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Hairdressing & beauty parlours - 154 entries found

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  • Hairdressing & beauty parlours

2011

CIS 11-0795 Bradshaw L., Harris-Roberts J., Bowen J., Rahman S., Fishwick D.
Self-reported work-related symptoms in hairdressers
The objective of this study was to document current levels of self-reported health problems in hairdressers in the United Kingdom, compared to non-hairdressing controls. An interviewer-led questionnaire was administered to 147 hairdressers (86% women,) and 67 non-hairdressing controls (all women), recording demographic information, work history, health training levels and the presence of self-reported respiratory, skin, musculoskeletal and non-specific symptoms. Following adjustment for age, smoking and years worked, hairdressers reported significantly higher levels of musculoskeletal problems, including work-related shoulder pain (odds ratio OR 11.6), work-related wrist and hand pain (OR 2.8), work-related upper back pain (OR 3.8), work-related lower back pain (OR 4.9) and work-related leg/foot pain (OR 31.0). The frequency of self-reported asthma was similar in both groups (hairdressers 16%, controls 17%) as was chest tightness and wheeze. Work-related cough was significantly more frequently reported in hairdressers than in controls (OR 13.2). While hairdresser training was common, the training did not appear to have resulted in awareness of potential workplace health risks.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61. p.328-334. 30 ref.

CIS 11-0368 Dulon M., Peters C., Wendeler D., Nienhaus A.
Trends in occupational airway diseases in German hairdressers: Frequency and causes
Hairdressers are exposed to several allergens and irritants known to cause obstructive airway diseases (OAD). In the early 1990s, high incidence rates of OAD were observed in German hairdressers. It was expected that modification of formulations would resolve the problem. This study analysed the numbers of confirmed cases reported of allergen, latex and irritant-induced OAD in German hairdressers, as registered by the responsible compensation board. From 1998 until 2003, the number of confirmed cases of OAD stayed at a plateau of 60, after which a downward trend was apparent. Hair dyes and acid perms were most often identified as the substances causing OAD. The cases of OAD in German hairdressers are still frequent. Exposure to known airway irritants is still occurring in spite of modification of the formulations. Continuous medical surveillance of hairdressers is recommended, in order to detect individual susceptibility, especially in apprentices.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.486-493. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 11-0356 Bohadana A.B., Hannhart B., Ghezzo H., Teculescu D., Zmirou-Navier D.
Exhaled nitric oxide and spirometry in respiratory health surveillance
Exposure to pollutants in bakeries and hairdressing salons can cause airway syndromes varying from bronchial irritation to asthma. Workplace respiratory health surveillance aims to identify possible cases requiring further investigation. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) and spirometry for health surveillance of apprentice bakers (ABs) and apprentice hairdressers (AHDs). Determinants of FE(NO) were also identified. Symptoms and physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire. FE(NO) was measured and spirometry was carried out. Subjects with elevated FE(NO), airway obstruction (one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 95th percentile) and atopy were identified. A total of 126 apprentices (59 ABs and 67 AHDs) participated. Twenty-nine (23%) apprentices had abnormal tests: four had associated high FE(NO) and airway obstruction, while 25 had either high FE(NO) or airway obstruction alone. Compared with ABs, AHDs had more asthma (38% versus 0%) and atopy (62% versus 6%). There was no difference in symptoms, smoking FE(NO) or airways obstruction. Among 97 subjects with normal tests, no differences were found between ABs and AHDs. Average FE(NO) was increased in atopic non-smokers compared with atopic smokers and non-atopic subjects. Smoking, a history of allergies, FEV1/FVC and respiratory symptoms were the main determinants of FE(NO).
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.108-114. Illus. 30 ref.

