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2008

CIS 08-1210 Rybacki M., Michowicz A.
Exposure to viruses at the workplace, with the example of viral hepatitis
Zagrożenia wirusowe w miejscu pracy na przykładzie wirusowego zapalenia wątroby [en polonés]
The characteristics of hepatitis B and C viruses are presented, together with their infection mechanisms. The occupational groups most exposed to infection hazards from these viruses are mentioned, together with the methods of prevention and treatment.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2008, No.1, p.10-16. Illus.

CIS 08-1085 Kubot Z.
The specific character of medical duties
Specyfika dyżurów medycznych [en polonés]
The specific aspects of the duties of hospital medical professionals (physicians, nurses) specified in Polish legislation on health care institutions are commented in the light of judicial decisions of the Polish courts and the European Court of Justice. The changes to the specific character of medical duties, which were made after Poland's accession to the European Union, are explained.
Praca i Zabezpieczenie Społeczne, Jan. 2008, No.1, p.14-20.

CIS 08-1250 Exposure to stress: Occupational hazards in hospitals
Various studies show that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job stress. In addition to psychological distress, other outcomes of job stress include burnout, absenteeism, employee intent to leave, reduced patient satisfaction, and diagnosis and treatment errors. The purpose of this booklet is to explain the sources of occupational stress, to identify the adverse health effects of occupational stress and to recommend work practices to reduce occupational stress. Short descriptions of two hospital stress prevention programmes are included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. iii, 13p. 28 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-136/pdfs/2008-136.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1222 Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
The exposure control plan is the focal point of any programme aimed at the prevention of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. It details in writing the employer's plan for reducing exposures to bloodborne pathogens and explains what steps to take when an exposure occurs. Aimed at employers of first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement), this leaflet outlines the basic elements of an exposure control plan and how to develop such a plan. See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1221.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-115/pdfs/2008-115.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1221 Encourage your workers to report bloodborne pathogen exposures
Aimed at employers, this leaflet outlines the importance of encouraging first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) to report exposures to bloodborne pathogens. Topics addressed: why employees may be reluctant to report exposures; why employees should report all exposures; how employers can encourage reporting (developing a policy, informing and training personnel). See also CIS 08-1012 and 08-1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-118/pdfs/2008-118.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1012 Protect yourself. Protect your family. Protect the public
These posters visually reinforce the importance of frontline first responders (emergency medical services, fire fighters, and law enforcement) protecting themselves from work-related exposures to bloodborne pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Protection includes reading the employer's exposure control plan, wearing personal protective equipment and reporting all exposures. See also CIS 08-1221/1222.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, July 2008. Two posters. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-117/pdfs/2008-117.pdf [en inglés]
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-116/pdfs/2008-116.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1073 Skiadopoulos A., Gianikellis K., Moreno A.
Problemas músculo-esqueléticos en los cirujanos de laparoscopia
An epidemiological survey was carried out to determine the type of musculoskeletal disorders affecting surgeons conducting laparoscopies, their intensity, location and frequency. It involved 52 surgeons aged between 30 and 65 years who answered a version of the Nordic questionnaire modified by the HSE. High levels of problems were observed for the neck (43%), shoulder (33%), lumbar region (35%), and hands and wrists (31%). A correlation between neck and wrist disorders, and hours of work was shown. Other findings are discussed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2008, No.47, p.24-34. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-1059 Mitchell R., McClure R., Driscoll T.
Refining estimates of hospitalised work-related injuries in NSW, 2000/01 to 2004/05
Accurate estimates of the incidence of hospitalized work-related injuries are not currently available from national hospitalized data sources in Australia. This study uses New South Wales hospitalization data to quantify the variation in estimates and compare the profile of work-related injury that arise from the use of different variables within morbidity data to define the work-related status of an injury. It is concluded that hospital data should be linked to additional data sources for an improved reliability in determining the occupational nature of an injury.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2008, Vol.24, No.1, p.33-42. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 08-1072 Suneja T., Belsito D.V.
Occupational dermatoses in health care workers evaluated for suspected allergic contact dermatitis
Occupational skin diseases, including allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and allergic contact urticaria (ACU), commonly occur among health care workers (HCWs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the aetiology of the various skin diseases afflicting HCWs and to identify the most common allergens among patients found to have ACD and/or ACU. A total of 1434 patients underwent patch testing. The demographic data and most common allergens for 100 HCWs and 1334 non-HCWs were compared. HCWs were statistically more likely to be female, have hand dermatitis, and have a history of atopy. HCWs were also more likely to have work-related ACD especially to quaternium-15, thiuram, carba mix, glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride, and to have ACU to latex. The results confirm the importance of thoroughly evaluating HCWs for ACD and ACU with the use of the expanded standard allergen series and latex.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2008, Vol.58, No.5, p.285-290. 39 ref.

