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Road transportation - 1,331 entries found

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2011

CIS 11-0854 Petit J.M., Sallé B.
LPG-powered vehicles - Working safely
Véhicules fonctionnant au GPL - Intervenir en sécurité [in French]
Following a brief review of the basic characteristics of LPG, this practical information sheet provides the main precautions to be taken for avoiding or limiting hazards during work on the fuel distribution system, and more generally on LPG-equipped vehicles. Replaces the earlier version published in 2003 (see CIS 03-1342).
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2011, No.719, insert, 4p. Illus.2 ref.
ED_139.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0698 Murray W., White J., Ison S.
Work-related road safety: A case study of Roche Australia
This paper describes a successful, on-going real-world case study of an Australian company car fleet that has effectively managed, monitored and improved its road safety performance over the last four years through a range of proactive, fleet manager, insurance and risk-led initiatives. The case describes the four key initiatives that have been successfully implemented by the company, with support from their fleet insurance and risk management partners: driver risk assessment, monitoring and improvement programme for all existing and new employees; policy development, review and enhancement; communications programme; on-going review and refinement of policies, processes and programmes.
Safety Science, 2011, 9p. Illus. 30 ref.
Work-related_road_safety.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0728 Gershon P., Shinar D., Oron-Gilad T., Parmet Y., Ronen A.
Usage and perceived effectiveness of fatigue countermeasures for professional and nonprofessional drivers
The objective of this study was to compare usage patterns and evaluate the perceived effectiveness of different coping behaviours adopted by professional and nonprofessional drivers in order to maintain alertness. It was conducted by means of a questionnaire survey among 100 professional and 90 nonprofessional drivers. Listening to the radio and opening the window were the most frequently used and also perceived as highly effective coping behaviours by both groups of drivers. Talking on a cellular phone or with a passenger were more frequently used by nonprofessional drivers whereas, planning rest stops ahead, stopping for a short nap and drinking coffee were more frequently used by professional drivers. These methods were also perceived as more effective by professional than by the nonprofessional drivers and their usage frequency highly correlated with their perceived effectiveness. Nonprofessional drivers counteract fatigue only at the tactical/maneuvering level of the drive. Hence, they tend to adopt methods that help them pass the time and reduce their feeling of boredom but do not require advance preparations or adjustments in the driving. In contrast, professional drivers counteract fatigue also at the strategic/planning level of driving, and use a much larger repertoire of coping behaviours.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.797-803. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0701 Shams M., Shojaeizadeh D., Majdzadeh R., Rashidian A., Montazeri A.
Taxi drivers' view on risky driving behavior in Tehran: A qualitative survey using a social marketing approach
In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran, were used to explore their views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviour, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing programme to reduce risky driving behaviour. Findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2011, Vol.43, No.3, p.646-651. 28 ref.

CIS 11-0530 Richez J.P., Bondéelle A., Brasseur G., Clergiot J.
Transport of goods - Road-related hazards and other hazards
Transports de marchandises - Le risque routier peut en cacher d'autres [in French]
The length of the goods supply chain is increasing as a result of the globalization of trade. Road transport is adapting to this new situation, all the more so because the economic recession and embedded information systems technology favour these trends. This collection of articles addresses the effects of these changes on the safety and health of road transport drivers.
Travail et sécurité, June 2011, No.718, p.16-31. Illus. 3 ref.
Transports_de_marchandises.pdf [in French]

2010

CIS 11-0705 Brognez D.
Special feature: Enterprises and road transport
Dossier: entreprises et transport routier [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on occupational hazards due to commuting and driving at work: accidents on the way to work; safety and health initiatives implemented by a Belgian road transport enterprise; ergonomic guidance for entering and exiting automobiles or trucks; safe stowage of machinery on road transport vehicles; defensive driving programme implemented by the Belgian subsidiary of a parcel delivery enterprise; vehicle safety and ergonomics objectives of Belgian telecommunications enterprise; presentation of the European PRAISE project (Preventing Road Accidents for the Safety of Employees); awareness programme of the Belgian institute for the safety of road traffic.
Prevent Focus, Nov. 2010, p.4-25. Illus.