2010

CIS 11-0041 Peters C., Harling M., Dulon M., Schablon A., Torres Costa J., Nienhaus A.
Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - A systematic review
A systematic literature was carried out to investigate fertility and pregnancy among hairdressers. A total of two reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were identified. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, small for gestational age, low birth weight, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. Overall, the studies were inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction were possible. However, on the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 5:24, 13p. 47 ref.
Fertility_disorders.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0559 Declaration of Dresden - Common Health and Safety Development in Professional Hairdressing in Europe - Safe Hair
In September 2010, European hairdressing and beauty industry employers and unions (UNI Europa Hair and Beauty and Coiffure EU) reached an agreement on the health of workers in the sector. The agreement, known as the "Dresden Declaration" after the city where it was signed, aims to prevent the skin diseases that hairdressing workers are particularly prone to. Hairdressers daily handle hundreds of different chemicals found in shampoos, hair dyes, lotions and other hair bleach products. With repeated use, these products gradually break down the skin barrier and can cause irritation and allergies. The agreement provides for better training and information about the hazards of cosmetics and hair dyes, and also aims to improve the use of personal protective equipment.
European Trade Union Institute, Health and Safety Department, 5 Bd du Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2010. 9p.
Declaration_of_Dresden.pdf [in English]
Déclaration_de_Dresde.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0486 Wulfhorst B., Bock M., Gediga G., Skudlik C.A., Allmers H., John S.M.
Sustainability of an interdisciplinary secondary prevention program for hairdressers
To assess the sustainability of an interdisciplinary medical and educational training program, 215 hairdressers suffering from occupational skin diseases (OSD) having received the intervention and a control group of 85 hairdressers who solely received dermatological treatment, were followed up at 9 months and 5 years by means of a standardized questionnaire. A subcohort of 62 participants of the intervention group was followed up again 10 years. The follow-up survey 9 months after the beginning of the program showed that 71.8% of the intervention group could remain in work as opposed to 60.0% in the control group. In the intervention group, 14.7% gave up work due to OSD versus 22.5% in the control group. In the 5-year follow-up 58.7% of the intervention group remained at work versus 29.1% of the control group. Ten years after intervention, the follow-up showed a stabilization of the effects shown by the 5-year follow-up results. These and other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.165-171. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 10-0497 O'Connell R.L., White I.R., Mc Fadden J.P., White J.M.
Hairdressers with dermatitis should always be patch tested regardless of atopy status
Allergic contact dermatitis is common in hairdressers because of their exposure to chemicals used in hair dyes and permanent wave solutions. Atopic individuals are known to have a higher prevalence of leaving the occupation due to morbidity associated with hand eczema. The objective of this study was to assess which chemicals are responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers and whether the prevalence is the same according to atopy status. A total of 729 hairdressers who had been patch tested were retrospectively identified. Allergic reactions to relevant allergens from the extended European baseline series and hairdressing series were analysed against history of atopic eczema. Of the total, 29.9% of patients had a current or past history of atopic eczema. The most frequent positive allergens were nickel sulfate (32.1%) and p-phenylenediamine (19.0%) and from the hairdressing series were glyceryl monothioglycolate (21.4%) and ammonium persulfate (10.6%). There was generally no significant difference between subjects with or without a history of atopic eczema. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2010. Vol.62, No.3, p.177-181. 31 ref.

CIS 09-1384 Chen H.C., Chang C.M., Liu Y.P., Chen C.Y.
Ergonomic risk factors for the wrists of hairdressers
A portable data logger was used to measure the wrist angles and forearm flexor and extensor electromyography (EMG) of 21 hairstylists performing standard cutting and styling tasks. Female hairstylists had significantly greater EMG activity than male hairstylists. Results suggest that the relatively higher exerted forces and wrist velocities of female hairstylists, combined with longer exposures, may account for the higher rate of hand/wrist pain than among men.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2010, Vol.41, No.1, p.98-105. Illus. 33 ref.

2009

CIS 12-0321 Bailey C., Beswick A.
Health and Safety Executive
Identification of microbial contamination in body wax samples
There are few published data available regarding infection prevention and control during the process of body waxing. This microbiological sampling study of wax pot residues in salons was therefore undertaken to inform the Health and Safety Executive on this area of treatment. Samples were collected from 13 beauty salons in the United Kingdom. Most samples were found to be negative for any detectable microbial contamination (bacteria or fungi). The study concluded that the findings were indicative of generally low level of contamination at the limit of available detection levels. Several proposals are made for further improving working methods to reduce risks of contamination.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 19p. Illus. 10 ref.
Identification_of_microbial_contamination_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0205 Yeomans L., Coldwell M., Saunders J., Farrant J., Codling A., Bowen J., Harris-Roberts J.
Health and Safety Executive
An exploratory study of occupational health risks for beauty therapists who carry out massage and spray tanning treatments
This study explored the possible risks of musculoskeletal and respiratory ill health for beauty therapists who deliver massage and spray tanning treatments. The delivery of these treatments was observed in three salons who also offered facials, waxing, manicures and pedicures. Postural analyses indicated an overall medium risk level of developing MSDs. However, as the reported durations were short and frequencies low, the true risk may be lower. When delivering spray tanning treatments, the workers' personal exposures to specific volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were all low and the active ingredient in spray tan solution was not detected. The bacterial/fungal contamination of the samples was very low and not considered to pose a risk to health.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 41p. Illus. 25 ref.
An_exploratory_study_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0236 Infante P.F, Petty S.E., Groth D.H., Markowitz G., Rosner D.
Vinyl chloride propellant in hair spray and angiosarcoma of the liver among hairdressers and barbers: Case reports
This article presents two cases of angiosarcoma of the liver involving hairdressers who used hair sprays containing vinyl chloride (VC) as a propellant. The cases were exposed to VC aerosols between 1966 and 1973, for 4-5 year periods. Modelling allowed estimating peak levels of VC exposure in a range from 129 to 1234 ppm, and average exposure from 70 to 1037 ppm. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.36-42. 59 ref.