CIS 08-961 Constans Aubert A., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Pérez Nicolás J.
Utilización de los equipos de protección individual frente al riesgo biológico por el personal sanitario
The aim of this questionnaire survey was to examine the degree of use of personal protective equipment against biological hazards in health care centres in Spain. The survey shows that: 87% of the centres have implemented an occupational safety and health policy; approximately 75% claim to apply a management system for personal protective equipment; a large majority supply gloves, eye protection and respirators, and have specified rules for their use; more than 90% of the centres train their personnel on the use of PPEs and inform them on the advantages and disadvantages of the various types of equipment. Other findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.210, p.35-45. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-985 Hansson A.S., Vingård E., Arnetz B.B., Anderzén I.
Organizational change, health, and sick leave among health care employees: A longitudinal study measuring stress markers, individual, and work site factors
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of organizational changes in health care services on employees' self-reported health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion, stress and sick leave. The initial population consisted of 226 Swedish workers engaged in the care of older people, reduced to 198 one year later. They were divided between a study group affected by organizational changes and a reference group not affected by them. Self-rated health, work satisfaction, work-related exhaustion and hormones associated with stress were analyzed using a two-factor variance analysis design. Findings showed no significant differences in self-rated health, work satisfaction and work-related exhaustion. However, significant changes were found across time and between groups for the recovery hormone DHEA-S. Other findings are discussed. The study highlights the importance of considering the impact of organizational change on employee well-being from a number of perspectives, such as self-reported health parameters, registered sick-leave data and biological stress markers.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.69-80. 35 ref.

CIS 08-586 Vieira E.R., Kumar S., Narayan Y.
Smoking, no exercise, overweight and low back disorder in welders and nurses
This study assessed the association between smoking, lack of exercise, being overweight and low back disorder among welders and nurses. A total of 111 workers (64 welders and 47 nurses working in a steel company and a hospital respectively) completed a questionnaire on their personal and occupational factors. The annual and lifetime rates of work-related low back disorder were respectively 3.4% and 58%. Forty percent of the workers smoked and 49% did not exercise regularly. The lifetime rate of low back disorder was 86% for the workers that smoked and did not exercise, and 66% for the overweight workers. This study shows that low back disorder is common among welders and nurses. Low back disorder preventive programs in industry should include smoking cessation, regular physical activity campaigns and the promotion of healthy eating habits.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.143-149. Illus. 31 ref.

2007

CIS 12-0276 Protocolo de control y garantía de calidad del sistema de producción de imágenes radiológicas para el diagnostico de neumoconiosis
This protocol for the quality control and assurance of hospital radiology services involved in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis is based on the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The proposed procedures concern medical equipment including X-ray generators, development processes, darkroom techniques and display systems.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental , av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, Feb. 2007, 18p. 20 ref.
Protocolo_de_control_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [en español]

