Blood diseases - 610 entries found
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Occupational malignant blood diseases
Hémopathies malignes d'origine professionnelle [in French]
Malignant blood diseases are rare pathologies for which occupational causes are probably underestimated. Benzene and ionizing radiation are the only causal agents which are recognized as having potential to cause leukaemia. Uncertainties concerning other agents remain, in particular for ethylene oxide, pesticides, electromagnetic fields and certain infectious agents, for which further epidemiological studies need to be continued.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 3rd quarter 2011, No.172, 12p. 101 ref.
Boal W.L., Leiss J.K., Ratcliffe J.M, Sousa S., Lyden J.T., Li J., Jagger J.
The national study to prevent blood exposure in paramedics: Rates of exposure to blood
The purpose of this analysis is to present incidence rates of exposure to blood among paramedics in the United States by selected variables and to compare all percutaneous exposure rates among different types of healthcare workers. A survey on blood exposure was mailed in 2002-2003 to a national sample of paramedics. Results for California paramedics were analyzed with the national sample and also separately. The incidence rate for needlestick/lancet injuries was 100/1,000 employee-years among the national sample and 26/1,000 employee-years for the California sample. The highest exposure rate was for non-intact skin, 230/1,000 employee-years. The rate for all exposures was 465/1,000 employee-years. California needlestick/lancet rates, but not national, were substantially lower than rates in earlier studies of paramedics. Rates for all percutaneous injuries among paramedics were similar to the mid to high range of rates reported for most hospital-based healthcare workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.191-199. 33 ref.
Smith D.R., Muto T., Sairenchi T., Ishikawa Y., Sayama S., Yoshida A., Townley-Jones M.
Hospital safety climate, psychosocial risk factors and needlestick injuries in Japan
To investigate the interactions between safety climate, psychosocial issues and needlestick and sharps injuries (NSI), a cross-sectional study was undertaken among nurses at a university teaching hospital in Japan (89% response rate). NSI were correlated with various aspects of hospital safety climate including supporting one another at work, the protection of staff against blood-borne diseases being a high management priority, managers doing their part to protect staff from blood-borne diseases, having unsafe work practices corrected by supervisors, having the opportunity to use safety equipment to protect against blood-borne disease exposures, having an uncluttered work area, and having minimal conflict within their department. This study demonstrated the importance of hospital safety climate in Japanese health care practice, particularly its relationship with NSI.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.85-95. Illus. 78 ref.
Hospital_safety_climate.pdf [in English]
Doixyde de carbone [in French]
While carbon dioxide (CO2) is harmless at low concentrations, its build-up in confined spaces is highly dangerous. Together with the often concomitant effects of anoxia, it then causes severe poisoning with a high mortality rate. Work in vats during fermentation processes and the sublimation of dry ice are two situations presenting the highest risks. On the other hand, CO2 is devoid of long-term health effects.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 5p. Illus. 22 ref.
Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A, Gottschalk R.
Occupationally acquired infections among health care workers: Bloodborne transmission
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens: Blutübertragbare Erkrankungen [in German]
Due to the contact with infectious patients, health care workers are at risk of work-related infectious diseases. This article reviews literature data on bloodborne transmissible infections (hepatitis B and C, HIV and other) and describes the preventive measures and the measures to be taken by health care workers in case of possible infection due to needle-stick injury or contamination due to skin, eye or oromucosal damage. A multiple choice questionnaire on bloodborne transmitted infections is included. See also ISN 110616, ISN 110619 and ISN 110620.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, May 2009, Vol.59, No.5, p.138-150. Illus. 46 ref.
Dochi M., Suwazono Y., Sakata K., Okubo Y., Oishi M., Tanaka K., Kobayashi E., Nogawa K.
Shift work is a risk factor for increased total cholesterol level: A 14-year prospective cohort study in 6886 male workers
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of shift work on serum total cholesterol as an index of lipid metabolism. A 14-year prospective study was conducted in a cohort of 4079 day workers and 2807 alternating shift workers of a Japanese steel company. The associations between the job schedule type and increase in serum total cholesterol concentrations were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analyses, after adjustment for potential confounders. Findings show that alternating shift work significantly affected lipid metabolism.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.592-597. 32 ref.
Purdue M.P., Severson R.K., Colt J.S., Stewart P., De Roos A.J., Cerhan J.R., Cozen W., Davis S., Hartge P., Schenk M., Blair A.
Degreasing and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
To investigate the relationship between selected solvent-related workplace tasks and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), this study analyzed occupational data from a large population-based case-control study of NHL. Participants reporting occupations with possible exposure to organic solvents (225 cases, 189 controls) were interviewed, together with individuals unexposed to organic solvents in the workplace (180 cases, 213 controls). Findings suggest that frequent degreasing work may be associated with an elevated risk of NHL.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.557-560. 13 ref.
Orsi L., Delabre L., Monnereau A., Delval P., Berthou C., Fenaux P., Marit G., Soubeyran P., Huguet F., Milpied N., Leporrier M., Hemon D., Troussard X., Clavel J.