CIS 09-1342 Thyssen J.P., Milting K., Bregnhøj A., Søsted H., Duus Johansen J., Menné T.
Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks
The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen, Denmark, were visited and samples of tools were collected and analyzed. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers was determined from the database of a Danish dermatology clinic. One of 200 pairs of scissors and seven of thirteen crochet hooks released an excessive amount of nickel. The prevalence of nickel allergy was lower among young hairdressers in comparison to older hairdressers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2009, Vol.61, No.5, p.281-286. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 09-1312 Andersen S.L., Rastogi S.C., Andersen K.E.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) in a manicurist
A 35-year-old woman who had been a manicurist for 14 years, presented at the dermatology department of a Danish hospital with hand eczema and severe pulpitis and nail dystrophy. Patch tests were carried out with standard series and specific products, including selected allergens from a series of adhesives and acrylate chemicals. A positive reaction was found to hydroxyethyl methacrylate, a component of artificial nails.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2009, Vol.61, No.1, p.48-50. 11 ref.

CIS 09-825 Axmon A., Rylander L.
Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their sisters
The objective of this study was to investigate birth weight and foetal growth of infants born to female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to exposures. A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers in Sweden was compared to a group comprising their sisters with respect to birth weight and foetal growth (measured as small for gestational age or large for gestational age, respectively) in their infants. The study involved 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdressers' sisters. Among the infants born to the hairdressers' sisters, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. The implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.198-204. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 09-682
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing health risks from the use of ultraviolet (UV) tanning equipment
This information note provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities and their customers on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Contents: legal responsibilities; assessing the risk of using UV tanning equipment; persons at risk; operating UV tanning equipment safely. Replaces CIS 02-1906.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., Apr. 2009. 5p. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg209.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1440 Reducing health risks from the use of ultraviolet (UV) tanning equipment.
This leaflet provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Legal responsibilities of operators are also summarized. Previous edition: CIS 02-1906.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. 6p. 6 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg209.pdf [in English]

2008

CIS 09-824 Baste V., Moen B.E., Riise T., Hollund B.E., Øyen N.
Infertility and spontaneous abortion among female hairdressers: The Hordaland Health Study
This cross-sectional study investigated the risks of negative reproductive outcome among female hairdressers. A total of 16,907 women in their forties were invited to participate; the response rate was 71%. Information on infertility, delayed conception, spontaneous abortions, smoking and education was collected by means of questionnaires. Infertility and spontaneous abortion were higher among female hairdressers than among women in other occupations (adjusted relative risks 1.30 and 1.31 respectively).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1371-1377. 30 ref.

CIS 09-647 Sauni R., Kauppi P., Alanko K., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Tuppurainen M., Hannu T.
Occupational asthma caused by sculptured nails containing methacrylates
This article presents two clinical cases of occupational asthma caused by methacrylates among nail technicians applying artificial nails. In both cases, occupational asthma was diagnosed on the basis of a work simulation test combined with the patient's history of occupational exposure and respiratory symptoms. Asthmatic reactions were observed in the bronchial provocation test with methacrylates. Implications are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.51, No.12, p.968-974. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 09-161 Kwapniewski R., Kozaczka S., Hauser R., Silva M.J., Calafat A.M., Duty S.M.
Occupational exposure to dibutyl phthalate among manicurists
The objective of this study was to measure manicurists' exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) contained in nail polish at work and to determine whether workplace characteristics influence this exposure. DBP has been found to be a reproductive and developmental toxicant in rats. Pre-shift and post-shift urine samples were collected from 40 manicurists. There was a statistically significant cross-shift increase of the urinary concentration of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MNBP), the major metabolite of DBP. Use of gloves reduced MNBP concentrations by 15.1ng/mL below the pre-shift concentration compared with a 20.5ng/mL increase if gloves were not worn.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.705-711. 46 ref.