CIS 09-1259 Salmon Mulanovich G., Lescano A.G., Gonzaga V.E., Blazes D.L.
Occupational health in the developing world: A role for the medical research community?
This editorial expresses the viewpoint that occupational health within medical settings in developing countries is neglected and argues in favour of collaborative programmes in order to improve the conditions under which occupational medical research is conducted in developing countries.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1184-1188. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 09-1194 Wada K., Sakata Y., Fujino Y., Yoshikawa T., Tanaka K., Miyajima E., Watanabe M., Aizawa Y.
The association of needlestick injury with depressive symptoms among first-year medical residents in Japan
The objective of this study was to determine the association of depressive symptoms with needlestick injury among first-year medical residents in Japan. It was conducted in the form of a cross-sectional study among 107 medical residents in 14 training hospitals. The baseline survey was conducted in 2005 and the follow-up survey in 2006. Depressive symptoms were classified based on the Center for Epidemiological Study of Depression Stale (CES-D). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were examined using logistic regression analysis. For medical residents without depressive symptoms at the baseline survey, needlestick injury events were associated with depressive symptoms at the follow-up survey (corrected odds ratio 2.98). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.750-755. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-496 Callaghan P., Nijman H., Palmstierna T., Oud N.
Violence in clinical psychiatry
Proceedings of a conference on violence in clinical psychiatry held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 25-27 October 2007. Several papers concerned the safety, health and training of the staff: prevention of post-traumatic stress reaction in staff following a patient assault; training programme in the management of violence in a Hong Kong hospital; training in managing aggression among nurses in several countries; literature review on management of violence; ward safety perceptions by nurses in several countries; interactions between nurses and patients in terms of predisposition to violence; violence toward heath care staff in Turkey.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2007. 383p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-328 Mirabelli M.C., Zock J.P., Plana E., Antó J.M., Benke G., Blanc P.D., Dahlman-Höglund A., Jarvis D.L., Kromhout H., Lillienberg L., Norbäck D., Olivieri M., Radon K., Sunyer J., Torén K., van Sprundel M., Villani S., Kogevinas M.
Occupational risk factors for asthma among nurses and related healthcare professionals in an international study
This study examined the relations between self-reported work tasks, use of cleaning products and latex glove use with new-onset asthma among nursing and other healthcare workers. A cohort of 332 participants from 22 European sites working in nursing and other related healthcare jobs followed during a nine-year period responded to a questionnaire about their work environment, occupational tasks, products used at work and respiratory symptoms. Poisson regression models were used to compare the risk of new-onset asthma among healthcare workers exposed to various substances to that of unexposed respondents who reported administrative occupations during the entire follow-up period. Compared to the referent group, increased risks were observed risks among hospital technicians (risk ratio RR 4.63) and among those using ammonia and/or bleach at work (RR 2.16). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.64, No.7, p.474-479. 29 ref.

CIS 09-326 Simning A., van Wijngaarden E.
Literature review of cancer mortality and incidence among dentists
This review assesses the epidemiological literature describing dentist mortality and cancer incidence risk. Relevant studies were identified through 2006 by means of database queries. Cancer mortality and incidence generally showed a favourable risk pattern for lung cancer and overall cancer occurrence. Nevertheless, several studies reported an increased risk for certain cancers, such as skin cancer, brain cancer and breast cancer among women. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.64, No.7, p.432-438. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 09-456 Krakowiak A., Wiszniewska M., Krawczyk P., Szulc B., Wittczak T., Walusiak J., Pałczynski C.
Risk factors associated with airway allergic disease from exposure to laboratory animal allergens among veterinarians
This study examines the risk factors for the development of occupational airway allergy (OAA) from exposure to laboratory animal allergens (LAA) among Polish veterinarians. Two hundred veterinarians responded to the questionnaire and were subjected to skin prick tests for common allergens and LAA (rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit). Evaluation of total serum IgE level and specific IgE against occupational allergens was performed. The prevalence of asthmatic and ocular symptoms was statistically more prevalent in the group of veterinarians sensitised to LAA versus non-sensitised subjects. The most frequent occupational allergens of skin and serum reactivity were LAA (44.5 and 31.5%, respectively). In 41 (20.5%) and in 22 (11%) subjects, serum specific IgE to natural rubber latex allergens and disinfectants was also found. Serum sensitisation to cat allergens and daily contact with laboratory animals (LA) increased the risk for developing occupational rhinitis. Furthermore, having worked more than 10 years and daily contact with LA were also significant risk factors for the development of OAA. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2007, Vol.80, No.6, p.465-475. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 09-298 Francis H.C., Prys-Picard C.O., Fishwick D., Stenton C., Burge P.S., Bradshaw L.M., Ayres J.G., Campbell S.M., Niven R.M.
Defining and investigating occupational asthma: A consensus approach
The objective of this study was to propose a definition of occupational asthma and to define the framework of resources necessary to run a specialist occupational asthma clinic. A modified RAND method was used to gain a consensus of opinion from an expert panel of clinicians running specialist occupational asthma clinics in the United Kingdom. Consensus was reached over 10 terms defining occupational asthma. Disagreement arose on whether low dose irritant-induced asthma existed, but the panel agreed that if it did exist, they would include it in the definition of "work-related asthma". The panel agreed on of resources which should be available to a specialist occupational asthma service, including spirometry testing, non-specific provocation challenge and specific IgE to a wide variety of occupational agents. It is hoped that the outcome of this process will improve uniformity of definition and diagnosis of occupational asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.64, No.6, p.361-365. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 09-354 Alamgir H., Cvitkovich Y., Yu S., Yassi A.
Work-related injury among direct care occupations in British Columbia, Canada
The aim of this study was to examine how injury incidence and type differ among nursing occupations in relation to acute care, nursing homes and community care settings in British Columbia, Canada. Data were derived from a standardised operational database. Poisson regression was used to determine injury risks associated with direct care occupations. Care aides had higher injury rates in every setting, with the highest rate in nursing homes. Licensed practical nurses had higher injury rates (30.0%) within acute care than within nursing homes. For registered nurses, the highest injury rates (21.9%) occurred in acute care, but their highest (13.0%) musculoskeletal injury (MSI) rate occurred in nursing homes. Musculoskeletal injury comprised the largest proportion of total injuries in all occupations: in both acute care and nursing homes, care aids had twice the risk of registered nurses. Across all settings, puncture injuries were more predominant for registered nurses (21.3% of their total injuries). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.769-775. 41 ref.