CIS 11-0199 Marcinkiewicz A., Szosland D.
Selected risk factors of diabetes mellitus among road transport drivers
Road transport drivers are among the professional groups whose activities have a strong impact on public safety. In view of the nature of their professional activity, the drivers are at a higher risk of obesity and hypertension, and thus, indirectly, of carbohydrate metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus. This study on the prevalence of risk factors of diabetes mellitus among Polish road transport drivers used medical documentation accompanying the application for drivers' licence. Excessive body weight was recorded in 62.6% of the study population; 45.3% had overweight and 17.4% obesity. Hypertension was noted in 36.7% of the drivers, with increasing prevalence with age. Overweight was found to be a risk factor for hypertension. Hyperglycaemia was found in 47.5% of the drivers and was also increasing with age. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.2, p.175-180. 19 ref.
Selected_risk_factors.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0265 Duke J., Guest M., Boggess M.
Age-related safety in professional heavy vehicle drivers: A literature review
With Australia facing a looming shortage of heavy vehicle drivers, the question is raised as to whether it is desirable or prudent to encourage older professional heavy vehicle drivers to remain in the transport sector for longer, or to recruit drivers of a younger age. A limited number of studies reported age-specific accident rates for heavy vehicles for the spectrum of driver age that included drivers younger than 27 years and those over 60 years of age. Heavy vehicle drivers younger than 27 years of age demonstrated higher rates of accident/fatality involvement which decline and plateau until the age of 63 years where increased rates were again observed. Other contributing factors to heavy vehicle accidents include long hours and subsequent sleepiness and fatigue, employer safety culture, vehicle configuration, urbanization and road classification.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2010, Vol.42, No.2, p.364-371. 53 ref.

CIS 11-0281 Bendak S., Al-Saleh K.
The role of roadside advertising signs in distracting drivers
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of roadside advertising signs on driving performance. It was conducted in two parts: A simulated drive and a questionnaire survey. Twelve volunteers participated in the simulated drive on two otherwise identical paths with the difference that one had roadside advertising signs and one had none. Driving simulator results revealed that two driving performance indicators, drifting from lane and recklessly crossing dangerous intersections, were significantly worse in the path with advertising signs. Three other performance indicators (number of tailgating times, overspeeding and turning or changing lanes without signaling) were also worse in the presence of advertising signs, but the difference was not statistically significant. 160 drivers responded to the questionnaire. Half of the respondents indicated being distracted at least once by roadside advertising signs. Moreover, 22% indicated being put in a dangerous situation due to distraction caused by such signs. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.233-236. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 10-0717 Friswell R., Williamson A.
Work characteristics associated with injury among light/short-haul transport drivers
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the hazard environment facing drivers of light freight vehicles and short-haul transport drivers and to examine the relationships between hazard exposure and injury. A total of 321 drivers of light vehicles working within a 100 km radius of their base across the Australian state of New South Wales were surveyed regarding their experience of occupation-specific hazards and their experience of workplace injury in the past year. Data were collected by means of structured interviews and group discussions, and subjected to logistic regression analyses. Examination of the hazards most strongly associated with injury suggests that efforts should target work organization and vehicle-related hazards, and particularly work practices that engender frequent stress among drivers.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov 2010, Vol.42, No.6, p.2068-2074. 21 ref.

CIS 10-0712 Bacchieri G., Barros A.J., Dos Santos J.V., Gigante D.P.
Cycling to work in Brazil: Users profile, risk behaviors, and traffic accident occurrence
This cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, with the aim of outlining the profile of bicycle commuters, analyzing their use of safety equipment, identifying their risk behaviours and evaluating the association between these variables and traffic accidents. The sample included 1133 male subjects aged 20 years or more, and who used a bicycle for commuting. Crude and adjusted analyses were carried out using Poisson regression. A total of 152 reported traffic accidents were recorded in the 12 months preceding the interview, involving 10.8% of subjects. Most risk behaviors studied and the use of safety equipment showed no significant association with accidents. Findings suggest that in the context where the study was done (poor road signalling, limited policing and aggressive driving), changing cyclist behaviour may not have substantial impact in terms of accident reduction before other road traffic interventions are implemented.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2010, Vol.42, No.4, p.1025-1030. 17 ref.