Occupational exposure to pesticides and lymphoid neoplasms among men: Results of a French case-control study
To investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of lymphoid neoplasms (LNs) in men, a case-control study was conducted in six French hospitals between 2000 and 2004. The 491 cases were incident cases with a diagnosis of LN, while 456 controls of the same age and sex as the cases were recruited in the orthopaedic and rheumatology departments of the same hospitals. Exposures to pesticides were evaluated through questionnaires and specific interviews reviewed by experts. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regressions. Strong positive associations between HL and occupational exposures were found for triazole fungicides and urea herbicides (OR 8.4 and 10.8, respectively). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.291-298. 44 ref.
Schenk M., Purdue M.P., Colt J.S., Hartge P., Blair A., Stewart P., Cerhan J.R., De Roos A.J., Cozen W., Severson R.K.
Occupation/industry and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the United States
The objective of this study was to identify occupations and industries associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a large population-based, case-control study in the USA. Cases (n = 1189) of histologically confirmed malignant NHL aged 20-74 were prospectively identified in four geographic areas covered by the National Cancer Institute SEER Program. Controls (n = 982) were randomly-selected from the general population. Odds ratios for occupations and industries were calculated by unconditional logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity and region. Findings are discussed. Risk of NHL was significantly increased for a number of occupations and industries, while it was decreased in others.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.23-31. 53 ref.
Moline J.M., Herbert R., Crowley L., Troy K., Hodgman E., Shukla G., Udasin I., Luft B., Wallenstein S., Landrigan P., Savitz D.A.
Multiple myeloma in World Trade Center responders: A case series
This article reports on cases of multiple myeloma (MM) observed in World Trade Center (WTC) responders registered in the WTC Medical Programme. Among 28,252 responders, eight cases of MM were observed between 11 September 2001 and 10 September 2007 (6.8 expected). Four of these cases were observed in responders younger than 45 years at the time of diagnosis (1.2 expected). A slight deficit of MM cases was observed in responders older than 45 years (4 observed, 5.6 expected). The unusual number of MM cases in WTC responders under 45 years underscores the importance of maintaining the surveillance programme for cancer and other emerging diseases in this population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.896-902. 31 ref.
Sharifian A., Gharavi M., Pasalar P., Aminian O.
Effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on antioxidant activity in plasma and red blood cells in spot welders
The purpose of this study was to determine a possible relation between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) and human antioxidant activity. The total serum antioxidant status (TAS), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in red blood cells were measured in 46 spot welders who were occupationally exposed to ELF-MFs. The results were compared with those of a non-exposed control group. The correlation between magnetic field strength and antioxidant activity in red blood cells and plasma was then assessed. No significant differences in TAS levels were observed. However, in red blood cells of the exposed group, there were significant decreases in SOD and GPX activities. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between SOD/GPX activities and magnetic field intensity was observed. The results indicate that ELF-MF could influence the red blood cell antioxidant activity and might act as an oxidative stressor.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.259-266. Illus. 20 ref.
Chiu B.C., Blair A.
Pesticides, chromosomal aberrations, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposures and risk of NHL was largely limited to NHL cases with the chromosomal translocation t(14;18). This review summarizes the findings of various epidemiologic studies, speculates on implications, and suggests the research needed to clarify the role of pesticides in NHL.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.250-255. 20 ref.
Pizon A.F., Schwartz A.R., Shum L.M., Rittenberger J.C., Lower D.R., Giannoutsos S., Virji M.A., Krasowski M.D.
Toxicology laboratory analysis and human exposure to p-chloroaniline
A 20 year-old man working at a chemical waste plant developed dizziness, abdominal pain and nausea. Following medical examinations which revealed cyanosis and methaemoglobinaemia, methylene blue administration led to complete recovery without sequelae. p-Chloroaniline was later identified as the chemical involved. The subject denied direct contact with the chemical, but was not wearing a respirator during work. GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) confirmed p-chloroaniline and its primary metabolite, p-chloroacetanilide, in the patient's urine.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.132-136. Illus. 12 ref.
Bigert C,, Alderling M., Svartengren M., Plato N., de Faire U., Gustavsson P.
Blood markers of inflammation and coagulation and exposure to airborne particles in employees in the Stockholm underground
This study investigates cardiovascular disease risk markers among employees exposed to airborne particles in the Stockholm underground system. 79 workers (54 men and 25 women) were investigated between November 2004 and March 2005. A baseline blood sample was taken after two non-working days, and a second sample after two working days. No changes between the two samples were found that could be attributed to particle exposure. However, the highly exposed platform workers were found to have higher plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation than ticket sellers and train drivers. This suggests that particle exposure could have a long-term inflammatory effect.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.65, No.10, p.655-658. 30 ref.
Seniori Costantini A., Benvenuti A., Vineis P., Kriebel D., Tumino R., Ramazzotti V., Rodella S., Stagnaro E., Crosignani P., Amadori D., Mirabelli D, Sommani L, Belletti I., Troschel L., Romeo L., Miceli G., Tozzi G.A., Mendico I., Alberghini Maltoni S., Miligi L.