CIS 09-465 Gander P., Purnell H., Garden A., Woodward A.
Work patterns and fatigue-related risk among junior doctors
To evaluate the work patterns of New Zealand junior hospital interns, relationships between different aspects of work and fatigue-related outcomes were examined. A questionnaire dealing with demographics, work patterns, sleepiness, fatigue-related clinical errors, and support for coping with work demands was mailed to junior interns. The response rate was 63% (1366 questionnaires from interns working ≥40 hours a week). On fatigue measures, 30% of participants scored as excessively sleepy, 24% reported falling asleep driving home since becoming a doctor, 66% had felt close to falling asleep at the wheel in the past 12 months, and 42% recalled a fatigue-related clinical error in the past 6 months. Night work and schedule instability were independently associated with more fatigue measures than was total hours worked. Regular access to adequate supervision and support at work reduced the risk of fatigue.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.733-738. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-79 Smith D., Mihashi M., Adachi Y., Koga H., Nakashima Y., Kawano S., Ueno C., Ishitake T.
Four common occupational health issues among Japanese nurses
This study investigated the epidemiology of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSI), musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), occupational hand dermatitis (HD) and psychosocial factors among a sample of Japanese nurses by means of a self-reporting questionnaire. Among the respondents, 41% had experienced an NSI, 83% reported some kind of MSD (most commonly at the shoulders, lower back or neck) and 80% had experienced some kind of HD symptoms in the previous 12 months; 52% also reported that they frequently undertook strenuous work. Psychological support from work colleagues was most commonly reported as being moderate (50.4%) or high (29.6%). Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2007, Vol.23, No.1, p.53-67. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 09-181 Bruzell E.M., Johnsen B., Aalerud T.N., Christensen T.
Evaluation of eye protection filters for use with dental curing and bleaching lamps
Exposure to intense radiation sources in dental practices necessitates the use of eye protective filters to avoid blue-light photochemical retinal hazard. This study assessed whether the filters protect sufficiently against retinal hazards throughout the workday. Visible light transmittance of 18 protective filters was measured. These products consisted of spectacles, stationary lamp shields and a hand-held shield intended for use in dental practice. Nine of the 18 tested filters had adequate filtering capacity according to current lamp technology and exposure limit values. These filters transmitted less than 0.1% of the radiation of wavelengths between 400nm and 525nm. Seven of the nine filters showed transmission values below the detection limit in the wavelength band between 400nm and 500nm. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2007, Vol.4, No.6, p.432-439. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 09-188 Rudnick S.N., First M.W.
Fundamental factors affecting upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation - Part II. Predicting effectiveness
Compared with increasing outdoor air ventilation rate, upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is an attractive technology for lowering the indoor concentration of airborne microorganisms and thereby reducing the risk of airborne transmission of disease. With relatively modest vertical air circulation, most of the air in a room can be irradiated in a brief time period without noise or significant power consumption. The hypothesis tested in this study is that the efficacy of upper-room UVGI to inactivate or kill airborne infectious microorganisms can be determined from an index of UVGI effectiveness, a dimensionless parameter designed to characterize vertical air circulation, the amount of UVGI provided, and their interaction. This index was found to correlate well with experimental measurements made in a laboratory chamber simulating a hospital room. See also CIS 09-000, ISN 4.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.352-362. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-187 First M., Rudnick S.N., Banahan K.F., Vincent R.L., Brickner P.W.
Fundamental factors affecting upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation - Part I. Experimental
The objective of this research was to study the factors that relate to the effectiveness of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation for inactivating airborne microorganisms. The work was conducted in a laboratory chamber designed and furnished to simulate a hospital room. Nebulized Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis spores and vaccinia virus were used as test aerosols. Data were collected from steady-state experiments comparing the number of viable organisms in the chamber air remaining with UV lamps turned on to the number with UV lamps turned off. UV power level had a strong influence but was fully effective only in the presence of strong air mixing. In conclusion, an ultraviolet installation is a complex system that requires careful integration of UV luminaries, UV power and room ventilation systems. See also CIS 09-000, ISN 6.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.321-331. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 08-1396 Costa K.N.S., Pinheiro I.O., Calazans G.T., Nascimento M.S.
Assessing risks concerning the use of xylene in cytology and pathological anatomy laboratories
Avaliação dos riscos associados ao uso do xilol em laboratórios de anatomia patológica e citologia [en portugués]
An evaluation of occupational exposure to xylene used by technicians in cytology and pathological anatomy was carried out in eight laboratories of a region of Brazil. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Emphasis was given to information concerning occupational health and risk perception when using xylene and disposing waste. Results show that personal and collective protection equipment were neglected. Eighty percent of the technicians interviewed had noticed changes in health after they had been exposed to xylene for some years. However, only 6.6% of them went through regular monitoring of urinary methyl hippuric acid, a biomarker of xylene exposure. It was noticed that 76.6% of the people interviewed disposed waste directly into a sink, as there was no proper place for waste disposal. Findings highlight the need for workers' training with respect to occupational and environmental hazards.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.50-56. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Xilol.pdf [en portugués]