CIS 08-1397 Beaumont D., Collard C., Cortin C., Cuzzoun-Gavalda J., Lafon D., Lellouch M., Mignot G., Poete V., Pomian J.L., Taghavi L., Thibault X., Wlasny R.
Evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards among nail prothesists
Evaluation et prévention des risques chez les prothésistes ongulaires [in French]
This review describes the current medical and technical situation of nail prothesisis. Following a presentation of the job, the various activities are described, together with their associated hazards which include exposures to chemicals used while inserting artificial nails and difficult work postures. A final section provides guidance on hazard prevention (housekeeping, hygiene, ventilation and ergonomics). An appendix includes an interview guide aimed at occupational physicians.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2008, No.113, p.21-43. Illus. 46 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20117/$File/tc117.pdf [in French]

2007

CIS 08-534 Let art be your legacy
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how contamination by hepatitis B occurs; it suggests that body artists be vaccinated against hepatitis B and that they attend yearly blood-borne pathogen training. See also CIS 08-532/533.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-137/pdfs/2007-137.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-533 Good, clean art
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how to reduce cross-contamination within the body art sector. See also CIS 08-532 and 08-534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-138/pdfs/2007-138.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-532 Look sharp
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card addresses the issues of handling and disposing sharps within this sector of activity. See also CIS 08-533/534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-139/pdfs/2007-139.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-687 Frenette Y., Barré B.
Evaluation of the potential exposure of female hairdressers to extremely low frequency magnetic fields created by hairdryers
Evaluation de l'exposition potentielle de coiffeuses aux champs magnétiques d'extrême basse fréquence provenant de séchoirs à cheveux [in French]
Hairdressers use handheld hairdryers which generate low-frequency magnetic fields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential exposure to such fields among women hairdressers working in 33 hairdressing salons in the greater Montreal region, by measuring magnetic field intensity and by determining the number of contacts between the hairdryer and the hairdressers' abdomen per minute of work with a patron. The spectrum of exposure frequencies ranged between 4 and 490μT (average of 180μT) and the average number of contacts per minute between the hairdryer and the hairdressers' abdomen were 1.2 (2.7 for pregnant hairdressers). The dryers were used an average of 4.1 hours during the busiest days. Findings show that several hairdressers were exposed to magnetic fields of intensities higher than those recommended by the ICNIRP. It is recommended that manufacturers reduce the intensity of the magnetic fields emitted by hairdryers. Furthermore, given the risks for the unborn child, pregnant hairdressers should use hairdryers with the lowest possible magnetic field emissions and avoid contact between these appliances and their abdomen.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2007, Vol.23, No.3, p.S-15-S18. Illus. 6 ref.

2006

CIS 08-89 Kreiss K., Esfahani R.S., Antao V.C.S., Odencrantz J., Lezotte D.C., Hoffman R.E.
Risk factors for asthma among cosmetology professionals in Colorado
There have been several reports of asthma among cosmetology professionals. This study examined the prevalence, work-attributable risk and tasks associated with asthma in this sector. A stratified random sample of cosmeticians, manicurists, barbers and cosmetologists holding licenses in the State of Colorado were selected for a mail survey. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among the 1883 respondents (68% response rate) was 9.3%; of these, 38% developed asthma after entering the cosmetology profession. Multivariate analyses showed that hairstyling, the application of artificial nails and shaving and honing were significantly associated with asthma arising in the course of employment with relative risks of 2.6-2.9. It is concluded that the increased risk of asthma with onset during employment among cosmetologists is probably attributable to exposure to sensitizers and irritants in tasks demonstrated to be associated with asthma.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.48, No.10, p.1062-1069. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 07-824 De Clerck L.
Cut for the job
Taillé pour l'emploi [in French]
This article describes a hazard evaluation exercise carried out in a Belgian hairdressing school with 430 students. Topics addressed: compliance with safety and health regulations; analysis of the hazards (physical workload, irritation and allergy, noise, legionellosis); preventive measures.
Prevent Focus, Sep. 2006, No.7, p.12-14. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 06-1412 Nixon R., Roberts H., Frowen K., Sim M.
Knowledge of skin hazards and the use of gloves by Australian hairdressing students and practising hairdressers
This study of occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers involved 193 trainee hairdressers and 184 practising hairdressers, who completed a questionnaire detailing their knowledge of skin hazards, the skills they practised and the frequency of glove use. Knowledge of skin hazards was poor in both groups. While up to 70% of participants correctly identified hairdressing chemicals as potential skin hazards, less than 15% correctly identified the role of wet work. Only a small proportion recognized that hairdressing chemicals could cause allergy. Less-experienced hairdressers often handled chemicals, particularly hair dyes containing p-phenylene diamine. The use of gloves was inadequate, particularly when performing work at the basin, which both junior and senior hairdressers did on a regular basis. Recommended strategies for the prevention of hand dermatitis among hairdressers include improved student education, appropriate glove use and the application of after-work moisturizing creams.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2006, Vol.54, No.2, p.112-116. 19 ref.

