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Pneumoconioses - 1,356 entries found

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  • Pneumoconioses

2011

CIS 12-0159 Mikulski M.A., Hartley P.G., Sprince N.L., Sanderson W.T., Lourens S., Worden N.E., Wang K., Fuortes L.J.
Risk and significance of chest radiograph and pulmonary function abnormalities in an elderly cohort of former nuclear weapons workers
The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence and risk factors for International Labour Organization radiographic abnormalities, and assess relationship of these abnormalities with spirometry results in former Department of Energy nuclear weapons workers. Participants were offered chest x-ray (CXR) and lung function testing. Three occupational medicine physicians read CXRs. Forty-five (5.9%) of 757 screened workers were found to have isolated parenchymal abnormalities on CXR and this rate is higher than that in many Department of Energy studies. Parenchymal and pleural abnormalities were found in 19 (2.5%) and 37 (4.9%) workers, respectively, and these rates are lower than those in other Department of Energy (DoE) studies to date. Lung function impairment was associated with radiographic abnormalities. This study found an elevated rate of parenchymal abnormalities compared to other DoE populations but the effect of age or other causes could not be ruled out.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1046-1053. 43 ref.
Risk_and_significance_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0130 Meijer E., Tjoe Nij E., Kraus T., van der Zee J.S., van Delden O., van Leeuwen M., Lammers J.W., Heederik D.
Pneumoconiosis and emphysema in construction workers: Results of HRCT and lung function findings
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of HRCT findings in construction workers previously surveyed by chest radiographs classified according to ILO guidelines, and to examine the association between HRCT findings and exposure to quartz containing dust, and lung function. The study comprised a questionnaire, dynamic and static lung function measurements, single-breath CO diffusion capacity, chest radiographs and HRCT in 79 individuals. Certified readers coded radiographs according to the ILO classification. HRCT scans were read according to an international classification system. A qualitative exposure index for cumulative respiratory quartz on a 10-point scale was used. Low grade silicosis cannot be excluded in workers with normal chest radiographs. In relatively highly exposed construction workers, a sevenfold increased risk of simple (nodular) silicosis was found. Emphysema on HRCT was associated with current or former smokers, but not with exposure, and contributed to reduced diffusion capacity. Airflow limitation was mainly determined by current smoking and was not associated with simple (nodular) silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.542-546. 23 ref.
Pneumoconiosis_and_emphysema_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0790 Wilken D., Velasco Garrido M., Manuwald U., Baur X.
Lung function in asbestos-exposed workers, a systematic review and meta-analysis
This systematic review was conducted to assess whether asbestos exposure is related to impairment of lung function parameters independently of the radiological findings. Meta-analyses with data from 9,921 workers exposed to asbestos demonstrates a statistically significant reduction in VC, FEV1 and FEV1 /VC, even among those workers without radiological changes. Less severe lung function impairments are detected if the diagnoses are based on (high resolution) computed tomography rather than the less sensitive X-ray images. The degree of lung function impairment was partly related to the proportion of smokers included in the studies. It is concluded that asbestos exposure is related to restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. The trend for functional impairment persists even in the absence of radiological evidence of parenchymal or pleural diseases.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, 6:21, 16p. Illus. 83 ref.
Lung_function.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0524 Crowley L.E., Herbert R., Moline J.M., Wallenstein S., Shukla G., Schechter C., Skloot G.S., Udasin I., Ludt B.J., Harrison D., Shapiro M., Wong K., Sacks H.S., Landrigan P.J., Teirstein A.S.
"Sarcoid like" granulomatous pulmonary disease in World Trade Center disaster responders
More than 20,000 responders have been examined through the World Trade Center (WTC) Medical Monitoring and Treatment Programme since September 11, 2001. Studies on WTC firefighters have shown elevated rates of sarcoidosis. The main objective of this study was to report the incidence of "sarcoid like" granulomatous pulmonary disease in other WTC responders. Cases of sarcoid like granulomatous pulmonary disease were identified by: patient self-report, physician report and ICD-9 codes. Each case was evaluated by three pulmonologists using the ACCESS criteria and only definite cases are reported. Thirty-eight patients were classified as definite cases. Six-year incidence was 192/100,000. The peak annual incidence of 54 per 100,000 person-years occurred between 9/11/2003 and 9/11/2004. Incidence in black responders was nearly double that of white responders. Low FVC was the most common spirometric abnormality. While the incidence of granulomatous pulmonary disease among the WTC responders is lower than that reported among firefighters, it is higher than expected.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.175-184. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 11-0520 Nogueira C.R., Nápolis L.M., Bagatin E., Terra-Filho M., Müller N.L., Silva C.I.S., Rodrigues R.T., Neder J.A, Nery L.E.
Lung diffusing capacity relates better to short-term progression on HRCT abnormalities than spirometry in mild asbestosis
Pulmonary function tests (PFT), particularly spirometry and lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), have been considered useful methods for the detection of the progression of interstitial asbestos abnormalities as indicated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, it is currently unknown which of these two tests correlates best with anatomical changes over time. In this study, longitudinal changes (3-9 years follow-up) in PFTs were compared at rest and during exercise with interstitial abnormalities evaluated by HRCT in 63 ex-workers with mild-to-moderate asbestosis. At baseline, patients presented with low-grade asbestosis and most PFT results were within the limits of normality. In the follow-up, most subjects had normal spirometry, static lung volumes and arterial blood gases. In contrast, frequency of DLCO abnormalities almost doubled. Twenty-three subjects increased the interstitial marks on HRCT. These had significantly larger declines in DLCO compared to patients who remained stable (0.88 vs. 0.31ml/min/mm Hg/year and 3.5 vs. 1.2%/year, respectively). However, no between-group differences were found for the other functional tests, including spirometry. These data demonstrate that the functional consequences of progression of HRCT abnormalities in mild-to-moderate asbestosis are better reflected by decrements in DLCO than by spirometric changes. These results might have important practical implications for medico-legal evaluation of this patient population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.185-193. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 11-0369 Bianchi C., Bianchi T.
Mesothelioma and aircraft industry
This letter to the editor comments an earlier article published in the journal concerning a case-control study conducted in France, showing a high risk of pleural mesothelioma for various occupations and industries, including the manufacture of aircraft parts. The authors of the letter confirm similar findings in the aircraft industry in Italy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.494. 5 ref.