CIS 08-1259 Santana V.S., Araújo G.R., Espírito-Santo J.S., Araújo-Filho J.B., Iriart J.
Health services utilization by workers who have suffered an occupational injury
A utilização de serviços de saúde por acidentados de trabalho [en portugués]
This study describes health services use by workers reporting occupational injuries. Data were obtained from a community-based cohort study on health and work that started in the year 2000, involving workers from 2512 randomly-selected families in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A total of 628 occupational injuries were reported during the twelve months prior to the study. The majority (71%) of injured workers received medical treatment in facilities of the unified health system (SUS), a public health care system providing universal coverage. Around 15% received treatment from private health insurance plans. Among SUS users, most had no formal job contracts, although their services were also used by insured workers. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2007, Vol.32, No.115, p.135-144. 16 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20115%20Utilizacao%20de%20servicos%20de%20saude.pdf [en portugués]

CIS 08-1466 Marziale M.H.P., da Silva E.J., Haas V.J., Robazzi M.L.C.C.
Accidents involving biological material in a hospital of the network on occupational accident prevention - REPAT
Acidentes com material biológico em hospital da Rede de Prevenção de Acidentes do Trabalho - REPAT [en portugués]
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyse occupational accidents involving exposure to biological materials that have occurred at a Brazilian university hospital, as well as preventive actions. Data were obtained from the Brazilian occupational accident prevention network (REPAT) for the years 2003 and 2004, and subjected to statistical analyses. Among the approximately 2000 workers employed at that time, 107 accidents were recorded. Most occurred in the morning, among women, and involved a perforating hand injury caused by needles and catheters. Preventive actions including training, visits to work places and individual orientation, need to be revised and expanded.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2007, Vol.32, No.115, p.109-119. Illus. 22 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20115%20Acidente%20com%20material%20biologico.pdf [en portugués]