2005

CIS 07-1271 Fairman R., Yapp C.
Health and Safety Executive
Making an impact on SME compliance behaviour: An evaluation of the effect of interventions upon compliance with health and safety legislation in small and medium sized enterprises
The project described in this report evaluated how external interventions affect SME compliance behaviour. It examined the impact of intervention on standards of compliance, the processes by which compliance occurred and how external intervention impacted on these processes. The study was conducted in small hairdressing shops in six regions of the United Kingdom. Formal compliance with COSHH (see CIS 03-1023), electrical safety and risk assessment requirements were assessed by examining the case notes of the local authorities and by interviewing managers or owners of the hairdressing shops. All the hairdressing shops believed they complied fully even though formal compliance levels ranged from 19.5% to 61%. Furthermore, compliance was not found to be part of a rational decision-making process. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 104p. Illus. 124 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr366.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-669 Perkins J.B., Farrow A.
Prevalence of occupational hand dermatitis in U.K. hairdressers
The prevalence of hand dermatitis was investigated among workers of 60 hairdressing salons in the United Kingdom. 38.6% of respondents reported hand dermatitis, among whom 72.7% reported interdigital symptoms. Trainee hairdressers had an increased risk of hand dermatitis (relative risk, RR=2.95), as did those with ≤2 years in the profession (RR=4.91). There was a positive association between prevalence and frequent use of protective measures, suggesting that use of protective measures may be a reaction to incidence rather than a precaution. Wet work was significantly associated with prevalence, and relative risk was increased in those who performed more frequent wet work, namely trainee hairdressers. True prevalence was far higher than that suggested by surveillance schemes in the United Kingdom.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.289-293. 30 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1103_Perkins.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-684
Health and Safety Executive
Beauty salon - Makeover, nails and depilatory services
This guidance sheet describes methods for controlling exposure to harmful chemicals in beauty salons offering makeover, nails and depilatory services and provides advice for employers (including franchisees and the self-employed) on compliance with the requirements of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (see CIS 03-1023). Contents: design and equipment; procedures; special care; cleaning and housekeeping; personal protective equipment; health advice; training; supervision.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2005. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 06-683
Health and Safety Executive
Electrolysis, piercing and tattooing
This guidance sheet describes methods for controlling exposure to harmful chemicals in electrolysis, piercing and tattooing salons and provides advice for employers (including franchisees and the self-employed) on compliance with the requirements of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (see CIS 03-1023). Contents: design and equipment; procedures; special care; maintenance and testing of equipment; cleaning and housekeeping; personal protective equipment; health advice; training; young workers; supervision.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2005. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 06-682
Health and Safety Executive
Hairdressing
This guidance sheet describes methods for controlling exposure to harmful chemicals in hairdressing salons and provides advice for employers (including franchisees and the self-employed) on compliance with the requirements of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (see CIS 03-1023). Contents: design and equipment; procedures; special care; cleaning and housekeeping; personal protective equipment; health advice; training; supervision.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2005. 2p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 06-620 Katugampola R.P., Staham B.N., English J.S.C., Wilkinson M.M., Foulds I.S., Green C.M., Ormerod A.D., Stone N.M., Horne H.L., Chowdhury M.M.U.
A multicentre review of the hairdressing allergens tested in the UK
Allergens used for patch testing in the hairdressing series vary between dermatology centres in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to ascertain the hairdressing allergens currently in use and to examine their test results in several dermatology centres. Data were obtained from nine dermatology departments. The allergens with positive results and current past relevance were used to compile a proposed hairdressing series. This series should now be validated through further studies.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2005, Vol.53, No.3, p.130-132. 6 ref.

CIS 06-619 Cavallo D., Ursini C.L., Setini A., Chianese C., Cristaudo A., Iavicoli S.
DNA damage and TNFα cytokine production in hairdressers with contact dermatitis
This study examined the possible correlation between exposure of hairdressers to irritants and allergens and direct-oxidative DNA damage, production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and allergic inflammatory disease. The evaluation involved 19 hairdressers with hand contact dermatitis, including 14 with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and five with irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), together with a control group of 19 persons working in administrative services. Determinations included TNFα serum levels and a direct-oxidative DNA damage test. Serum levels of TNFα in hairdressers with ACD were significantly higher than controls, with a correlation to exposure level. Significantly more DNA damage in ICD hairdressers with higher exposure was found as compared to controls. These findings suggest a relationship between exposure and direct-oxidative DNA damage, TNFα production and allergic inflammatory disease.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2005, Vol.53, No.3, p.125-129. 17 ref.