CIS 11-0361 Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., Świątkowska B., Szubert Z., Wilczyńska U.
Asbestos in Poland: Occupational health problems
The review addresses current problems of health risk and health effects associated with exposure to asbestos, including data on historical exposure and on currently valid occupational exposure limits. The quantity and types of the raw material used for the production of various asbestos products are also discussed in relation to the particular types of asbestos-induced occupational diseases. The article describes the medical care system for former asbestos workers and those currently exposed during removal of asbestos-containing products. The national system for medical certification of occupational asbestos-related diseases and the compensation procedure are outlined. According to the parliamentary Act of 1997, importing, manufacture and sale of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials are prohibited in Poland. Thus, the assessment of asbestos exposure and the monitoring of health conditions of workers at asbestos-processing plants have become irrelevant. However, the delayed health effects attributable to past exposure continue to be the matter of concern for public health. Likewise, the environmental pollution from asbestos waste landfills in the vicinity of asbestos-processing plants (where high levels of asbestos fibre in ambient air have been recorded) will continue to be a serious public health problem. Presently, two programmes aimed at minimising the adverse effects of asbestos on population health are underway. Both programmes are briefly described.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.2, p.142-152. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 11-0358 Carder M., McNamee R., Turner S., Hussey L., Money A., Agius R.
Improving estimates of specialist-diagnosed, work-related respiratory and skin disease
Work-related skin and respiratory disease still constitute an important part of the work-related ill-health (WRIH) burden in the United Kingdom. It is therefore important to be able to accurately quantify the true incidence of these two groups of disease. The aim of this study was to improve the accuracy of the methodology to estimate clinical specialist incidence rates, with a focus on skin and respiratory disease, and specifically, to estimate the number of additional cases not captured by voluntary surveillance through The Health and Occupation Reporting (THOR) network and provide a better estimation of the true incidence of work-related skin and respiratory disease. Cases not captured by THOR in 2005-2007 due to non-participation of eligible clinical specialists and due to <100% response rates by THOR participants were estimated, and the numerator adjusted accordingly. Adjusted incidence rates were calculated using Labour Force Survey data as the denominator. During 2005-2007, 62% of skin cases and 60% of respiratory cases were likely to have been captured by THOR. After adjustment, dermatologist-derived incidence rates for skin disease were raised from 9 to 14 per 100,000 employed, while those for respiratory disease were raised from 10 to 17 per 100,000 employed. This study has provided a significant improvement in the surveillance-based methodology used to estimate the number of cases of WRIH captured by THOR and hence enabled more accurate estimations of incidence rates for clinical specialist-reported WRIH.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.33-39. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 11-0342 Makol A., Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D.
Prevalence of connective tissue disease in silicosis (1985-2006) - A report from the State of Michigan surveillance system for silicosis
The risk of developing clinical connective tissue disease (CTD) has been reported to be increased among individuals with silica exposure. This study consisted of reviewing the medical records of individuals reported to the Michigan Silicosis Surveillance system from 1985 to 2006 to confirm the diagnosis of silicosis and determine the presence of CTDs. From 1985 to 2006, 1,022 cases were confirmed to have silicosis. Medical records of 790 cases were available. Thirty-three individuals had rheumatoid arthritis (prevalence 4.2%, prevalence ratio (RR) ranging from 2.26 to 6.96 depending on the reference rate used), two had scleroderma (prevalence 0.3%, RR 28.3), one had systemic lupus erythematosus (prevalence 0.1%, RR 2.53), two had Sjogrens syndrome (prevalence 0.3%, RR 0.42) and six had anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) vasculitis (prevalence 0.8%, RR 25.3). There was no difference between those with and without CTD with respect to age, race, industry type, history of tuberculosis, application for workers' compensation, or severity of fibrotic changes on chest X-ray. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.255-262. 40 ref.