CIS 08-1465 Gershon R.R.M., Qureshi K.A., Pogorzelska M., Rosen J., Gebbie K.M., Brandt-Rauf P.W., Sherman M.F.
Non-hospital based registered nurses and the risk of bloodborne pathogen exposure
The aim of this study was to assess the risk of exposure to blood and other body fluids among non-hospital based nurses employed in New York State. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a random stratified sample of nurses. Results were reviewed to identify opportunities for improvement. Nine percent of respondents reported at least one needlestick injury in the 12-month period prior to the study. The percutaneous injury rate was 13.8 per 100 person years. Under-reporting was common; 49% of all percutaneous injuries were never formally reported and 70% never received any post-exposure care. Findings are comparable to data concerning hospital-based nurses. Underreporting is an important obstacle to infection prevention. Risk management strategies appeared to be poorly implemented. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.695-704. 37 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_695.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1480 Nachreiner N.M., Gerberich S.G., Ryan A.D., McGovern P.M.
Minnesota nurses' study: Perceptions of violence and the work environment
A sample of 6,300 randomly-selected nurses (consisting of 96% women) in the state of Minnesota (USA) was surveyed on their experience with work-related violence in the previous year. Differences in perceptions of the work environment and work culture were assessed, based on a nested case-control study, comparing nurses who experienced assault to non-assaulted nurses. Annual rates of physical and non-physical assault, per 100 nurses, were 13.2 and 38.8 respectively. Nurses frequently experienced work-related violence; the perceptions of the work environment differed between nurses who had experienced physical assault and those who had not. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.672-678. Illus. 29 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_672.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1479 Røvik J.O., Tyssen R., Hem E., Gude T., Ekeberg Ø., Moum T., Vaglum P.
Job stress in young physicians with an emphasis on the work-home interface: A nine-year, nationwide and longitudinal study of its course and predictors
This longitudinal study explored the risk factors and outcomes of early career job-stress among physicians in Norway by means of mail surveys. Physicians graduating from Norwegian universities in 1993-94 responded during their final year of medical school, during their internship, in their fourth postgraduate year and in their tenth postgraduate year. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during the observation period, whereas stress relating to emotional pressure, time pressure and fear of complaints and criticism decreased. Stress relating to the work-home interference increased during their early career, mainly due to long work hours and an increased number of children. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and lack of support from partners and colleagues appeared to be predictive of this stress.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.662-671. Illus. 46 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_662.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1310 Kampf G., Löffler H.
Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: A review
Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene was only found to be around 50%, and mostly consisted of washing hands with soap and water. Consequences of these findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.645-652. Illus. 52 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_645.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1341 Leggat P.A., Kedjarune U., Smith D.R.
Occupational health problems in modern dentistry: A review
Occupational health hazards in dentistry include percutaneous exposure incidents (PEIs), exposure to infectious diseases (including bioaerosols), radiation, dental materials and noise, musculoskeletal disorders, dermatitis, respiratory disorders, eye injuries and psychological problems. PEIs are a particular concern, as there is an almost constant risk of exposure to serious infectious agents. Strategies to minimize PEI and their consequences include hepatitis B immunization, the use of personal protective measures and appropriate sterilization or disinfection techniques. Aside from biological hazards, dentists continue to suffer a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, especially of the back, neck and shoulders.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.45, No.5, p.611-621. 100 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_45_5_611.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1349 Hignett S., Chipchase S., Tetley A., Griffiths P.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk assessment and process planning for bariatric patient handling pathways
The obese population in the United Kingdom is growing and this group is considerably over-represented in the use of health and social care services. This project aimed to identify and explore the manual handling risks presented by bariatric (severely obese) patients during emergency admissions. Work involved: reviewing public health data to provide an estimate of the current and future bariatric patient population; surveying strategic, clinical and operational policies and procedures for bariatric patient handling; and obtaining case studies of specific incidents and risk management actions. Findings revealed that 40%-70% of health care institutions did not have a bariatric policy. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. xiv, 89p. Illus. 57 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr573.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1437 Chadwick P.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of electromagnetic fields around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment
This report describes the results of an investigation of operator exposure to magnetic fields from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. The project involved both computational modelling and the measurement of personal exposure using magnetic field dosimeters. Findings are discussed. This project has shown that personal dosimeters are capable of detecting, in real-time, situations which might lead to exposure guidelines being exceeded.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 98p. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr570.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1220 Pandemic influenza: Guidance for infection control in hospitals and primary care settings
Guidance document on how to protect health care workers against the hazard of infection by pandemic influenza. Contents: terminology; overview of pandemic influenza and infection control; preparedness planning for pandemic infection control; occupational health and deployment of staff; infection control precautions; environmental infection control; supplementary guidance for hospitals; supplementary guidance for primary care settings. In the appendix: the epidemiology of pandemic influenza; infection control precautions.
TSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2007. 81p. Illus. 87 ref.
http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_080771?IdcService=GET_FILE&dID=154677&Rendition=Web [en inglés]

CIS 08-1239 Muto S., Muto T., Seo A., Yoshida T., Taoda K., Watanabe M.
Job stressors and job stress among teachers engaged in nursing activity
This study evaluated job stressors and job stress among nursing activity in schools for handicapped children using a cross-sectional study design. The subjects were all 1461 teachers from all 19 schools for handicapped children in a Japanese Prefecture. It was carried out the form of a postal questionnaire survey, competed by 831 subjects. Job stressors among teachers engaged in nursing activity were compared with those among teachers not engaged in nursing activity. Job stress among such teachers was estimated by the score for total health risk, and was compared with the score in the Japanese general population. It was found that teachers engaged in nursing activity had a significantly higher level of stressors for workload and job control compared with those not engaged in nursing activity. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.45, No.1, p.44-48. 21 ref.