CIS 04-589 Wong R.H., Chien H.L., Luh D.L., Lin W.H., Wang Y.C., Cho C.Y.
Correlation between chemical-safety knowledge and personal attitudes among Taiwanese hairdressing students
In this survey on the awareness concerning chemical safety and precautionary practices among student hairdressers, 163 students from two vocational schools completed a questionnaire and a 60-min structured interview. Significant relationships were found between knowledge concerning chemical safety and precautionary practices on one hand, and safe behaviour and working practices on the other hand. The study's findings support the need to promote primary prevention of potential hazardous chemical exposure among hairdressers by means of appropriate education and training with regard to safety measures necessary for the safe handling of the chemicals present at the place of work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.47, No.1, p.45-53. 21 ref.

2004

CIS 05-359 Crépy M.N.
Occupational skin diseases due to dyes
Dermatoses professionnelles aux colorants [in French]
Occupational skin diseases caused by exposure to dyes affect primarily hairdressers and textile industry workers. Paraphenylene diamine and its derivatives are among the most sensitizing hair dyes, while in the textile sector, the main allergens are found among disperse dyes. The clinical diagnosis and interpretation of allergy tests often pose difficulties in cases of allergic contact eczema to textile dyes. Contents of this review article on occupational skin diseases due to dyes: uses of dyes; their classification; epidemiology of occupational skin lesions caused by dyes; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2004, No.100, p.565-576. Illus. 82 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/955B9977919A0658C1256F7E003E619D/$FILE/ta71.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-87 Cervantès M.H., Sellier N., Loriot J., Verdier R., Dujols P., Picot M.C.
Perceived risk of occupational skin disease among hairdressers
Perception du risque professionnel cutané chez les coiffeurs [in French]
Occupational dermatoses are frequent among hairdressers and often force these workers to switch to other occupations, losing the benefits of their training. This study was carried out to evaluate the perception of this risk among hairdressers in the French region of Languedoc-Roussillon. A questionnaire was addressed to hairdressers covering their perception of cutaneous risk, their awareness concerning the skin hazards from chemicals and accessories, their daily practice of preventive measures and their skin symptoms. Job observations were also carried out in selected hairdressing salons. Among the 533 hairdressers who responded, 106 presented various dermatological lesions. Hairdressers were generally well-aware of the risks involved, although most were ignorant of the hazards due to nickel. They protected themselves adequately when manipulating hairdyes or bleaching treatments, but not when using products for perms or shampoos.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2004, Vol.65, No.6, p.470-479. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 04-588 Bruneteau A., Bechmann L., Picot P., Jego S., Maillard A., Delaporte L., Durand C., D'Aguanno M., Houitte A., Dubreil M., Rouxel-Blechet C., Muller S., Bouvet F., Feaugas V., Gardey M., Jouffe E., Roquentin A., Debry N., Le Guilcher M.F., Pierre M.H., Tortellier L., Verger C., Lafon D.
Evaluation and prevention of hazards in hairdressing salons
Evaluation et prévention des risques dans les salons de coiffure [in French]
A study on the evaluation and the prevention of occupational hazards in hairdressing salons, based on a literature survey and visits of 22 salons, is presented. The hairdressing sector is described in a first part, followed by a description of the job of hairdresser aimed at occupational physicians. The various hazards faced by hairdressers (chemical hazards, risks of musculoskeletal diseases and biological hazards) are presented. The final section provides advice for the prevention of these hazards. A guide aimed at helping occupational physicians carry out on-site hazard evaluations is included in the form of an appendix.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.99, p.315-349. Illus. 97 ref.

2003

CIS 05-629 Labrèche F., Forest J., Trottier M., Lalonde M., Simard R.
Characterization of chemical exposures in hairdressing salons
In this study, airborne concentrations of volatile chemicals selected from a list of possibly detrimental hairdressing ingredients were determined in 26 salons in Montreal, Canada. At the time of sampling, information on working conditions and environments was also noted. Temperatures ranged between 17 and 26°C, relative humidity between 18% and 59% and CO2 concentrations from 583 to 4301mg/m3. The most prevalent chemicals were ethanol, at an average personal concentration of 39.9mg/m3, and isopropanol at an average personal concentration of 3.1mg/m3. Acetone, toluene, and acetates, all related to manicure services, were also measured in small quantities. Although the measured concentrations of chemicals were fairly low in this study, it appears possible that on very busy days, especially if other chemical services are performed in the salon, the total mixture of airborne chemicals could reach significant concentrations.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2003, Vol.18, No.12, p.1014-1021. 19 ref.