Risk of leukemia and multiple myeloma associated with exposure to benzene and other organic solvents: Evidence from the Italian multicenter case-control study
This population-based case-control study was carried out to evaluate the association between exposure to organic solvents and risk of myeloid and lymphoid leukaemia and multiple myeloma (MM). Data concerning 586 cases of leukaemia and 1,278 population controls, as well as 263 cases of MM and 1,100 population controls were collected. Experts assessed exposure at individual level to a range of chemicals. No associations were found between exposures to any solvent and acute myeloid leukaemia. There were elevated point estimates for the associations between medium/high benzene exposure and chronic lymphatic leukaemia (odds ratio (OR) 1.8) and MM (OR 1.9). Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.803-811. 50 ref.
Perrotta C., Staines A., Cocco P.
Multiple myeloma and farming. A systematic review of 30 years of research. Where next?
Multiple myelomas have long been linked to farming. However, there was little clarity about the magnitude of the risk, nor about the specific agricultural exposures which contributed to this risk. A systematic review of case-control studies of multiple myeloma published from 1970 to 2007 was therefore carried out. Pooled odds ratios of case-control studies were 1.39 for working as a farmer, 1.47 for pesticide exposure, 2.19 for exposure to DDT, 1.69 for exposure to herbicides and 1.87 for working on a farm for more than ten years.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, No.27, 7p. Illus. 36 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-27.pdf [in English]
Cold haemagglutinin disease misdiagnosed as hand-arm vibration syndrome
A patient with a diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome was referred for a second opinion. He worked as a multi-skilled operative in the housing department of a local authority, a job not normally associated with high levels of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. He described blanching of his fingers and a blue colouration of his extremities in cold weather. On examination, his fingertips, toes and pinnae were acrocyanotic, the fingers were patchily pale and sensation was subjectively impaired in all of the digits. Investigations revealed a haemolytic anaemia and haemagglutination. He was diagnosed with idiopathic cold haemagglutinin disease. Exposure to vibration may confound with exposure to cold in which case the diagnoses of cold haemagglutinin disease or cryoglobulinaemia should be excluded before diagnosing hand-arm vibration syndrome.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.3, p.219-221. 11 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/3/219 [in English]
't Mannetje A., Dryson E., Walls C., McLean D.J., McKenzie F., Maule M., Cheng S., Cunningham C., Kromhout H., Boffetta P., Blair A., Pearce N.
High risk occupations for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in New Zealand: Case-control study
Previous studies into occupational risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in New Zealand have indicated that farmers and meat workers are at increased risk for these neoplasms. A nationwide case-control study was conducted to assess whether previously observed associations persist and to identify other occupations that may contribute to the risk of NHL in the New Zealand population. A total of 291 incident cases of NHL notified to the New Zealand Cancer Registry during 2003 and 2004, and 471 population controls, were interviewed. The questionnaire collected demographic information and a full occupational history. The relative risk for NHL associated with ever being employed in particular occupations and industries was calculated by statistical methods, The study confirmed that crop farmers and meat workers remain high risk occupations for NHL in New Zealand, and has identified several other occupations and industries of high NHL risk that merit further study.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.65, No.5, p.354-363. 45 ref.
Cocco P., Brennan P., Ibba A., de Sanjosé Llongueras S., Maynadié M., Nieters A., Becker N., Ennas M.G., Tocco M.G., Boffetta P.
Plasma polychlorobiphenyl and organochlorine pesticide level and risk of major lymphoma subtypes
There is conflicting epidemiological evidence concerning the relationship between the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and plasma levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). The concentration of 17 OC pesticides was measured in the plasma samples of 174 NHL cases and 203 controls from France, Germany and Spain. The risk of NHL and its major subtypes associated with increasing blood levels of OC pesticides and PCBs was calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Findings are discussed. Overall, there was no evidence of an association between NHL risk and plasma levels of OC pesticides and PCBs.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.65, No.2, p.132-140. 35 ref.
Meo S.A., Rasheed S., Khan M.M., Shujauddin S., Al-Tuwaijri A.S.
Effect of cement dust exposure on phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in cement mill workers
The aim of this case-control study was to measure the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in cement plant workers by assessing their chemiluminescence (CL) response. A total of 50 volunteer males, aged 25-60 years, apparently healthy and nonsmoking, were randomly selected among cement plant workers in Saudi Arabia. These workers were further classified into subgroups based on exposure duration of less than 10, 10-20, and more than 20 years. The controls were 50 healthy, nonsmoking, males who matched the study group with respect to age, height, weight and socioeconomic status. A significant decrease in phagocytic activity of PMNs was found in cement mill workers compared to controls.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.2, p.133-139. 23 ref.
Molina Villaverde R., Feliu Batlle J., Villalba Yllán A., Jiménez Gordo A.M., San José Valiente B., González Barón M.