CIS 10-0669 Hints on occupational health for couriers - Manual delivery operations
As their work involves manual labour, couriers may suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Under Hong Kong regulations, employers must assess occupational hazards and implement suitable protective measures. Employers must also take appropriate steps to prevent couriers from suffering heat stroke when working in hot weather. Aimed at persons working in manual delivery operations, this booklet explains good working practices in the form of a comic strip involving a dialogue between a male and female worker in this sector.
Occupational Health Service, Labour Department. 15/F, Harbour Building, 38 Pier Road, Central. Hong Kong, 2010. 16p. Illus.
8/2010-1-OHB128.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0520 Hoffman B., Wingenbach D.D., Kagey A.N., Schaneman J.L., Kasper D.
The long-term health plan and disability cost benefit of obstructive sleep apnea treatment in a commercial motor vehicle driver population
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a continuous positive airway pressure treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea on health treatment and disability costs in a commercial motor vehicle driver population. A retrospective, pre/post claims-based comparison analysis was performed. Health and disability costs, in addition to disability claimant rates and missed workdays were compared for the 12 months before treatment to the 24 months after treatment. It was found that health costs were significantly lower in both the first and second years after treatment. Short-term disability metrics also exhibited favourable results with approximately half as many using the benefit, lower costs and fewer missed workdays in the post-treatment period.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.52, No.5, p.473-477. 20 ref.
The_long-term_health_and_disability_cost_benefit.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0585 Nogareda Cuixart S., Salas Ollé C.
Pilot study on the impact of speed limiting obstacles in bus drivers: Electromyographic study
Estudio piloto sobre el impacto de los reductores de velocidad en el conductor de autobús. Estudio electromiográfico [in Spanish]
The aim of this study was to examine the possible relationship between the frequency of driving over or through speed limiting obstacles and health hazards in bus drivers. An electromyographic recording was made during a one-hour journey using four sensors on the left and right trapezius and quadratus muscles. Results show that the activity of the trapezius muscle increases significantly when passing over or through speed limiting obstacles. A comparison of absenteeism in drivers on lines with a large number or small number of or through speed limiting obstacles also suggests an increase of musculoskeletal diseases in the former group.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2010, No.57, p.28-34. Illus.

CIS 10-0331 Njå O., Fjelltun S.H.
Managers' attitudes towards safety measures in the commercial road transport sector
Safety measures and related costs and benefits have been widely discussed and analyzed in academic circles and by the authorities and industrial sectors. This study addresses these aspects from a cognitive-based perspective. Risk management is about dealing with the conflict between production and safety. Enterprises which spend too much on safety will meet bankruptcy, and those not concerned with safety measures will meet with severe accidents and related damage. 106 managers of commercial transport enterprises were asked about their attitudes towards safety management, the factors that contributed and their beliefs as to whether further effort and investments in health, environment and safety (HES) measures would pay off. Half of the managers perceived HES work as too expensive and approximately one quarter assessed mandatory HES work as compromising their competitiveness. One third of the managers did not find safety measures other than those already implemented as being necessary or remunerative. Other findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.1073-1080. 56 ref.

CIS 10-0350 Kaewboonchoo O., Morioka I., Saleekul S., Miyai N., Chaikittiporn C., Kawai T.
Blood lead level and cardiovascular risk factors among bus drivers in Bangkok, Thailand
This study aimed to clarify the role of blood lead level (Pb-B) as a cardiovascular risk factor. To evaluate the cardiovascular risk, the second derivative finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used. The subjects comprised of 420 male bus drivers in Thailand. The SDPTG-AI increases with age, Pb-B, smoking and alcohol consumption. There was significant correlation between Pb-B and SDPTG-AI after controlling for age, body mass index and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that Pb-B is possibly an independent cardiovascular risk factor for bus drivers exposed to lower level of lead.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.61-65. Illus. 18 ref.
Blood_lead_level.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0277 Richez J.P., Brasseur G., Larcher C., Lemarié J., Vaudoux D.
Road risks - Taking a new turn
Risque routier - Vers un nouveau virage [in French]
Contents of this collection of articles on road risks when commuting or driving in the course of one's work: activities of the Steering committee for the prevention of occupational road risks; statistics of commuting and occupational road accidents in France (in boxes); effects of driving on occupational health; code of good practice for commuting; survey on the health of drivers; training of drivers in a parcel delivery enterprise; fitting work vehicles of a plumbing and heating repair enterprise; prevention of road risks in a farm animal artificial insemination enterprise.
Travail et sécurité, June 2010, No.707, p.16-33. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 10-0167 Babic R.
"Ban the risk!" - The new campaign for traffic safety
"Risiko raus!" - Die neue Kampagne zur Verkehrssicherheit [in German]
Germany counts approximately 230,000 occupational accidents due to in-plant transport per year of which 150 are fatal. There are a further approximately 23,000 road accidents, during work of which 200 are fatal. 110,000 commuting accidents were reported in 2007, in which almost 500 workers lost their lives. A campaign for the prevention of in-plant and traffic accidents has therefore been set up by the German regulatory accident insurance institution, including a website where enterprises can find the information needed to develop an action programme.
Jan-Feb. 2010, Vol.1, No.1/2, p.12-13. Illus.