CIS 05-86 Brisman J., Albin M., Rylander L., Mikoczy Z., Lillienberg L., Dahlman Höglund A., Torén K., Meding B., Kronholm Diab K., Nielsen J.
The incidence of respiratory symptoms in female Swedish hairdressers
Airway diseases in hairdressers are a concern. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the risk factors for three respiratory symptoms, wheeze, dry cough, and nasal blockage, in hairdressers. 3,957 female hairdressers and 4,905 women from the general population responded to a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, atopy, smoking, and work history. Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for the three symptoms studied were calculated. The IRs of all three symptoms were higher in the hairdressers compared with the referents. Smoking modified the effects of cohort affiliation for all three symptoms, although the combined effect from hairdressing work and smoking was less than expected.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.44, No.6, p.673-678. 18 ref.

CIS 04-591 Crestois M., Lambert S., Muqa M.F.
Recommendations for hairdressing work
Recommandations pour les métiers de la coiffure [in French]
Working as a hairdresser involves the risk of exposures, mainly to the hands (skin diseases due to exposure to chemicals, injuries), the back and the legs (musculoskeletal disorders resulting from work postures). This article contains guidance for hairdressers in the areas of hygiene, ergonomics and avoiding accidents.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.153-155.

CIS 04-330 Hollund B.E., Moen B.E., Egeland G.M., Florvaag E.
Prevalence of airway symptoms and total serum immunoglobulin E among hairdressers in Bergen: A four-year prospective study
This study examined changes between 1995 and 1999 in the self-reported respiratory symptoms and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) among current and former hairdressers. Participants included 91 women hairdressers and a control group of 80 women office workers. Total serum IgE remained high in the hairdresser groups both in 1995 and 1999 (101 vs. 105 IU/mL). The IgE levels in the control group were low in both years. 40% of the hairdressers in 1995 had changes occupation by 1999, 5.7 times the rate of the control group. The frequency of wheezing in the past year decreased significantly among current and former hairdressers. These data suggest that hairdressers who did not change occupation were a highly selected and healthy group of workers. The decrease in the frequency of symptoms might be explained by the reduced exposure resulting from the installation of local exhaust ventilation systems.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1201-1206. 20 ref.

CIS 04-120 Starischka S., Kauert C., Konrad P., Weigelt S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Further development of the Fit-Karten®-concept for hairdressers
Weiterentwicklung des Fit-Karten®-Konzeptes für das Friseurhandwerk [in German]
The purpose of this study was to adapt the Fit-Karten® concept to hairdressers. The concept consists of developing cards that present the specific movements to be carried out during work in order to avoid problems related to standing postures. 97 hairdressers were questioned on their state of health, while eight among them were subjected to posture recordings during a full day's work. The analysis of the specific workloads encountered in this occupation revealed a risk of backache. A laboratory simulation of the haircutting and drying tasks also enabled the highlighting of muscular loads during these activities. Based on the results of the study, a set of 20 cards was prepared showing exercises to be carried out during the work day. Each card describes an exercise, explaining its purpose, when it should be done and how many times it should be repeated during the day.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 74p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: EUR 9.50.

CIS 03-1450 Boyles J.L., Yearout R.D., Rys M.J.
Ergonomic scissors for hairdressing
For decades, hairdressers have been plagued with repetitive motion injuries. To alleviate these symptoms and improve body mechanics, ergonomically-designed hairdressing scissors were developed and patented by the United States Patent Office. These ergonomic scissors were evaluated to determine if there were significant differences between this design and the standard scissors with respect to hairdressers' preferences and potential for reducing the risk of pain. Altogether, 44 volunteer subjects were provided with ergonomic and regular scissors on consecutive days, and asked to record their preferences and symptoms. On the whole, subjects preferred to use the ergonomic scissors, and when they did so they reported less shoulder and wrist pain. Measurements showed significantly higher grip strength when using ergonomic scissors rather than when they used the regular scissors. Subjects also reported significantly less bending in the wrist when using the ergonomic scissors.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 2003, Vol.32, No.3, p.199-207. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 03-1277 Schwanitz H.J., Riehl U., Schlesinger T., Bock M., Skudlik C., Wulfhorst B.
Skin care management: Educational aspects
This article reviews the effectiveness of health education in the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of occupational skin disorders. The results of three questionnaire studies involving apprentice hairdressers in 1986, 1994 and 1999 clearly show a decrease in skin disorders among those having received primary skin care training. A secondary intervention comprising both medical and educational methods was developed for hairdressers who remained at their workplace despite manifest skin disorders. As a result of the programme, 121 (81%) of the 150 participants healed successfully while continuing their work. A tertiary prevention programme involved occupational skin disease patients treated at the dermatology department of a university hospital, where education also proved to be effective.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2003, Vol.76, No.5, p.374-381. Illus. 26 ref.