Occupations within a cohort of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients
Actividad laboral en una cohorte de pacientes con linfoma no Hodgkin [in Spanish]
This study involved 37 non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients occupationally employed at the time of diagnosis; its aim was to study the factors influencing their return to work or rehabilitation. The patients were interviewed with the help of a questionnaire covering epidemiological, clinical and occupational aspects. 86% of the patients had to give up their occupation after the start of their treatment and 32.5% had not returned to work at the end of their treatment. No relationships were found between the type of work, aftereffects of the disease or treatment, and work capacity at the end of the treatment.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.210, p.19-24. 26 ref.
Hoffmann W., Terschüeren C., Heimpel H., Feller A., Butte W., Hostrup O., Richardson D., Greiser E.
Population-based research on occupational and environmental factors for leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the Northern Germany Leukemia and Lymphoma Study (NLL)
The Northern Germany Leukaemia and Lymphoma Study is a population-based study designed to provide a quantitative basis for investigations into occupational and environmental risk factors for leukaemia and lymphoma. Subjects include all incident cases of leukaemia and lymphoma diagnosed between 1986 and 1998 in six counties in Northern Germany, together with controls selected from population registries. Self-reported exposure information was used in conjunction with direct environmental measurements. In addition, geographical information system (GIS) data were used to derive estimates of environmental exposure to pesticides, electromagnetic fields associated with transmission lines, and ionizing radiation from nuclear power stations. Findings can be used to calculate risk factors in subsequent studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.51, No.4, p.246-257. 40 ref.
Devi S.S., Biswas A.R., Biswas R.A., Vinayagamoorthy N., Krishnamurthi K., Shinde V.M., Hengstler J.G., Hermes M., Chakrabarti T.
Heavy metal status and oxidative stress in diesel engine tuning workers of central Indian population
The objective of this study was to assess the oxidative stress due to heavy metal exposure. Exposed populations were selected from a diesel engine tuning station in India, while controls were taken from the same local area but without occupational exposure. There were no statistically significant differences in heavy metal concentrations in the blood and urine of exposed versus unexposed subjects. However, exposed workers exhibited higher antioxidant status in terms of serum glutathione-S-transferase activity, malondialdehyde level and catalase activity. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1228-1234. Illus. 43 ref.
Risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory system, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testes and skin in firemen
Risque de myélome multiple et de cancers des voies respiratoires, de l'œsophage, de l'estomac, du pancréas, de la prostate, des testicules et de la peau chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of multiple myeloma and cancers of the respiratory tract, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, prostate, testicles and skin. It concludes that available epidemiological data do not indicate that the cancers examined in this analysis can be assumed to occur in firefighters as a result of their occupation. This conclusion is based on the absence of a significant increase in risk in most of the studies and the minimal increase in risk in the cases where it is present. See also CIS 08-598/600.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. i, 37p. 79 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-522.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-521.pdf [in French]
Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in firemen
Risque de lymphome non hodgkinien chez les pompiers [in French]
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the risk of developing certain types of cancer among firemen. It resulted in the publication of several reports. This report addresses the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Firefighting involves exposure to possible carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and diesel emissions. Some publications have hypothesized that these chemicals could be involved in the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Available epidemiological data indicate either a slightly elevated risk or no increased risk of NHL among firefighters. The absence of a clearly defined mechanism also raises difficulties. Known or suspected risk factors for NHL are not found to be more prevalent among firefighters. Even if firefighters with NHL may have developed the disease as a result of their job, this conclusion cannot be derived from currently-available literature. See also CIS 08-598/599 and 08-601.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. i, 23p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-520.pdf [in English]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-519.pdf [in French]
Mandel J.H., Kelsh M.A., Mink P.J., Alexander D.D., Kalmes R.M., Weingart M., Yost L., Goodman M.
Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A meta-analysis and review
This literature survey of 14 occupational cohort and four case-control studies of workers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) was carried out to investigate the relation between TCE exposure and the risk of nonHodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Interpretation is hampered by variability in results across the studies, limited exposure assessments, lack of evidence of exposure response trends, lack of supportive information from toxicological and mechanistic data, and an absence of consistent findings of exposure and NHL. Overall, there is insufficient evidence to suggest a causal link between TCE exposure and NHL.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.63, No.9, p.597-607. 88 ref.
van Balen E., Font R., Cavallé N., Font L., Garcia-Villanueva M., Benavente Y., Brennan P., de Sanjose S.
Exposure to non-arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain
The objective of this case-control study was to estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma in one of four participating hospitals between 1998 and 2002. Controls were selected among other patients and matched to the cases by sex and age. All subjects were interviewed on their job history. Although globally farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, those exposed to non-arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio, OR 1.8). A particularly high risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR 2.8). The risk was also high for exposure to non-arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR 2.4).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.663-668. 36 ref.
Di Lorenzo L., Silvestroni A., Martino M.G., Gagliardi T., Corfiati M., Soleo L.
Evaluation of peripheral blood neutrophil leucocytes in lead-exposed workers
The objective of this study was to verify whether occupational lead exposure induces changes in the number of blood neutrophil leucocytes, and to assess a possible dose-response relationship between blood lead (Pb-B) and the circulating neutrophil count in exposed workers. It involved 68 lead-exposed male workers and 59 unexposed male controls. A standardized questionnaire on occupational and non-occupational factors was administered to all the subjects. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed. Compared to controls, exposed workers had significantly higher Pb-B and mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC). ANC correlated significantly with the biological lead dose and effect indices. Moreover, there was a dose-dependent increase of ANC with increasing Pb-B levels. There was also an interaction between Pb-B level and smoking habit in increasing the number of blood neutrophils among lead-exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.491-498. 44 ref.