2010

CIS 12-0195 Laney A.S., Attfield M.D.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are increasingly more prevalent among workers in small underground coal mines in the United States
The objective of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) among United States underground miners is associated with mine size. Chest radiographs from 1970 to 2009 of working miners who participated in the National Coal Workers Health Surveillance Program for the presence of small and large opacities consistent with pneumoconiosis were examined, based upon the International Labour Organization classification system. A total of 145 512 miners contributed 240 067 radiographs for analysis. From the 1990s to the 2000s, the prevalence of radiographic CWP increased among miners in mines of all sizes, while miners working in mines with fewer than 50 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of CWP compared to miners who worked in mines with 50 or more employees. When adjusted for age and within-miner correlation, the difference in prevalence of CWP by mine size was significant for all decades. Since 1999, miners from small mines were five times more likely to have radiographic evidence of PMF (1.0% of miners) compared to miners from larger mines (0.2% of miners) with a prevalence ratio of 5.0. The prevalence of CWP among United States coal miners is increasing in mines of all sizes, while CWP and PMF are much more prevalent among workers from underground mines with fewer than 50 workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2010, Vol.67, p.428-431. Illus. 16 ref.
Coal_workers'_pneumoconiosis_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0188 Laney A.S., Petsonk E.L., Attfield M.D.
Pneumoconiosis among underground bituminous coal miners in the United States: Is silicosis becoming more frequent?
Epidemiological reports since 2000 have documented increased prevalence and rapid progression of pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in the United States. To investigate a possible role of silica exposure in the increase, this study examined chest x-rays (CXRs) for specific abnormalities (r-type small opacities) known to be associated with silicosis lung pathology. Underground coal miners are offered CXRs every 5 years. Abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis are recorded by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) B Readers using ILO classification. CXRs from 1980 to 2008 of 90,973 participating miners were studied, focusing on reporting of r-type opacities (small rounded opacities 3-10 mm in diameter). Log binomial regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios adjusted for miner age and profusion category. Among miners, the proportion of radiographs showing r-type opacities increased during the 1990s (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.5) and after 1999 (PR 4.1), compared to the 1980s. The prevalence of progressive massive fibrosis in 2000-2008 was also elevated compared to the 1980s (PR 4.4) and 1990s (PR 3.8). The increasing prevalence of pneumoconiosis over the past decade and the change in the epidemiology and disease profile documented in this and other recent studies imply that United States coal miners are being exposed to excessive amounts of respirable crystalline silica.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.67, No.10, p.652-656. Illus. 28 ref.
Pneumoconiosis_among_underground_bituminous_coal_miners_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0797 Stefaniak A.B., Harvey C.J., Bukowski V.C., Leonard S.S.
Comparison of free radical generation by pre- and post-sintered cemented carbide particles
Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may occur in response to cellular contact with metal particles. Generation of ROS by cobalt and/or tungsten carbide is implicated in causing hard metal lung disease (HMD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In this study, ROS generation and particle properties that influence radical generation were assessed for three sizes of tungsten, tungsten carbide, cobalt, admixture (tungsten carbide and cobalt powders), spray dryer, and post-sintered chamfer grinder powders using chemical (H2O2plus phosphate-buffered saline, artificial lung surfactant, or artificial sweat) and cellular reaction systems. For a given material, on a mass basis, hydroxyl (OH) generation generally increased as particle size decreased; however, on a surface area basis, radical generation levels were more, but not completely, similar. Chamfer grinder powder, polycrystalline aggregates of tungsten carbide in a metallic cobalt matrix, generated the highest levels of OH radicals. Radical generation was not dependent on the masses of metals; rather, it involved surface-chemistry-mediated reactions that were limited to a biologically active fraction of the total available surface area of each material. Improved understanding of particle surface chemistry elucidated the importance of biologically active surface area in generation of ROS by particle mixtures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2010, Vol.7, No.1, p.23-34. Illus. 56 ref.
Comparison_of_free_radical_generation.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0649 Laney A.S., Attfield M.D.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are increasingly more prevalent among workers in small underground coal mines in the United States
The objective of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) among United States underground miners is associated with mine size. Chest radiographs from 1970 to 2009 of working miners who participated in the National Coal Workers Health Surveillance Program for the presence of small and large opacities consistent with pneumoconiosis were examined, based upon the International Labour Organization classification system. A total of 145,512 miners contributed 240,067 radiographs for analysis. From the 1990s to the 2000s, the prevalence of radiographic CWP increased among miners in mines of all sizes, while miners working in mines with fewer than 50 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of CWP compared to miners who worked in mines with 50 or more employees. When adjusted for age and within-miner correlation, the difference in prevalence of CWP by mine size was significant for all decades. Since 1999, miners from small mines were five times more likely to have radiographic evidence of PMF (1.0% of miners) compared to miners from larger mines (0.2% of miners) with a prevalence ratio of 5.0.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2010, Vol.67, No.6, p.428-431. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 11-0519 Phillips J.I., Green F.Y., Davies J.C., Murray J.
Pulmonary and systemic toxicity following exposure to nickel nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are being used in ever increasing numbers in a range of industrial and medical products. Questions surrounding their potential to cause toxic effects in humans have been raised. Although animal experiments predict that nanoparticles are more toxic than their larger counterparts there are few descriptions in the literature of human exposure. A case described in 1994 has been re-examined from a pathology perspective. The subject, a 38-year-old previously healthy male, inhaled nanoparticles of nickel while spraying nickel using a metal arc process. He died 13 days after being exposed and the cause of death at autopsy was adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nickel particles <25 nm in diameter were identified in lung macrophages using transmission electron microscopy. High levels of nickel were measured in his urine and his kidneys showing evidence of acute tubular necrosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.763-767. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 11-0503 Aguilar-Madrid G., Robles-Pérez E., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Alvarado-Cabrero I., Rico-Méndez F.G., Javier K.G.
Case-control study of pleural mesothelioma in workers with social security in Mexico
Environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos in Mexico in the past has been a cause of deaths and health damages. Its magnitude is unknown to date. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) that can be attributed to and occupational exposure to asbestos. It was conducted in the form of a case-control study of MPM in 472 workers insured by the Mexican Institute of Social Security, with 119 incident cases and 353 controls. Cases were histologically confirmed. Participants were questioned concerning their occupational history and socio-demographic data. Assignment to one of the four exposures was performed qualitatively by an expert hygienist. Odds ratios (ORs) and attributable risks (ARs) were calculated using a non-conditional logistic regression model. A total of 80.6% of cases and 31.5% of controls had occupational exposure to asbestos. ORs were adjusted for age and gender and by exposure category, and exhibited an increase with probability of exposure. These results show that the industrial uses of all forms of asbestos is generating an increase in mesothelioma-related diseases and deaths among Mexican workers. As a public health policy, Mexico should prohibit the use of asbestos in all production processes with the aim of controlling the epidemic and preventing the occurrence of new cases of MPM.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.241-251. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 11-0234 Abejie B.A., Wang X., Kales S.N., Christiani D.C.
Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: A cross-sectional study
Restrictive patterns of pulmonary function abnormalities associated with asbestos exposure are well described. Studies are less consistent, however, regarding the association of asbestos inhalation with airway dysfunction and obstructive impairment. This study compared pulmonary function test results between 277 chrysotile exposed workers and 177 unexposed controls, who worked at an asbestos textile products plant in China. Information on exposure and smoking were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Standardized spirometry and diffusion capacity (DCLO) methods were utilized. Chest radiographs were read based on ILO pneumoconiosis guidelines. Asbestos exposed subjects had significantly reduced forced vital capacity (FVC), one-second forced expiratory volume FEV1 and DCLO. Restricting the analysis to non-smokers, asbestos workers still had about 3% lower FEV1/FVC ratio than controls. Among exposed workers, the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestosis further lowered FVC and DLCO but not the FEV1/FVC ratio compared to asbestos exposure without radiographic asbestosis. Additionally, smoking asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO compared to non-smoking workers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:12, 7p. Illus. 49 ref.
Patterns.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0754 Kulcsar Neto F., Gronchi C.C., Ferreira de Suza Durate Saad I., de Ângelo da Cunha I., Possebon J., Texeira M.M., do Amaral N.C.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Silica - Worker's manual
Sílica - Manual do trabalhador [in Portuguese]
This manual aims to inform workers and small businesses of the risks related to exposure to silica dust and on silicosis. It presents various operations which may generate silica dust, together with control and protection measures.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2010. 59p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: BRL 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge.