CIS 10-0216 Safak A.A., Arbak P., Yazici B., Bilgin C., Erdogmus B., Annakkaya A.N., Ozsahin S.L.
Bronchial wall thickness in toll collectors
There is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of diesel exhaust particulates on human health. In a diesel exposed occupational group composed of 120 toll collectors, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the chest radiographs and 40 toll collectors were selected for computed tomography examination. The wall thicknesses and luminal diameters of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi of right apical and posterior basal segments were measured with manual tracing method. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that exposure to diesel fumes may have a role in increasing the thickness of large airway walls and in decreasing the diameter of large airways.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.317-323. Illus. 22 réf.

CIS 09-1359 Aybek A., Kamer H.A., Arslan S.
Personal noise exposure of operators of agricultural tractors
There are approximately one million agricultural tractors in Turkey. The objectives of this study were to determine noise exposures of tractor drivers under various work tasks and conditions. Variance analyses highlighted the type of operation, type of cabins, and operation-cabin interactions that were statistically significant for noise levels. It is recommended that hearing protection devices should be used when tractors are operated without cabins.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2010, Vol.41, No.2, p.274-281. Illus. 28 ref.

2009

CIS 11-0514 Pujades-Rodríguez M., Lewis S., Mckeever T., Britton J., Venn A.
Effect of living close to a main road on asthma, allergy, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
A number of epidemiological studies suggest that the risk of asthma is increased among those living in close proximity to major roads. However, the evidence is inconsistent, and effects on asthma and related respiratory and allergic conditions using objective measures such as lung function and allergic sensitisation have not been widely investigated. In 1995, 1996 and 2001 data on respiratory and allergic disease, along with demographic and lifestyle factors, were collected in 59,285 children (aged 2-16 years) and adults as part of the annual Health Survey for England. Geographical Information System software enables mapping the location of each participant's home and computing the distance to the nearest major road. The effect of distance on self-reported wheezing in the past year, asthma, eczema, hay fever, one-second forced expiratory volume, immunoglobulin E and spirometry defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Living within 150m from a major road was not significantly associated with an increased risk of any of the outcome variables in any age group. Furthermore there was little evidence that risk increased with increasing proximity across the 0-150m range where contrasts in traffic-related pollutant concentrations are greatest.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.679-684. 36 ref.

CIS 11-0143 Couto M.T., Lawoko S., Svanström L.
Exposure to workplace violence and quality of life among drivers and conductors in Maputo City, Mozambique
This cross-sectional study examined exposure to workplace violence and its consequences on quality of life (QOL) among workers in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo city, Mozambique. A random sample of 504 drivers and conductors was interviewed using structured questionnaires. Many participants reported experiencing psychological or physical violence at work. Sequelae of violence included sick leave following abuse (20%), physical injuries (32%), financial loss (28%), and various emotional reactions (28-56%). Exposure to workplace violence was a significant predictor of QOL even after adjusting for confounders. Mechanisms to detect and deal with both immediate and long term consequences of work-related violence on QOL are recommended.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.299-304. 42 ref.

CIS 10-0519 Olson R., Anger W.K., Elliot D.L., Wipfli B., Gray M.
A new health promotion model for lone workers: Results of the Safety and Health Involvement for Truckers (SHIFT) pilot study
This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new health promotion model for lone workers. A single group pre- or posttest design was used to evaluate intervention effectiveness for reducing body weight and increasing healthy and safe behaviors. Twenty-nine truck drivers from four companies participated in a 6-month intervention involving a weight loss and safe driving competition, computer-based training and motivational interviewing. Objectively measured body weight reduced by 7.8 lbs and survey measures showed significant reductions in dietary fat and sugar consumption. An objective measure of safe driving also showed significant improvement, and increases in exercise motivational stage and walking fitness approached significance. Results suggest that the new intervention model is substantially more engaging and effective with truck drivers than previous education-based tactics.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.51, No.11, p.1233-1246. Illus. 68 ref.