CIS 08-1080 Hill S., Woodroof G., Verow P.
Health and Safety Executive
A pilot study into improving sickness absence recording in National Health Service acute trusts
Within large public sector organizations such as National Health Service of the United Kingdom, the recording and management of absence can be inefficient and result in poor data. Occupational health departments that are willing to help employees who have health problems find that their task is made more difficult by the lack of data which identifies the reasons and dates of absence spells and whether these are work related. This study explored ways for collecting more effective real-time data in order to assist both management and occupational health departments in their efforts to support employees back to work, and to reduce the amount of work related ill health. A pilot system involving a call centre and the use of e-mail was found to be effective for the collection of real-time data.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. ii, 9p. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr531.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-1238 Hayasaka Y., Nakamura K., Yamamoto M., Sasaki S.
Work environment and mental health status assessed by the general health questionnaire in female Japanese doctors
This study aimed to determine factors in the work environment influencing mental health status among female doctors in Japan. An anonymous survey questionnaire was mailed to 587 female doctors, and 367 (62.5%) responded. The survey included questions on their age and marital status, together with work-related information on their speciality, affiliated medical facility, position, type of employment, work schedule and night duty. The thirty-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) was used to examine psychological distress. A total of 169 (46.1%) subjects met criteria for having psychological distress. Bivariate analysis showed that age, marital status, medical facility, position, working time and working at night were associated with the GHQ-30 score. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.781-786. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 08-973 Dawson A.P., McLennan S.N., Schiller S.D., Jull G.A., Hodges P.W., Stewart S.
Interventions to prevent back pain and back injury in nurses: A systematic review
A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions that aim to prevent back pain and back injury in nurses. Overall, there was no strong evidence regarding the efficacy of such interventions. There was moderate evidence from several studies that manual handling training in itself is not effective, while multidimensional interventions are effective. There was also moderate evidence that stress management programs do not prevent back pain and limited evidence that lumbar supports are effective in preventing back injury in nurses. Evidence regarding the efficacy of exercise interventions and the provision of manual handling equipment and training was conflicting. Implications of these findings for future research needs are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.64, No.10, p.642-650. 54 ref.

CIS 08-858 Jóźwiak Z.
Preventive and medical rehabilitation programme for nurses
Program profilaktyczno-rehabilitacyjny dla pielęgniarek [en polonés]
This article discusses the most important occupational health hazards faced by nurses involved in lifting, supporting and moving patients. It explains the influence of these physical actions on the pathological state of various components of the musculoskeletal system. A preventive and medical rehabilitation programme developed by the Professor Jerzy Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź is described, which allows reducing the negative impact of physical workload on nurses' health. The experience of several Polish hospitals in implementing the programme is presented.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2007, No.6, p.45-49. Illus.

CIS 08-654 Fransman W., Huizer D., Tuerk J., Kromhout H.
Inhalation and dermal exposure to eight antineoplastic drugs in an industrial laundry facility
The objective of the study was to quantify dermal and inhalation exposure to antineoplastic drugs in a Dutch industrial laundry servicing a hospital and to test the efficiency of the washing procedure for removing these drugs. During four workdays, dermal and inhalation exposure to eight frequently-used antineoplastic drugs were measured for all persons involved in handling unwashed laundry. Furtherore, 10x10cm sections were cut before and after the washing procedure from 15 bedsheets that were collected in hospitals of patients who were treated with one of the selected antineoplastic drugs. No detectable levels of any of the antineoplastic drugs were found on workers' skin of hands or in any of the air samples. Only four out of the 15 bedsheets were contaminated with detectable levels of antineoplastic drugs before the washing procedure. After the pre-washing and after the complete washing procedure, no detectable levels of any of the drugs were found.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.396-403. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 08-653 Nayebzadeh A.
The effect of work practices on personal exposure to glutaraldehyde among health care workers
Glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory irritation and asthma among health care workers. In order to evaluate the effect of work practices and the ventilation system on exposure to glutaraldehyde, 42 breathing zone air samples were taken in five hospitals in Quebec, Canada. In addition, work practices and the presence or otherwise of local or general ventilation system were noted, and the rate of air change and the quantity of glutaraldehyde used were recorded. Geometric mean concentration of all samples was 0.025ppm. Statistical analysis indicated that work practice was the most important factor affecting the level of exposure to glutaraldehyde. In locations where poor or unsafe work practices were employed, the geometric mean concentrations were much higher (0.05 and 0.08ppm respectively). There was a higher prevalence of headache and itchy eyes among employees who worked where unsafe work practices were observed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.45, No.2, p.289-295. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 08-519 Roberge B., Audet E., Gautrin D.
Occupational asthma - Animal health
Asthme au travail - Santé animale [en francés]
In order to adopt suitable measures for the prevention of occupational asthma and rhinitis, it is important to understand the health hazards in various vocational training and occupational settings. The IRSST published a leaflet presenting these two respiratory diseases in general terms (see CIS 08-514), together with six other leaflets covering specific occupational activities in more detail, explaining the risk factors and proposing suitable preventive measures. This leaflet specifically addresses occupational asthma and rhinitis in the animal health sector, together with the means of protection against specific allergens encountered in this work environment (animal proteins, latex proteins, formaldehyde, chlorhexidine, cleaning agents).
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2007. 6p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RF-511.pdf [en francés]