CIS 10-0258 Prevention of exposure to alveolar crystalline silica
Prévenir l'exposition à la silice cristalline alvéolaire [in French]
This article presents the objectives and activities of the NEPSI platform (French acronym for European Network on Silica), a European project on the control of exposure to alveolar crystalline silica. This platform is the result of an agreement between European representatives of industries using crystalline silica, namely the aggregates, cement, ceramics, foundry, glass fibre, special glass, container glass, flat glass, industrial minerals, mineral wool, natural stones, mining, mortar, pre-cast concrete and clay sectors. NEPSI has developed a guide to safe work practices and ensures that it is duly applied by the signatories of the agreement.
Prevent Focus, Apr. 2010, p.10-12. Illus.

2009

CIS 12-0207 Harding A.H., Frost G.
Health and Safety Executive
The Asbestos Survey - Mortality among asbestos workers 1971-2005
The Asbestos Survey was established to monitor the long-term health of workers covered by regulations to control occupational exposure to asbestos. The aim of this report was to provide an updated analysis of mortality among asbestos workers, to investigate which causes of death were associated with exposure to asbestos and to undertake a more detailed analysis of the stripping/removal workers. From 1971, workers were recruited during initially voluntary and later statutory medical examinations, during which a brief questionnaire was completed. There were 15,496 deaths among the 98,912 workers included in the analysis. All-cause mortality was significantly higher than in the general population. Known associations between asbestos exposure and mortality from lung, peritoneal and pleural cancers, mesothelioma and asbestosis were confirmed, and some evidence of associations with stroke and stomach cancer mortality was observed. Limited evidence suggested that asbestos-related disease risk may be lower among those first exposed in more recent times. Among the removal workers, deaths were elevated for all causes, all cancers including lung cancer, mesothelioma, and circulatory disease. Spending more than 40 hours per week in a stripping enclosure increased the risk of all cause, circulatory disease, and ischaemic heart disease mortality. However the different dust suppression techniques and respirator types did not affect mortality rates.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. xii, 135p. Illus. 100 ref.
The_Asbestos_Survey_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0150 Alcaíno Lara J., eds.
The ECRES method - Qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica - Sand and gravel manufacture
Método ECRES - Evaluación cualitativa del riesgo de exposición à sílice - Planta de áridos y estabilizados [in Spanish]
This document shows how to apply the ECRES method for the qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica applied to the manufacture of ssand and gravel. The method allows the identification of priority areas for action by means of filling-in check lists addressing the following issues: legal aspects; aspects that contribute towards better management; material excavation and removal; transport; primary crushing; sieving; secondary crushing; transfer; material stacking; housekeeping; miscellaneous.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, Feb. 2009, 42p. Illus.
Método_ECRES_Planta_de_áridos_y_estabilizados_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 12-0149 The ECRES method - Qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica - Dental laboratories
Método ECRES - Evaluación cualitativa del riesgo de exposición a sílice - Laboratorios dentales [in Spanish]
This document shows how to apply the ECRES method for the qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica applied to dental laboratories. The method allows the identification of priority areas for action by means of filling-in check lists addressing the following issues: legal aspects; aspects that contribute towards better management; plaster mould preparation; flasking; housekeeping; miscellaneous.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, July 2009, 32p. Illus.
Método_ECRES_Laboratorios_dentales_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 12-0148 Alcaíno Lara J., eds.
The ECRES method - Qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica - Manufacture of ceramics
Método ECRES - Evaluación cualitativa del riesgo de exposición a sílice - Fábrica de cerámicas [in Spanish]
This document shows how to apply the ECRES method for the qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica applied to the manufacture of ceramics. The method allows the identification of priority areas for action by means of filling-in check lists addressing the following issues: legal aspects; aspects that contribute towards better management; unloading and storage; grinding and mixing; moulding; polishing; transport; housekeeping; miscellaneous.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, July 2009, 43p. Illus.
Método_ECRES_Fábrica_de_cerámicas_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 12-0147 Alcaíno Lara J., eds.
The ECRES method - Qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica - Tile manufacture
Método ECRES - Evaluación cualitativa del riesgo de exposición a sílice - Fábrica de baldosas [in Spanish]
This document shows how to apply the ECRES method for the qualitative evaluation of the risk of exposure to silica in the manufacture of tiles. The method allows the identification of priority areas for action by means of filling-in check lists addressing the following issues: legal aspects; aspects that contribute towards better management; unloading and storage; material and pigment mixing; moulding; polishing; drying; transport; housekeeping; miscellaneous.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, July 2009, 43p. Illus.