CIS 09-1334 Davis M.E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Garshick E., Blicharz A., Smith T.J.
Predicting changes in PM exposure over time at U.S. trucking terminals using structural equation modeling techniques
This study analyzes the temporal variability of occupational and environmental exposures to fine particulate matter in the U.S. trucking sector, and tests the predictive ability of a novel multilayer statistical approach to occupational exposure evaluation using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques. For these purposes, elemental carbon mass in PM<1µm at six U.S. trucking terminals were measured observing concentrations in various locations of the facility. Findings are discussed. Once accounting for systematic prediction errors in background concentrations, the SEM approach provided a strong fit with measured work-related exposures in this occupational setting.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2009, Vol.6, No.7, p.396-403. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 09-1042 Parks P.D., Durand G., Tsismenakis A.J., Vela-Bueno A., Kales S.N.
Screening for obstructive sleep apnea during commercial driver medical examinations
The objective of this study was to evaluate consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Drivers underwent OSA screening using consensus criteria at commercial driver routine medical examinations. Among 456 drivers examined, 53 (12%) were referred for polysomnography, among whom 20 were confirmed to have OSA. Using the consensus criteria, an OSA diagnosis was reached for the same 20 subjects, supporting the high positive predictive value of the criteria. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.51, No.3, p.275-282. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 09-930 Douphrate D.I., Rosecrance J.C., Reynolds S.J., Stallones L., Gilkey D.P.
Tractor-related injuries: An analysis of workers' compensation data
Tractor-related injury claims data from Colorado workers' compensation records were analyzed for 1992-2004. Descriptive analyses of the costs, characteristics, and contributing factors were conducted. A total of 642 claims were identified as being tractor-related, of which 60% involved sprains and contusions. A total of 21% of tractor-related claims were associated with the worker mounting or dismounting a tractor, and an additional 10% were associated with the worker falling, jumping, or slipping off a tractor. Among all claims associated with tractor mounting or dismounting, 35% involved the ankle and 15% involved the knee. The median medical claim cost was USD 319, and the median medical plus indemnity claim cost was USD 335. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.198-205. 20 ref.

CIS 09-929 Cole H.P., McKnight R.H., Donovan T.A.
Epidemiology, surveillance and prevention of farm tractor overturn fatalities
Census data concerning fatal occupational injuries identify six states of the United States that have the highest rates of agricultural tractor overturn deaths. Demographic, economic, geological and geographic data that characterize farms in these states were examined. These data suggest that a majority of farms in these states are small acreage livestock operations, located on terrain with steep slopes, with low prevalence of tractors equipped with rollover protective structures and operators who work at off-farm jobs over 200 days per year.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.164-171. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-819 Martin B.C., Church T.S., Bonnell R., Ben-Joseph R., Borgstadt T.
The impact of overweight and obesity on the direct medical costs of truck drivers
The objective of this study was to quantify health care costs of truck drivers across categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese weight. Health care claims data from a transportation logistics company were obtained from 2004 to 2005 concerning 2849 truckers and were merged with their body mass index measures. A regression model was used to adjust for demographic and occupational variables. Unadjusted trimmed total cost for overweight subjects (USD 1613) and obese subjects (USD 1792) were significantly higher than for normal weight subjects (USD 1012). After multivariate adjustment, obese and overweight subjects had on average, USD 591 and USD 383 higher health care costs respectively than normal weight subjects. Both overweight and obese individuals had higher prevalences of hyperlipidemia, diabetes and hypertension than their normal weight counterparts.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.180-184. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 09-934 Clarke D.D., Ward P., Bartle C., Truman W.
Work-related road traffic collisions in the UK
Road traffic collisions while at work are the single largest cause of occupational fatality in the United Kingdom. Work-related road collisions do not comprise a homogenous group but take many forms depending on the various types of vehicle and the purpose of their use. Over 2000 collision cases covering the years 1996-2004 based on police records were analysed, involving company cars, vans, large goods vehicles, buses, taxis and emergency services vehicles. Findings are presented by type of vehicle and degree of responsibility of the drivers.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2009, Vol.41, No.2, p.345-351. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 09-953 Hanowski R.J., Hickman J.S., Olson R.L., Bocanegra J.
Evaluating the 2003 revised hours-of-service regulations for truck drivers: The impact of time-on-task on critical incident risk
In 2004, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration implemented a revised set of regulations concerning the hours-of-service of commercial motor vehicle drivers. One central component of the revised regulations was a one-hour increase in allowable driving time, from 10 to 11h. The current study evaluated the impact of the additional driving-hour on critical incident risk. Data from over two million driving miles were analyzed. The frequencies of critical incidents for each hour were identified and odds ratios determined. Analyses found an elevated risk in the 1st driving-hour, but no consistent significant difference between hours 2 through 11. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk resulting from driving an additional hour.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2009, Vol.41, No.2, p.268-275. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-932 Neeley G.W., Richardson L.E.
The effect of State regulations on truck-crash fatalities
To improve traffic safety, many U.S. states limit truck length and weight, and some set lower speed limits for trucks than for other vehicles. This study examined the impact of truck-specific restrictions and general traffic-safety policies on fatality rates from crashes involving large trucks. State-level data from 1991 to 2005 were used with a cross-sectional time-series model that controlled for various safety measures adopted during the period. It was found that higher speed limits for cars and trucks contributed to higher fatality rates, but differential speed limits by vehicle type had no significant impact. Truck-length limitations reduced fatalities in crashes involving large trucks. The model suggests that if all States had adopted a speed limit of 55 miles per hour for all vehicles in 2005, 561 fatalities would have been averted.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 2009, Vol. 99, No.3, p.408-415. 46 ref.

