1.07 for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon and bone, as well as skin melanomas among men, and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in lung cancer incidence between job categories among men ranged from 1.2 (engine room officers) to 2.3 (engine room crew), and 4.1 among maintenance crew. Non-officers had a 1.5 times higher lung cancer risk than officers. It is concluded that Danish seafarers, especially men, face an increased overall cancer risk. However, the data were not adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, which could represent significant confounding factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2005, Vol.62, No.11, p.761-765. 24 ref.
Jégaden D., Dewitte J.D., Loddé B.
Fitness to work in maritime navigation: A true evaluation of the risk of disease
L'aptitude à la navigation maritime: une véritable évaluation des risques de maladie [in French]
A methodology for evaluating medical fitness to work in maritime navigation is proposed, based on the characteristics of the maritime environment and the need to take into account the short, medium or long-range prognosis for a given disease. The proposed methodology was developed from a real-life example. It is based on a literature survey, which is presented in detail and discussed. The justification of the aptitude decision is supported by a scored evaluation of the prognosis of a specific disease and of the potential injury from the treatment. In order to support the aptitude decision-making in the best possible way, it is recommended to couple the risk evaluation methodology with that of evidence based-medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep. 2005, Vol.66, No.4, p.318-325. 13 ref.
Hygiene in the galley
Gigiena na kambuze [in Russian]
Kalinisan sa galley [in Tagalog]
Booklet in the form of a comic strip summarizing the importance of hygiene in ship galleys.
International Committee on Seafarers' Welfare (ICSW), Forsyth House, 2nd Floor, 77 Clarendon Road, Watford, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, ca 2005. 12p. Illus.
http://www.seafarershealth.org/documents/BROCHURE-ComicStripHygieneENG-LQ.pdf [in English]
http://www.seafarershealth.org/documents/hyg-ru_000.pdf [in Russian]
Williams P.R.D., Robinson K., Paustenbach D.J.
Benzene exposures associated with tasks performed on marine vessels (circa 1975 to 2000)
Twenty-five industrial hygiene studies that describe exposure during the marine transport of benzene-containing products were analysed. Benzene air concentrations typically ranged from 0.2-2.0 ppm during closed loading and 2-10 ppm during open loading operations. When compared with contemporaneous occupational health standards, the review indicates that most activities performed on marine vessels from the 1970s to 1990s did not usually result in benzene exposures that exceeded these standards. The information and data presented here may be useful for quantitatively estimating or reconstructing historical exposures of workers during the marine transport of benzene-containing cargo provided that details of their work history in the maritime industry are available.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2005, Vol.2, No.11, p.586-599. Illus. 51 ref.
Wang J., Pillay A., Kwon Y.S., Wall A.D., Loughran C.G.
An analysis of fishing vessel accidents
In this article, data on fishing vessel accidents collected from the United Kingdom Marine Accident Investigation Branch are presented and an analysis is carried out to determine the most common causes of these accidents. Data are presented by type of accident, by vessel length and by accident cause. Analysis shows that from 1994 to 1999, machinery damage contributed to over 50% of all accidents. Other incidents include foundering/flooding, grounding, collisions and contacts, fires and explosions, capsizing and heavy weather damage.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 2005, Vol.37, No.6, p.1019-1024. Illus. 11 ref.
Hasanzadeh M.A., Aziabadi E., Alipour N.A.
Health services system for seafarers and fishermen in Iran
This article describes the Iranian maritime health services system. The national Iranian shipping line IRISL owns the largest commercial fleet in the Middle East and operates 137 ships. The national shipping companies employ collectively over 5900 seafarers. There are 11,000 fishing ships and boats and the number of Iranian fishermen is estimated at 124,000. Seafarers and fishermen are regularly medically examined and issued health certificates, according to the national regulations. The health services system is linked to the port authorities throughout the country. Observations, data and relevant statistics on the health problems of the national maritime workers are collected regularly.
International Maritime Health, 2005, Vol.56, No.1/4, p.173-184. 6 ref.
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