Método_ECRES_Fábrica_de_baldosas_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 09-1248 Gehin D., Faure M., Duquenne P., Simon X., Vallet D., Montjoffre F., Le Bâcle C.
Salami production and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Current knowledge and job study
Fabrication de saucissons secs et pneumopathie d'hypersensibilité. Point des connaissances et étude de poste [in French]
This study was carried out in a salami factory following the incidence of various respiratory ailments among the workers. Investigations included plant inspections and atmospheric sampling. It was found that workers were at risk of inhalation exposure of moulds. Local exhaust ventilation on the brushing and flouring machine should allow reducing the exposure to bioaerosols. Regular surveillance of the workers' pulmonary function is recommended.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2009, No.120, p.437-452. Illus. 48 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20183/$File/TF183.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-1030 Fenclová Z., Pelclová D., Urban P., Navrátil T., Klusáčková P., Lebedová J.
Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis reported to the Czech national registry of occupational diseases in the period 1992-2005
Between 1992 and 2005, 72 cases of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis were reported to the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases (42 men, 30 women). The most prevalent cases were farmer's lung (50 cases), malt worker's lung (7 cases) and chemical worker's lung (6 cases). Agriculture was the most common economic activity (total 48 cases) with cattlemen and dairymen (total 26 cases) the most frequent occupations, followed by tractor drivers (8 cases) and maltsters (7 cases). Other findings are discussed and typical cases are presented.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.443-448. 23 ref.

CIS 09-1037 Liu H., Tang Z., Weng D., Yang Y., Tian L., Duan Z., Chen J.
Prevalence characteristics and prediction of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in the Tiefa colliery in China
To explore the current prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) in China and future trends, this study investigated 16,154 coal miners exposed to dust for at least one year in a colliery in China. Four sub-cohorts (before 1958, from 1958, from 1968 and from 1978) were created according to years of first exposure. The cumulative incidence rates of CWP in the four cohorts were 26.65%, 18.94%, 1.15%, and 0.06%, respectively. It is predicted that future CWP patients would mainly occur among coal miners with first dust exposure in 1958-1967 and those working at tunneling. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.369-375. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 09-1114 Erren T.C., Glende C.B., Morfeld P., Piekarski C.
Is exposure to silica associated with lung cancer in the absence of silicosis? A meta-analytical approach to an important public health question
Using published data from 1966 to 2007, this study investigated whether exposure to silica is associated with lung cancer risks in individuals without silicosis. Findings are inconclusive. Further research should concentrate on silica exposures both above and below those that induce silicosis, so that the shape of the exposure-response relationship may be identified, with adjustments for likely confounding factors including silicosis.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.997-1004. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 09-1009 Danila E., Šileikienė V., Nargė la R., Žurauskas E., Loskutovienė G.
Different course of silicosis in four brothers of one family
Silicosis remains a common occupational respiratory disease. Four cases of silicosis which developed after a relatively short occupational exposure to respirable silica among the members of one family are described. Four young Lithuanian brothers worked illegally abroad in mining in one of European countries. All of them were employed together in the same working conditions but for different work durations. One of the brothers died due to the acute form of the disease (lipoproteinosis). Two of the brothers suffered from simple nodular silicosis, and the fourth brother developed very early nodular silicosis and small airway dust disease. A one year follow-up revealed moderate/severe worsening of the disease in all surviving brothers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2009, Vol.22, No.1, p.51-57. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 09-815 Cox-Ganser J.M., Burchfiel C.M., Fekedulegn D., Andrew M.E., Ducatman B.S.
Silicosis in lymph nodes: The canary in the miner?
The objective of this study was to investigate evidence that lymph node silicosis can precede parenchymal silicosis. The study population was comprised of 264 deceased male uranium miners in former East Germany for whom pathologists agreed on the presence or absence of silicosis in lymph nodes and lung parenchyma, and for who work histories and silica exposure estimates were available. Twenty percent of the miners had lymph node silicosis only, 4% had parenchymal silicosis only and 39% had both. Silica exposure was lower for miners with lymph node silicosis only than for those with both lymph node and parenchymal silicosis. Lymph node silicosis was associated with parenchymal silicosis after adjustment for silica exposure. Findings are consistent with silicosis potentially occurring in lymph nodes before the parenchyma. Lymph node damage could impair silica clearance and increase the risk for parenchymal silicosis.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.164-169. Illus. 11 ref.