2002

CIS 03-1787 Hollund B.E., Moen B.E., Egeland G.M., Florvaag E., Omenaas E.
Occupational exposure to hairdressing chemicals and immunoglobulin E synthesis
The study was based on a questionnaire sent to 100 hairdressers and a reference group of 95 office workers. The questionnaire sought information on allergy, respiratory symptoms during the past year, work conditions (exposure) and smoking habits. The hairdressers were divided into high and low exposure groups. Total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE towards the most prevalent airborne allergens were analysed. The serum levels of total IgE were significantly higher among the highly exposed hairdressers than among the office workers. The prevalence of asthma-like respiratory symptoms during the past year was significantly higher among the highly exposed hairdressers. The total serum IgE level was significantly higher among the hairdressers, but this difference disappeared after adjustment for age, atopy and smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.28, No.4, p.264-269. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 03-679 Best M., French G., Ciantar J., Didzys D., Fitzgerald C., Moore K., Roberts M.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in hairdressers
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among hairdressers. A self-report questionnaire was distributed to a cross-sectional sample of 204 hairdressers. There were 143 responses (70%), among which 137 hairdressers indicated the presence of WMSDs, particularly in the neck, shoulders and lower back. Standing and awkward posture appeared to be the major work-related factors associated with WMSDs. Gender, hours worked per week, age and previous non-work-related injury also had an effect, but years of experience and previous education on injury prevention did not. Based on these results, possible causal factors and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2002, Vol.18, No.1, p.67-76. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 03-321 Ling T.C., Coulson I.H.
What do trainee hairdressers know about hand dermatitis?
A questionnaire survey of 121 trainee hairdressers from two hairdressing colleges in Britain was conducted, including questions concerning the number and types of hairdressing procedures performed, previous and current medical history, awareness of risks to the skin from hairdressing, and knowledge of hand dermatitis prevention. 17% of the trainees suffered currently from hand dermatitis. This is probably due to the large amount of wet work done by apprentice hairdressers. Two-thirds of the trainees were not aware that atopic eczema predisposed to hand dermatitis. Formal pre-school and pre-employment counselling was limited. Knowledge on hand care among trainees was not often translated into practice, with gloves being worn by only 9% when shampooing and 58% when perming. Prevention of hand dermatitis by education and pre-employment counselling is of fundamental importance.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2002, Vol.47, No.4, p.227-231. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-320 Fautz R., Fuchs A., van der Walle H., Henny V., Smits L.
Hair dye-sensitized hairdressers: The cross-reaction pattern with new generation hair dyes
Hair dye allergies are a frequent cause of occupational skin disease among hairdressers. Conventional hair dyes contain 4-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2,5-diaminotoluene sulfate (DTS) and 2-nitro-4-phenylenediamine (ONPPD) as allergens. In new generation hair dyes, FD&C and D&C dyes are used in the hair dye formulations. This study investigated the cross-reaction of new generation hair dyes among 40 hairdressers with a known allergy to PPD, DTS or ONPPD. No positive reactions were observed to the single FD&C and D&C dyes. In two hairdressers, doubtful reactions were observed to one or more of the hair dye formulations. The data from this study suggest that for hairdressers sensitized to PPD, DTS or ONPPD, this new generation of hair dyes is a safe alternative.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2002, Vol.46, No.6, p.319-324. 25 ref.

CIS 03-205 Rosenberg N.
Respiratory allergies in hairdressers
Allergie respiratoire des coiffeurs [in French]
The work of hairdressers results in exposure to chemicals that are potentially damaging to the respiratory tract. According to a telephone survey of 355 female hairdressers carried out in Finland in 1998, the prevalence of rhinitis and asthma was 16.9% and 4.5% respectively. Contents of this review article on respiratory allergies of hairdressers: epidemiology; physiopathology; causal substances (alkaline persulfates, henna, hair dyes, amines, ammonium thioglycolate, hair lacquer resins); diagnosis at the place of work; diagnosis in specialized institutions; evolution; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2002, No.92, p.417-425. 59 ref.

CIS 02-1906
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling health risks from the use of UV tanning equipment
This leaflet provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities and their customers on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Reprint of CIS 96-339 with updated references.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 4p. 6 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg209.pdf [in English]

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