Linz A.J., Greenham R.K., Fallon L.F.
Methemoglobinemia: An industrial outbreak among rubber molding workers
This article describes the investigation of an occupational outbreak of methaemoglobinaemia among five steam press operators at a rubber plant. Investigative findings identified the cause as repeated exposure (through manual handling) to an adhesive containing dinitrobenzene. The workers presented with yellow-stained hands and a variety of clinical manifestations. Methaemoglobinaemia levels obtained in the emergency room ranged from 3.8% to 41.2%. Methylene blue rapidly reversed the cyanosis and alleviated associated symptoms in the rubber moulding workers requiring treatment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.48, No.5, p.523-528. 24 ref.
Mester B., Nieters A., Deeg E., Elsner G., Becker N., Seidler A.
Occupation and malignant lymphoma: A population based case control study in Germany
The aim of this study was to identify occupations suspected to be associated with malignant lymphoma. A total of 710 patients with malignant lymphoma aged 18-80 years were recruited in six study regions in Germany. For each case, a sex, region, and age matched control was drawn from the population registers. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for major occupations and industries were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption. Patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Findings are discussed and industries positively associated with lymphoma are identified. The following economic and industrial sectors were positively associated with lymphoma: food products, beverages, tobacco; paper products, publishing and printing; and metals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.63, No.1, p.17-26. 94 ref.
Morales-Suárez-Varela M.M., et al.
Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides: A European multicenter case-control study
This European multi-centre case-control study conducted between 1995 and 1997 sought to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to sunlight and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. From the 118 accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were confirmed cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational history was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure to sunlight. Once exposures to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons were eliminated, a high MF risk was associated with exposures to solar radiation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.390-393. 25 ref.
Linet M.S., Freedman D.M., Mohan A.K., Doody M.M., Ron E., Mabuchi K., Alexander B.H., Sigurdson A., Hauptmann M.
Incidence of haematopoietic malignancies in US radiologic technologists
The objective of this study was to estimate the risk for haematopoietic malignancies among 71,894 radiological technologists (77.9% women) in the United States. Subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1983-89, a second questionnaire in 1994-98, and were followed up until the diagnosis of a first cancer, death, or 31 August 1998, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute risks. Relative risks (RR) for leukaemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) were increased among technologists working five or more years before 1950 (RR=6.6) or holding patients 50 or more times for X-ray examination (RR=2.6). Risks of non-CLL leukaemias were not significantly related to the number of years subjects worked in more recent periods, the year or age first worked, the total years worked, specific procedures or equipment used or personal radiotherapy. Working as a radiological technologist was not significantly linked with risk of other malignancies.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2005, Vol.62, No.12, p.861-867. 35 ref.
Morales-Suárez-Varela M.M., Olsen J., Johansen P., Kaerlev L., Guénel P., Arveux P., Wingren G., Hardell L., Ahrens W., Stang A., Llopis A., Merletti F., Aurrekoetxea J.J., Masala G.
Occupational risk factors for mycosis fungoides: A European multicenter case-control study
The objective of this case-control study conducted from 1995 to 1997 in several hospitals across Europe was to search for possible occupational factors associated with mycosis fungoides (MF), a chronic cutaneous lymphoma. 134 patients aged between 35 and 69 diagnosed with MF were identified and their diagnoses were checked by a second pathologist. Of the 118 histologically-verified cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definitive cases. 833 colon cancer controls and 2071 population-based controls were also interviewed A high risk of MF for men was observed in non-metallic mineral products industries (odds ratio (OR) 5.3), among glass and ceramics workers (OR 17.9), among technical salesmen (OR 8.6) and in the wholesale trade (OR 3.6). For women, a high risk was found in paper pulp manufacturing (OR 14.4), as well as among government executives (OR 4.8) and railway and road vehicle loaders (OR 3.9).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.205-211. 28 ref.
Collins J.J., Ireland B., Buckley C.F., Shepperly D.
Lymphohaematopoeitic cancer mortality among workers with benzene exposure
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between lymphohaematopoeitic cancer mortality and benzene exposure among 4417 workers at a chemical plant in the US. There was little evidence of increasing risk with increasing cumulative benzene exposure for all leukaemias, for acute non-lymphocytic leukaemias (ANL) or the other lymphohaematopoeitic cancers with the exception of multiple myeloma. For multiple myeloma, the SMRs were 1.1 in the non-exposed group, 1.4 in the <1ppm-years group, 1.5 in the 1-6ppm-years group, and 2.6 in the >6ppm-years group. No relationships were found between peak exposures and any of the cancers. However, when peak exposures over 100ppm for 40 or more days were considered, the observed number of all leukaemias (SMR=2.7), ANL (SMR=4.1) and multiple myeloma (SMR=4.0) were greater than expected. Although the observed number of deaths was small in this study, the number of peak exposures to benzene greater than 100ppm was a better predictor of risk than cumulative exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.60, No.9, p.676-679. 32 ref.