2008

CIS 12-0235 Bernales B., Marchetti N., Jeramillo H.
National plan for the elimination of silicosis - Strategy for 2009-2030
Plan nacional para la erradicación de la silicosis - Estrategia 2009-2030 [in Spanish]
In the context of the WHO/ILO National Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis (NPES), the Chilean Ministries of Health and of Labour and Social Security made a joint declaration on 13 July 2007, ratifying the programme and committing Chile to fulfill its objectives. This National Plan was developed as part of this commitment, as a road map highlighting the priority areas for action.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2008, 29p. Illus. 14 ref.
Plan_nacional_para_la_erradicación de_la_silicosis_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 09-822 Schuler C.R., Kitt M.M., Henneberger P.K., Deubner D.C., Kreiss K.
Cumulative sensitization and disease in a beryllium oxide ceramics worker cohort
A cohort of 136 workers of a beryllium oxide ceramics plant was followed from 1992 to 2003, including those who left employment, for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Surveys were conducted in 1992, 1998, 2000, and 2002-2003. Eleven-year cumulative incidences of sensitization and CBD were calculated. In 1992, prevalences were 6% for sensitization and 4% for CBD. After 11 years, sensitization and CBD prevalences were triple the initial 1992 survey results. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1343-1350. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-645 Wu F., Xia Z., Qu Y., Tang Y., Cao D., Sun P., Christiani D.C.
Genetic polymorphisms of IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-1RN, NFKB1, FAS, and FASL, and risk of silicosis in a Chinese occupational population
To test whether polymorphisms in IL-1, NF-KB, FAS and FASL genes are associated with risk of silicosis, a case-control study was conducted with 183 silicosis patients and 111 silica-exposed miners who were frequency-matched by age, dust exposure duration, work location, and type of work. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA, using a PCR-RFLP assay. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.843-851. 26 ref.

CIS 09-563 Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms pro-inflammatory (TNFA, IL1A, IL1B, and IL6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN and TGFB1) related to coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). An additional goal was to observe whether these cytokine gene polymorphisms influence the development risk and severity of CWP. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Findings suggest that the TNFA (-238) variant may be a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant seems to be important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on the development and disease severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.

CIS 09-51 Franko A., Dolžan V., Arnerić N., Dodič-Fikfak M.
The influence of genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1 on the development of asbestosis
Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the development of asbestosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) P1 represent a risk factor for this disease. The study population included 262 workers with asbestosis and 265 matched controls. Information on cumulative asbestos exposure was available. A real-time PCR based on the 5' nuclease assay was designed for the analysis of the GSTP1 polymorphisms. The key finding was that GSTP1 genotype coding for an enzyme with high conjugation capacity versus genotypes resulting in intermediate and low enzyme activity significantly increases the risk of asbestosis (odds ratio 1.49).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.50, No.1, p.7-12. 29 ref.

CIS 08-1300 Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
Cytokines are believed to play a key role in inflammatory mechanisms that result in several diseases such as coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms of CWP-related pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Genotyping was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction technique, coupled with fragment length polymorphism restriction. It was found that the TNFA (-238) variant was a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant was important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on both development and severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.