CIS 09-703
Health and Safety Executive
Power take-offs and power take-off drive shafts
A tractor power take-off (PTO) and the power take-off drive shaft are very dangerous if used and not correctly guarded. Every year people are killed or seriously injured in accidents involving PTOs and PTO drive shafts. This information note offers guidance on safe working methods with PTOs and PTO drive shafts. Contents: guarding; choosing the right guard; how to avoid damage to the PTO shaft and guards; dual-speed PTOs; legal requirements in the United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar 2009. 5p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as24.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-493 Torp S., Grøgaard J.B.
The influence of individual and contextual work factors on workers' compliance with health and safety routines
This study investigated the relationships between workers' compliance with occupational safety and health (OSH) rules adopted within the enterprise and psychological demands, decision authority, social support, management support, unionization and the OSH management system. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed among 1051 workers and the managers of 102 small- and medium-sized motor vehicle repair shops in Norway. Multilevel modeling was performed to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. At the worker level, high compliance with OSH rules correlated significantly with both social support and OSH-related management support. At the garage level, management support and a well-developed OSH management system correlated significantly with high workers' compliance. Other findings are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar.2009, Vol.40, No.2, p.185-193. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 09-349 Cuéllar Sastoque C.A., Hernández Ramírez A.
Safety during excavation work and work in confined spaces in the construction of road infrastructures in Bogota
Trabajo seguro en excavaciones mecánicas y espacios confinados en obras de infraestructura vial en Bogotá [in Spanish]
This article describes a project aimed at designing and validating a manual of safe procedures for excavation work and work in confined spaces during road work in the city of Bogota, Colombia. Following a literature survey, the study involved a descriptive investigation of the safety characteristics in mechanical excavations and confined spaces of six works by means of observations, check lists and interviews. The resulting manual was submitted for review to a group of experts who proposed several improvements.
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2009, Vol.55, No.323, p.58-68. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 08-1476 Hilton M.F., Staddon Z., Sheridan J., Whiteford H.A.
The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance
There is a high level of psychological distress in full-time heavy goods vehicle drivers (HGV) in Australia (incidence rate: 4.5% per month). A questionnaire survey was carried out among Australian HGV drivers using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaires (completed answers received: 1324). Depression, anxiety and stress had no significant effect on driver absenteeism or self-rated driving performance. However, where there was severe (1.5%) or very severe (1.8%) depression, there was an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near-miss in the past 28 days, a result similar to that obtained when driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. It is suggested that an action plan focusing on drivers' mental health status be developed in order to reduce accidents and driver fatalities.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2009, Vol.41, No.3, p.453-461. 90 ref.

CIS 08-1455 The safe use of vehicles on construction sites: A guide for clients, designers, contractors, managers and workers involved with construction transport
Guidance to the avoidance of traffic-related accidents on contruction sites. Contents: relevant legislation in the UK; safe workplaces (planning, separation of pedestrians and vehicles, loading and storage areas, public protection); safe vehicles; safe driving and work practices; managing construction transport. In appendices: construction vehicle accident statistics; safety legislation relating to vehicle construction; risk assessment and safety management. Previous edition: CIS 99-1000.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2009. 30p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 9.95.