Descatha A., Jenabian A., Conso F., Ameille J.
Occupation and malignant haematological diseases
Affections hématologiques malignes et activités professionnelles [in French]
Malignant occupational haematological diseases are rare. Their aetiology remains ill-defined despite the increasing volume of epidemiological studies on the subject. Currently, only benzene and ionizing radiation are accepted with certainty as being carcinogenic agents for haematopoietic cell lines and organs. However, doubts exist with respect to certain types of pesticides, organic solvents, infectious agents or electromagnetic radiation. Contents: diagnosis of leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma; established occupational causes; probable or suspected occupational causes; prevention; compensation.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.140, 12p. 148 ref.
Vasconcelos Rêgo M.A., Campos Sousa C.S., Kato M., Barreto de Carvalho A., Loomis D., Martins Carvalho F.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and organic solvents
Organic solvents have been suggested as a possible risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This article describes a study of 109 NHL incident cases and 276 controls with other cancers between 1990 and 1996 in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Occupational exposure to organic solvents was evaluated through standardized questionnaires, taking into account individuals' lifetime occupational history. An association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and NHL was observed (odds ratio OR=1.67), especially among individuals below the age of 64 (OR=1.91), and among those who used domestic insecticides (OR=2.24). Odds ratios were similar for nodal and diffuse NHL.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.874-881. 79 ref.
Barton J.C., Cheatwood S.M., Key T.J., Acton R.T.
Hemochromatosis detection in a health screening program at an Alabama forest products mill
This article analyses the haemochromatosis detection data from a long-term health screening program at a forest products mill. There were 2199 participants: 2032 whites (1506 men, 526 women) and 167 African Americans (124 men, 43 women). Iron and transferrin saturation were measured serum after overnight fasting; ferritin was measured in participants with elevated iron concentrations or transferrin saturation >48%. Participants with elevated ferritin levels underwent further evaluation. Eight white men were diagnosed to have haemochromatosis (frequency 0.0039 in whites, 0.0053 in white men). The estimated cost per case detected was USD 8826. It is concluded that detecting haemochromatosis in a workplace health screening program is efficacious and economical.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.44, No.8, p.745-751. 56 ref.
Chang S.J., Koh S.B., Cha B.S., Park J.K.
Job characteristics and blood coagulation factors in Korean male workers
This study examined the possible relationship between Karasek's job strain model and blood coagulation factors VII and VIII as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in male Korean workers. Four levels of strain were identified (high strain, active, passive and low strain), and 40 male workers subject to each of the strain levels were invited to participate in the study. In univariate analyses, decision latitude was negatively related to blood coagulation factors VII and VIII. Work demand was positively related to coagulation factor VIII, but not to factor VII. Multiple regression analyses showed that job strain was associated with blood coagulation factor VIII after controlling for smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. These results indicate that job characteristics may be related to blood coagulation, and contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease with other classical risk factors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.44, No.11, p.997-1002. 33 ref.
Rinsky R.A., Hornung R.W., Silver S.R., Tseng C.Y.
Benzene exposure and hematopoietic mortality: A long-term epidemiologic risk assessment
Previous studies of a cohort of rubber industry workers indicated an association between benzene exposure and excess mortality from leukaemia and multiple myeloma. To determine whether risks remain elevated since plant shutdown, follow-up was extended from 1981 through 1996. Risks were evaluated using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and generalized Cox proportional hazards regression models. Five new leukaemia cases were observed in benzene-exposed white males, but the summary SMR for this group declined from 3.37 to 2.56. In regression models, cumulative exposure was significantly associated with elevated relative risks for leukaemia mortality. Four new multiple myeloma deaths occurred, three of which were in workers judged to be unexposed. These findings reaffirm the leukaemogenic effects of benzene exposure and suggest that excess risk diminishes with time.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.474-480. 23 ref.
Zheng T., Blair A., Zhang Y., Weisengurger D.D., Zahm S.H.
Occupation and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
To investigate the association between occupation and the risk of non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), data from two population-based case-control studies of NHL were analysed. A total of 555 incident NHL cases, 56 CLL cases and 2380 population-based controls were included in the analysis. Information on occupation and other confounding factors was collected through telephone interviews. In men, an increased risk of NHL and CLL was found in agriculture, forestry, and logging (odds ratio (OR) 1.6). The OR was 1.9 for crop production. An increased risk was also observed for industries involving metalworking machinery and equipment (OR 8.4), motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment (OR 4.2) and telephone communications (OR 3.1), and for teachers (OR 2.5), farmers (OR 2.0), and welders and solderers (OR 2.9). The risks for these associations increased by duration of employment. Work in the printing and publishing industry was associated with an increased risk of NHL among women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.469-474. 37 ref.
Lee S.S., Lee B.K., Lee G.S., Stewart W.S., Simon D., Kelsey K., Todd A.C., Schwartz B.S.