CIS 08-668 Falcy M., Pillière F.
Cytotoxic agents: Evaluation of occupational hazards
Cytotoxiques: évaluation des risques professionnels [en francés]
Hazard evaluation by employers is a mandatory requirement for all workplaces and is also required for the use of drugs in healthcare environments. A first step of this evaluation consists of evaluating exposures. For each potential source (workplace atmospheres, contact surfaces) the means of investigation are presented together with the results obtained with cytostatic drugs. By comparing the total exposure of a healthcare worker with that of the treated patients, a safety factor comprised between 100 and 2000 can been calculated for some cytotoxic drugs. The effects of cytotoxic drugs have been widely described; they depend largely on the mode of action of these agents (activity on the cellular cycle and DNA). By comparing these effects with occupational exposures, the risk related to each effect is characterized: non specific (irritation, systemic toxicity) or specific (mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic for reproduction). The risk of exposure is generally low for healthcare workers when preventive measures (including technical, medical and training measures) are correctly implemented.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2007, No.157, 10p. 37 ref.

CIS 08-537 Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons and jails to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood-borne diseases. This leaflet provides tips to medical service administrators and supervisors for improving the plans aimed at protecting workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which are required by OSHA. These tips include information on the exposure control plan, workers' participation in the selection of equipment, supply and use of personal protective equipment and designating persons responsible for the implementation of the plan and of the vaccination policy.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-158/pdfs/2007-158.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-536 Bloodborne pathogen exposure
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons and jails to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood borne-diseases. This poster is meant to be informative and reinforce how workers of prison health services can protect themselves from the risk of blood-borne disease transmission.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 1p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-157/pdfs/2007-157.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-535 Encourage your workers to report blood-borne pathogen exposures
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood-borne diseases. Aimed at prison medical service administrators and supervisors, this leaflet provides explains why workers are sometimes reluctant to report exposure to blood-borne pathogens in correctional facilities and how to encourage them to report.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-159/pdfs/2007-159.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-711 Use of blunt-tip suture needles to decrease percutaneous injuries to surgical personnel
The objectives of this information bulletin are to describe the hazard of sharp-tip suture needles as a source of percutaneous injuries to surgical personnel. It also presents evidence of the effectiveness of blunt-tip suture needles in decreasing percutaneous injuries to surgical personnel, particularly when used to suture muscle and fascia. Finally, it emphasizes OSHA's requirement and NIOSH's recommendation to use safer medical devices such as blunt-tip suture needles where clinically appropriate.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Oct. 2007. 4p. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-101/pdfs/2008-101.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 08-624 La maternidad sin riesgo y el mundo del trabajo
Safe maternity and the world of work [en inglés]
Maternité sans risques et le monde du travail [en francés]
Maternal mortality is very high in developing countries. This report explains how it can be reduced by action at the workplace. It argues that while decent work and poverty reduction are key to improving the health of women everywhere, social health protection is essential to protect women and their families against the financial burden of maternal health care. Social health protection provides financial accessibility to health care services. Main topics covered in this booklet: reality and reasons for maternal mortality; improving maternity protection and health through the workplace; implementing, extending and improving social health protection; promoting decent work for health workers. An appendix lists the countries having ratified various international labour standards with particular relevance to maternity and to health workers.
Publicaciones de la OIT, Oficina internacional del Trabajo, 1211 Genève 22, Suiza, 2008. vi, 28p. Illus. 55 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/condtrav/pdf/safemat_07.pdf [en inglés]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/condtrav/pdf/safematfr_08.pdf [en francés]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/condtrav/pdf/safematsp_08.pdf [en español]

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