CIS 08-1299 Girdler-Brown B.V., White N.W., Ehrlich R.I., Churchyard G.J.
The burden of silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and COPD among former Basotho goldminers
The burden of silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and COPD is described in 624 South African gold miners 18 months after cessation of work. Questionnaires were administered, and spirometry, chest radiography, tuberculosis investigations and urine HIV antibody assays were performed. The mean age of subjects was 49.4 years and their mean employment duration 25.6 years. Most subjects had had jobs with medium (26.5%) or high (65.4%) dust exposure. Current smoking rate was 35%, with ever smoking 61%. HIV antibodies were detected in the urine in 22.3%. Prevalences were: silicosis 24.6%, past tuberculosis 26%, current tuberculosis 6.2%, airflow obstruction 13.4% and chronic productive cough 17.7%. Almost 50% of these miners had at least one of these respiratory conditions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.640-647. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 08-1290 Bang K.M., Attfield M.D., Wood J.M., Syamlal G.
National trends in silicosis mortality in the United States, 1981-2004
This article describes trends in silicosis mortality in the United States and identifies industries and occupations with elevated silicosis mortality. A total of 6326 deaths with silicosis from 1981-2004 were analysed for trends and association with occupation and industry. A linear regression model was used for analysing mortality trends. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were based on 1,440 deaths for which sufficient data were available. Overall age-adjusted mortality rates per million declined from 2.4 in 1981 to 0.7 in 2004. Industries having significantly elevated PMRs for silicosis included mining and quarrying. Occupations with elevated PMRs included those associated with metal and mineral processing. The results show that considerable progress has been made towards elimination of this preventable disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.633-639. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 08-1285 Mazurek J.M., Attfield M.D.
Silicosis mortality among young adults in the United States, 1968-2004
To describe deaths among young adults (aged 15-44) with silicosis in the United States from 1968 to 2004, this study analysed the National Center for Health Statistics multiple cause-of-death records. Compared with decedents aged ≥45 years, young decedents were more likely to have silicosis listed as the underlying cause of death, to be female and black. Twenty-nine young silicosis decedents had industry and occupation information available. Occupations in construction and manufacturing industries were associated with significantly elevated proportionate mortality ratios for young silicosis deaths. Because these deaths are likely to reflect more intense and recent exposures, the follow-back investigations into the work sites where these individuals were exposed to silica should be conducted.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51, No.8, p.568-578. Illus. 59 ref.

CIS 08-1375 Rodrigues E.G., McClean M.D., Weinberg J., Pepper L.D.
Beryllium sensitization and lung function among former workers at the Nevada test site
Beryllium use at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was not acknowledged until the late 1990s. Starting in 2001, former workers of the NTS were tested for beryllium sensitization as part of a medical screening programme to identify individuals who may be at higher risk of developing chronic berylliosis. An observational study was conducted to highlight work-related factors associated with the odds of having BeS. Work history questionnaires were administered and principal components analysis was used to identify categories of related tasks associated with BeS. Among the 1786 former workers tested for BeS, 23 had a confirmed positive result, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 1.3%. However higher prevalences were observed among workers who performed certain specific job tasks.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2008, Vol.51, No.7, p.512-523. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 08-1079 Application of the ILO international classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses to digital chest radiographic images
Summaries of papers presented at a conference on the classification of digital chest radiographs for patients with pneumoconioses held in Washington D.C., USA, held on March 12-13 2008. The international group of scientists in attendance heard from representatives of the International Labour Organization (ILO), NIOSH and academia. Expert presenters described current and future issues in digital radiography, especially as they relate to classification. Specific sessions were held on image acquisition, image presentation, file interchange and developing recommendations for advancing digital classification for pneumoconioses.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 22p.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-139/pdfs/WorkshopSummary.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-824 Setta J.H., Neder A., Bagatin E., Terra-Filho M., Maris Nápolis L., Dal Corso S., Ferreira Amorin M.M., Tavares Rodrigues R., Godoy Fernandes A.L., Nery L.E.
Relationship between induced sputum cytology and inflammatory status with lung structural and functional abnormalities in asbestosis
In order to assess whether induced sputum cytology and local and systemic markers of inflammation may be helpful to characterize asbestosis status and progression, 39 ex-workers with asbestosis on high-resolution computed tomography and 21 non-exposed controls were evaluated. Sputum cytology and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in serum and sputum were related to lung function impairment. It was found that subjects with asbestosis had cytological abnormalities in induced sputum and increased local and systemic inflammatory status which were correlated to lung function impairment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.51, n°3, p.186-194. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 08-715 Merget R., Sander I., Rozynek P., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Bruening T.
Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to molds in an onion and potato sorter
A 42-year-old female non-smoking onion and potato sorter developed work-related shortness of breath, cough, fatigue and flu-like symptoms. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was based on patchy infiltrates in both lungs on high resolution computed tomography and lymphocytosis of 71% in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample. Exposure cessation and a brief corticosteroid therapy resulted in complete recovery. IgG antibodies to several kinds of mould cultivated from samples from the patient's workplace were detected in the patient's serum. It is concluded that occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to moulds may develop in onion and potato sorters.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.117-119. 8 ref.