Associations of lead biomarkers and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and vitamin D receptor genotypes with hematopoietic outcomes in Korean lead workers
This study compares associations of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead, tibia lead and blood lead with five haematopoietic variables (haemoglobin, haematocrit, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and urinary (ALAU) and plasma (ALAP) δ-aminolevulinic acid) and evaluates the effect of these relations by polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes. A cross-sectional study of 798 lead workers and 135 unexposed controls was performed. It was found that tibia lead was associated with all five haematopoietic outcomes, while blood lead and DMSA-chelatable lead were associated only with ZPP, ALAP and ALAU. A comparison of the regression coefficients, total model adjusted R2 values, and delta R2 values revealed that blood lead was the best predictor of ZPP, ALAP and ALAU. Only tibia lead was significantly associated with haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. No clear effect modification of the relations between the lead biomarkers and haematopoietic outcomes studied was caused by ALAD or VDR genotype.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 2001, Vol.27, No.6, p.402-411. Illus. 45 ref.
Zheng T., Zahm S.H., Cantor K.P., Weisenburger D.D., Zhang Y., Blair A.
Agricultural exposure to carbamate pesticides and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
To explore the possible relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and carbamate insecticide use among farmers, a pooled analysis of three population-based case-control studies conducted in four mid-western states in the United States was conducted involving 985 white male subjects and 2895 matched controls. Compared with non-farmers, farmers who had ever used carbamate pesticides had a 30% to 50% increased risk of NHL, whereas farmers without carbamate pesticide use showed no increased risk. Analyses for individual carbamate pesticides found a more consistent association with Sevin but not carbofuran, butylate, or S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate plus protectant. Among farmers using Sevin, the risk of NHL was limited to those who personally handled the product, those who first used the product for >20 years before their disease diagnosis, and those who used the product for a longer period. These associations persisted after adjusting for other major classes of pesticides. These results suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with carbamate pesticide use, particularly Sevin. Further investigation of the association is warranted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.641-649. 33 ref.
Viaene M.K., Pauwels W., Veulemans H., Roels H.A., Masschelein R.
Neurobehavioural changes and persistence of complaints in workers exposed to styrene in a polyester boat building plant: Influence of exposure characteristics and microsomal epoxide hydrolase phenotype
To investigate neurobehavioural effects in workers exposed to styrene and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) activity, a cross sectional study was performed among former workers of a polyester boat plant. A structured neurological anamnesis into former and present complaints, the NSC-60 questionnaire, and computer assisted neurobehavioural tests were administered. It was observed that most subjective symptoms were reversible, while dysfunction of visual-motor performance and perceptual speed seemed to persist. Duration of exposure at lamination tasks and duration of exposure multiplied by exposure concentration were found to be the best predictors of worsening visual-motor and perceptual speed performances. Activity of the mEH phenotype may play a modulating part in styrene neurotoxicity. The results suggest that less than 10 years of exposure to styrene at an average concentration of 155mg/m3 may result in persistent neurotoxic effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.103-112. Illus. 34 ref.
Brodkin C.A., Moon J.M., Camp J., Echeverria D., Redlich C.A., Willson R.A., Checkoway H.
Serum hepatic biochemical activity in two populations of workers exposed to styrene
Two independent cross sectional studies were performed in the state of Washington (USA) comparing serum hepatic transaminases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), cholestatic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase (AP) and γ glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)), and bilirubin in 47 workers of glass-fibre reinforced plastics who were exposed to styrene, as well as to 21 boat and tank fabricators, with separate referent groups of unexposed workers. Exposure to styrene was assessed in air by dosimetry, and in venous blood by headspace gas chromatography. A significant relationship between direct bilirubin and direct to total bilirubin ratio, and exposure to styrene was observed, by both air and blood monitoring, providing evidence for diminished hepatic clearance of conjugated bilirubin with associated cholestasis in workers exposed to styrene. Also, a significant linear association between the hepatic transaminases ALT and AST and exposure to styrene was found in regression analyses, consistent with mild hepatic injury and associated metabolic dysfunction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.95-102. Illus. 41 ref.
Fernández-D'Pool J., Oroño-Osorio A.
Liver function of petrochemical industry workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents
Función hepática de trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a solventes orgánicos mixtos en una industria petroquímica [in Spanish]
The aim of this cross-sectional study involving 77 workers of a Venezuelan petrochemical plant exposed to mixed solvents and 91 non-exposed controls was to establish whether liver function changes were caused by exposure or by confounding factors. Blood and urine samples were collected in order to determine hepatic enzyme activity as well as the concentration of serum biliary acids and urinary phenols. Ambient concentrations of benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene and xylene were determined by gas phase chromatography. Hepatic enzyme activity, biliary acid concentration and the urinary phenol level showed no correlation with exposure. However, the increased activity of γ-glutamyl-transferase was related to obesity and alcohol consumption.
Investigación Clínica, June 2001, Vol.42, No.2, p.87-106. 26 ref.