2008

CIS 11-0866 Corbett E., Rice S., Wilde W., Young C., Jackson K.
Health and Safety Executive
Accidents in the transport industry
One of the key hazards within the transport sector is posed by loads shifting in transit and then falling from vehicles, causing injuries and/or fatalities. Between 2006 and 2007 HSE identified five deaths and over 216 major injuries resulting from objects falling onto people in the freight by road sector. A further 946 persons received injuries severe enough to require more than three days absence from work. The aim of this research was to explore load security issues, identifying causal and contributory factors to loads shifting.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 65p. Illus. 13 ref.
RR_681.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0570 Banerjee J., Archutowski L., Horton L.
Health and Safety Executive
Falls from vehicles: Campaign evaluation
This report outlines the quantitative and qualitative research conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Health and Safety Executive's Falls From Vehicles communications campaign that ran in September and October 2007. The main findings include: size of the heavy goods vehicle fleet; general attitudes towards safety; exposure to the campaign; advertising awareness and influence; recognition of the campaign and attitudes towards it; awareness and usage of organizations offering safety and health information; awareness of the risks of falls from vehicles; attitudes towards falling from vehicles as a safety issue; impact on attitudes and behaviour; action taken; reactions to website.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. iv, 63p. Illus.
RR_663.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0569 Day N.C.M., White G.P., McGillivray A.
Health and Safety Executive
Load security on curtain sided lorries
The objective of this study was to establish good practice for securing loads on curtain-sided trucks across various industry sectors and provide practical guidance on load restraint to minimise the risks to safety and health of all persons working on and around curtain-sided vehicles. Good practices are defined as systems of work that are the most practical, that involve the least risks of loads becoming unstable or falling, and least risk to the operator/driver, and that are practicable. The report reviews existing legislation and guidance in the United Kingdom, Europe, North America and Australasia, together with current practice across a cross-section of United Kingdom industry, and assesses the mechanics of load shift and what systems of load securing are most effective in restraining loads.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 228p. Illus. 22 ref. Index.
RR_662.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0118 Evaluating road-related hazards at the enterprise: Pathways for action
Evaluer le risque routier en entreprise: pistes d'action [in French]
According to the most recent Belgian statistics which concern the year 2006, there were 20,448 commuting accidents, of which 4% were fatal. In France, several occupational safety specialists addressed the issue and developed tools aimed at better evaluating road-related risks and implementing preventive measures. This article comments these tools in light of the general conditions prevailing in Belgium as well as national legislation.
Prevent Focus, Oct. 2008, p.4-8. Illus.

CIS 10-0659 Gurubhagavatula I., Nkwuo J.E., Maislin G., Pack A.I.
Estimated cost of crashes in commercial drivers supports screening and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea
In this study, holders of commercial driver's licenses were divided into three groups: participants subjected to polysomnography; those subjected to polysomnography only for high-risk drivers identified by body mass index (BMI), age and gender, followed by oximetry in a subset of drivers; those not subjected to screening. The costs for each of these three programmes included the costs of testing, treatment of identified cases, and crashes. It was found that screening based on BMI, age and gender, with confirmatory in-lab polysomnography only on high-risk drivers was cost-effective, as long as a high proportion of screened drivers accepts treatment. These findings indicate that strategies that reduce reliance on in-laboratory polysomnography may be more cost-effective than not screening, and that treatment acceptance may need to be a condition of employment for affected drivers.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2008, Vol.40, No.1, p.104-115. Illus. 50 ref.
Estimated_cost_of_crashes.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1124 Elihn K., Ulvestad B., Hetland S., Wallén A., Randem B.G.
Exposure to ultrafine particles in asphalt work
An earlier study demonstrated that asphalt workers show a loss of lung function and an increase of inflammation biomarkers during the paving season. The aim of this study was to investigate which possible agents cause the inflammatory reaction, with emphasis on ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure to total dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and NO2 was determined by personal sampling. Ultrafine particles were measured by means of particle counters mounted on a van following the paving machine. Findings showed that pavers were exposed to relatively high concentrations of ultrafine particles throughout their working day, with possible adverse health effects.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.771-779. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 09-1099 Harper M., Lee E.G., Doorn S.S., Hammond O.
Differentiating non-asbestiform amphibole and amphibole asbestos by size characteristics
Coarsely crystalline amphibole minerals are more common than asbestos in many geological environments. Mining or construction work can result in the release of single crystals or cleavage fragments resembling asbestos fibres or fibre bundles but that are not currently regulated as asbestos. Samples of six coarsely-crystalline amphiboles and their asbestos analogs were processed to maximize the number of particles meeting the criterion for counting and also within the respirable width range. The length distributions of the particles produced showed substantial overlap between cleavage fragments and asbestos fibres. Based on these findings, recommendations are made concerning improvements in the counting and classification of asbestiform fibres.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.761-770. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 09-1123 Perkins R.A., Hargesheimer J., Vaara L.
Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project
During a road repair project in a remote region of Alaska, it was discovered that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 fibre/cc by phase contrast microscopy. Further analysis of 36 samples by transmission electron microscopy indicated that about 40% of the fibres were asbestos. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.609-616. 20 ref.