2007

CIS 12-0255 Leigh J.
History of occupational disease recognition and control
This article provides historical perspective to the recognition and control of occupational diseases, based on the examples of large infrastructure projects (tunnels, dams) and ensuing silicosis, asbestosis and lung cancer.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2007, Vol.53, No.6, p.519-530. 18 ref.
History_of_occupational_disease_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0151 Bernales B.
Situation of Chile
Situación de Chile [in Spanish]
Presentation at the 2nd Regional conference on the WHO/ILO Plan for the Eradication of Silicosis held in Santiago, Chile, 13-14 July 2007. Topics addressed: key statistics of the Chilean mining sector; prevalence of silicosis; legislative framework; estimates of exposure to silica; role of government, employers' and workers' organizations; key achievements since 2005; future actions.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, July 2007, 26p. Illus.
Situación_de_Chile_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 12-0146 Bernales B., Klarián M.A.
PEECASI - External evaluation programme of the quality of medical examinations related to silicosis
PEECASI - Programme de evaluación externa de la calidad de los exámenes médicos relacionados a la silicosis [in Spanish]
Following an introduction providing estimates of the number of workers with silicosis and exposed to silica in Chile, this document presents the programme for the external evaluation of the quality of medical examinations related to silicosis. The programme has been developed by the Public Health Institute of Chile in fulfillment of its responsibilities and roles within the WHO/ILO National Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis (NPES).
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental , av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, Feb. 2007, 35p. Illus. 17 ref.
PEECASI_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 12-0145 Bernales B., Klarián M.A.
Manual for the evaluation of quality standards of units carrying out chest radiographies for the surveillance and medico-legal evaluation of workers exposed to silica and with silicosis
Manual de evaluación por estándares de calidad de las unidades que realizan radiografías de tórax para vigilancia y evaluación médico legal de trabajadores expuestos a sílice y con silicosis [in Spanish]
This manual for assessing the quality of medical laboratories carrying out chest radiographies of workers exposed to silica has been developed by the Public Health Institute of Chile in fulfillment of its responsibilities and roles within the WHO/ILO National Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis (NPES). It contains a number of check-lists for carrying out such assessments in view of accreditation of laboratories.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, Feb. 2007, 18p. 13 ref.
Manual_de_evaluación_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 12-0144 Bernales B., Klarián M.A.
Manual for the evaluation of quality standards of lung function laboratories carrying out spirometries for the medico-legal evaluation of workers with silicosis
Manual de evaluación por estándares de calidad de los laboratorios de función pulmonar que realizan espirometrías para evaluación médico legal de los trabajadores con silicosis [in Spanish]
This manual for assessing the quality of medical laboratories carrying out spirometry examinations of workers exposed to silica has been developed by the Public Health Institute of Chile in fulfillment of its responsibilities and roles within the WHO/ILO National Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis (NPES). It contains a number of check-lists for carrying out such assessments in view of accreditation of laboratories.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, Feb. 2007, 17p. 13 ref.
Manual_de_evaluación_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0663 Capone L., Consiglio E., Fulgenzi A.E., Jarés E., Labbate A., Poropat A.
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Occupational respiratory pathology
Patología respiratoria de origen ocupacional [in Spanish]
Report on five medical conferences on the most frequent occupational respiratory pathologies, organized by the Argentinian public OSH institution (Superintendencia de riesgos del trabajo, SRT), explaining the most suitable treatments and preventive measures to be adopted by workers, together with typical examples. Topics addressed: occupational asthma; occupational respiratory infections; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; pleural diseases; interstitial diseases.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007. 101p. Illus. 2 ref. pdf document.

CIS 09-297 Hoppin J.A., Umbach D.M., Kullman G.J., Henneberger P.K., London S.J., Alavanja M.C.R., Sandler D.P.
Pesticides and other agricultural factors associated with self-reported farmer's lung among farm residents in the agricultural health study
Farmer's lung, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis, is an important contributor to respiratory morbidity among farmers. Using the 1993-1997 data from the Agricultural Health Study, this cross-sectional study of occupational risk factors for farmer's lung was conducted among approximately 50,000 farmers and farm spouses in Iowa and North Carolina using hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age, state, and smoking status. Participants provided information on agricultural exposures, demographic characteristics and medical history via self-administered questionnaires. Approximately 2% of farmers and 0.2% of spouses reported doctor-diagnosed farmer's lung. It is suggested that organochlorine and carbamate pesticides should be further evaluated as potential risk factors for farmer's lung. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.64, No.5, p.334-342. 40 ref.

CIS 09-118 Madl A.K., Unice K., Brown J.L., Kolanz M.E., Kent M.S.
Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant
The objective of this study was to evaluate historic exposures to beryllium among workers of a beryllium machining facility in the United States, and to relate these exposure evaluations to cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitization (BeS). Data included 3831 personal samples and 616 general area samples, together with health surveillance data. Results showed that beryllium-sensitized and CBD workers were exposed to beryllium concentrations greater than 0.2µg/m3; among these workers, 90% were exposed to concentrations greater than 0.4µg/m3 within a given year of their work history. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that BeS and CBD generally occurred as a result of exposures greater than 0.4µg/m3 and maintaining exposures below 0.2µg/m3 95% of the time should prevent the occurrence of these occupational diseases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.448-466. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 08-583 Tse L.A., Li Z.M., Wong T.W., Fu Z.M., Yu I.T.S.
High prevalence of accelerated silicosis among gold miners in Jiangxi, China
This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of accelerated silicosis among Chinese gold mine workers. A medical cross-sectional examination was conducted among 574 miners; all participants were male rock-drillers. The concentrations of total dust and quartz content were obtained from government documentation. Descriptive data analyses were performed. The prevalence of accelerated silicosis was 29.1% after an average of 5.6 years of dust exposure. A history of tuberculosis seemed to increase the risk. The concentration of respirable silica dust was estimated to be 89.5 mg/m3 (range 70.2-108.8) in the underground goldmine, far exceeding the permissible exposure limits. This study illustrates a serious health threat in small-scale goldmines in China and indicates an urgent need for environmental control and disease prevention.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.876-880. Illus. 15 ref.

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