Leukaemia and lymphoma - detection, reporting and compensation
Leucémies et lymphomes - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser [in French]
Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational leukaemia and lymphoma in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause leukaemia and lymphoma (ionizing radiation, arsenic, benzene, ethylene oxide), as well as the corresponding compensation systems. It duplicates the section of the general booklet on the compensation of occupational cancers in France (see CIS 02-201) applicable specifically to leukaemia and lymphoma.
Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 15p.
Wong O., Raabe G.K.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to benzene in a multinational cohort of more then 308,000 petroleum workers, 1937 to 1996
To determine the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in petroleum workers, cohorts of petroleum workers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Italy, and Finland were identified. The combined multinational cohort consisted of more than 308,000 workers, and the observation period covered an interval of 60 years from 1937 to 1996. A total of 506 NHL deaths were observed, compared with 561.68 expected. Analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were performed by type of facility and industrial process. SMRs were 0.96 for US refinery workers, 1.12 for non-US refinery workers, 0.64 for gasoline distribution workers, and 0.68 for crude oil workers. Results from individual studies, as well as from the pooled analysis, indicated that petroleum workers were not at an increased risk of NHL as a result of their exposure to benzene or benzene-containing petroleum products in their work environment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.42, No.5, p.554-568. Illus. 94 ref.
Tulinska J., Dusinska M., Jahnova E., Liskova A., Kuricova M., Vodicka P., Vodickova L., Sulcova M., Fuortes L.
Changes in cellular immunity among workers occupationally exposed to styrene in a plastics lamination plant
Immune and haematological parameters were examined in 29 hand laminators and sprayers exposed to styrene for an average of 14 years and in 19 unexposed controls. The workers were located in a production area with an average area airborne styrene level of 139.5mg/m3. Mean concentration of styrene in the blood of exposed workers was 945.7µg/L and the mean styrene in exhaled air was 38.8µg/L. Parameters of internal and external exposure, immune function assays, immunoglobulins and haematology were evaluated in exposed and non-exposed populations. Styrene concentrations in both blood and exhaled air were associated with decreased percentage of large granular lymphocytes. These results suggest immune alterations of cell-mediated immune response of T-lymphocytes and imbalance in leucocyte subsets in peripheral blood of workers exposed to styrene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.576-583. 20 ref.
Shaham J., Levi Z., Gurvich R., Shain R., Ribak J.
Hematological changes in hospital workers due to chronic exposure to low levels of ethylene oxide
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine whether occupational exposure to low levels of ethylene oxide can cause haematological abnormalities. Blood samples were collected from a group of 47 exposed hospital workers and a control group, individually matched by age, sex and smoking habits, consisting of 88 hospital administration employees. Significant differences were found between the exposed and the control group in the frequency of workers with white blood cells lower than the normal range. An elevation in the absolute mean number of monocytes and eosinophils and a decrease in the absolute mean number of lymphocytes in the exposed group compared with the control group was found. An elevation in the percentage of haematocrit and the mean absolute number of the red blood cells, and a decrease in the mean absolute number of platelets, in the exposed group compared with the control group were also observed. A positive dose-response was found between cumulative dose exposure and the absolute mean number of eosinophils.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.843-850. Illus. 41 ref.
Alcouffe J., Brehier M., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y., Faupin F.
The employee water cycle: Role of the occupational physician
Le cycle de l'eau chez les salariés: action du médecin du travail [in French]
To assess the working conditions of employees with respect to their possibilities of consuming and evacuating liquids at their place of work, and to investigate the existence of functional signs or symptoms related to disturbances in the water cycle, an investigation was carried out by 102 physicians in a sample of 1,301 employees. 95% had access to at least one source of water; 1.7% were prohibited from drinking due to specific workplace hazards; the quality of drinking water was rated satisfactory by 75% of employees, who overwhelmingly expressed their preference for water fountains; 90% had access to sanitary facilities close to the workplace, but 32% were not satisfied by their cleanliness and 40% by their ventilation; 20% avoided using the company toilets, while 37.4% claimed to hold back from urinating as long as possible. Disturbances in the water cycle are more frequent among women; the pathology occurring most often being cystitis (19.3 %), which is significantly associated with holding back from urinating as long as possible at the workplace. Occupational hygienists need to ensure that chilled water is available and that sanitary facilities are clean and well-ventilated.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.3, p.313-323. Illus. 10 ref.
Persson B., Fredrikson M.
Some risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
This study is a pooled analysis of two earlier methodologically similar case-referent studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Exposure information was obtained by mailed questionnaires to the subjects. Exposure to white spirits, thinners and aviation gasoline as well as work as a lumberjack were connected with increased odds ratios significant at the 95% CI level, whereas no increased risk was noted for benzene. Logistic odd ratios (LORs) were significantly greater than 1 for exposure to phenoxy herbicides and plastic and rubber chemicals, and for contact with unusual pets. Office employment and housework showed significantly decreased LORs. This study indicates the importance of investigating exposures not occurring very frequently. Solvents were studied as a group of compounds but were also separated into various specific compounds. The present findings suggest that the carcinogenic property of solvents is not only related to aromatics or benzene, but also to other types.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.135-142. 13 ref.
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