CIS 09-969 Casteel C., Peek-Asa C., Greenland S., Chu L.D., Kraus J.F.
A study of the effectiveness of a workplace violence intervention for small retail and service establishments
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a robbery and violence prevention programme in small businesses in Los Angeles. Gas stations, stores, bars, restaurants and motels were enrolled between 1997 and 2000. Intervention businesses totaling 305 were provided training, programme implementation materials and recommendations for a comprehensive security programme. The 96 control businesses received neither training nor programme materials. Rate ratios comparing intervention to control businesses were 0.90 for violent crime and 0.81 for robbery. Results suggest that the workplace violence prevention programmes may reduce violent crime among high-risk businesses.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1365-1370. 20 ref.

CIS 09-653 Ahmed K., Ayana G., Engidawork E.
Lead exposure study among workers in lead acid battery repair units of transport service enterprises, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study
The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of lead exposure in battery repair workers of three transport service enterprises in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjective information from the workers was obtained by means of structured questionnaires. Urinary aminolevulinic acid levels were determined among workers exposed and not exposed to lead, matched by age. Urinary aminolevulinic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in exposed compared to the non-exposed group. From the questionnaire responses and workplace observations, it was also known that all the repair units did not implement effective preventive and control measures for workplace lead exposure. Taken together, these findings indicated that workers in lead acid battery repair units of the transport service enterprises are not protected from possibly high lead exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, No.30, 8p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-30.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-369 Garages
Garages [in French]
Garages [in Dutch]
This folder consists of the guide for the participative identification of hazards (Dépistage participatif des risques, Déparis) adapted to garages. It contains the following documents: booklet presenting the SOBANE (screening, observation, analysis and expertise) strategy; leaflet inviting participants to attend a Déparis meeting; Déparis participative guide applied to garages containing 18 tables addressing various aspects of the job.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2008. Folder containing several booklets and leaflets. Illus.
http://www.emploi.belgique.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=19732 [in French]
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=19462 [in Dutch]

CIS 09-351 Ordaz Castillo E., Asúnsolo Del Barco A., Maqueda Blasco J., Silva Mato A., Prieto Merino D.
Occupational safety and heath organization and practices in the transport of goods by road
Organización y actividades preventivas en el sector del transporte de mercancías por carretera [in Spanish]
The objectives of this study were to identify the occupational safety and heath practices and resources in the road transport sector. The descriptive analysis was based on data from the Survey of Health and Working Conditions among professional truck drivers, which were compared to the findings from other sectors of activity in Spain from the 5th National Survey on Working Conditions. Most companies are small, 77% having fewer than 50 employees; 41% of the drivers reported that there was no safety representative within their company; 25% of the companies had no occupational safety and health plan. Other findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.212, p.79-89. 11 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n212/original4.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 09-453 Third report of basic data on road traffic and safety in Latin America
Tercer informe datos básicos tránsito y seguridad vial latinoamericano (2008) [in Spanish]
Report on the degree of institutionalisation of road safety in the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela
Instituto de Seguridad y Educación Vial, Defensa 1328 - C1143AAD, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2008. 18p.

CIS 09-63 Wioland L., Schouller J.F., Rossi A.
Road transport: how do drivers integrate the "surge" phenomenon?
Transport sur route: comment les conducteurs intègrent-ils le phénomène de "ballant"? [in French]
Transport of hazardous materials (THM) in liquid form is most frequently undertaken in tank trucks. The main risk of this transport mode is lateral overturning due to sideways oscillation movements of the liquid in the tank (transverse surge). Lengthwise liquid movements, producing a succession of horizontal jerks transmitted to the driver's cab (longitudinal surge), can lead to driver back disorders. This article describes a study undertaken at a French liquid chemical transport company to understand the way in which drivers view the surge phenomenon and its related dangers. One proposed action is to train drivers in surge anticipation and identification methods.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2008, No.212, p.5-17. Illus. 24 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_ND%202292/$File/nd2292.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-62 Talmage J.B., Hudson T.B., Hegmann K.T., Thiese M.S.
Consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnea: Evidence of efficacy
To validate the recently published consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a large sample of commercial drivers was screened for OSA at an occupational medicine clinic and those screening positive were referred for overnight polysomnography. Among the 1443 individuals drivers examined, 190 (13%) of screened positive for OSA. Of these, 134 underwent polysomnography and 94.8% had OSA. The proposed screening criteria were found to have a high predictive value in this population. This study lends further support for mandatory screening of commercial drivers for OSA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.324-329. 9 ref.

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