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Eriksen W., Bjorvatn B., Bruusgaard D., Knardahl S.
Work factors as predictors of poor sleep in nurses' aides
The aim was to identify work factors that predict poor sleep in assistant nurses. The study was based on questionnaire responses of a randomly selected sample of over 5000 Norwegian assistant nurses, as well as responses to a second questionnaire three months later. A wide spectrum of work factors was assessed at baseline by questions from the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social factors at Work. Subjective sleep quality during the previous three months was measured at baseline and follow-up by a question from the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Medium and high demands, a high demand-control ratio, frequent exposure to role conflicts, and frequent exposure to threats and violence at work were associated with increased odds of poor sleep during the successive three months, after adjustments for sleep quality during the three months before baseline, other work factors and background factors. High support from immediate superior, frequent rewards for well-done work and a high level of control were associated with reduced odds of poor sleep.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.301-310. 42 ref.
De Schryver A., Cornelis K., Van Winckel M., Moens G,, Devlies G., Derthoo D., van Sprundel M.
The occupational risk of Heliobacter pylori infection among workers in institutions for people with intellectual disability
This study evaluated Helicobacter pylori infection among 671 workers of two mental institutions for people with intellectual disability in Belgium. The study also included 439 administrative workers from other sites as a reference group. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and employment were collected by means of a questionnaire, and subjects underwent a serology test. The prevalence of H. pylori antibodies was 40.6% in the study group compared to 29.2% in the reference group. The crude odds ratio for occupational risk was 1.68. After adjusting for the various confounding factors, the odds ratio was even higher (1.98). In multiple logistic regression analysis, faecal contact was found to be an independent risk factor for H. pylori infection.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.587-591. Illus. 35 ref.
Shirangi A., Fritschi L., Holman C.D.J.
Maternal occupational exposures and risk of spontaneous abortion in veterinary practice
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational exposures and spontaneous abortion in female veterinarians. It was carried out in the form of a questionnaire survey of all graduates from Australian veterinary schools from 1960 to 2000. The response rate was 59%. Self-reported occupational exposures to anaesthetic gases, X-rays, pesticides and long working hours were examined. Data were subjected to multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Increased risks of spontaneous abortion were found among women exposed to anaesthetic gases for ≥1h per week, who performed more than five radiographic examinations per week or used pesticides at work, with odds ratios of 2.49, 1.82 and 1.88 respectively.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.65, No.11, p.719-725. 43 ref.
Ertel K.A., Koenen K.C., Berkman L.F.
Incorporating home demands into models of job strain: Findings from the work, family, and health network
The purpose of this study was to integrate home demands into the demand-control-support model to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child younger than 18 years in the household signified home demands. The presence of depressive symptoms was determined based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household. There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Job strain may therefore be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1244-1252. Illus. 39 ref.
Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis
The resurgence of cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of TB have increased the risk that health care workers (HCWs) may acquire serious TB infections which may not respond to usual therapy. These ACGIH guidelines explain the multiple steps needed to reduce this risk, which include: periodical training of HCWs to maintain awareness of the potential risks of TB; optimizing the design, ventilation and patient flow in clinical spaces; periodic TB surveillance testing of HCWs; use of appropriate respiratory protection; active infection control procedures; updating of written TB control plans.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.50, No.7, p.852-855. 32 ref.
Wada K., Arimatsu M., Yoshikawa T., Oda S., Taniguchi H., Higashi T., Aizawa Y.
Factors on working conditions and prolonged fatigue among physicians in Japan
The objective of this study was to determine the working condition factors associated with prolonged fatigue among physicians in Japan. A questionnaire on working conditions and fatigue was mailed to 478 physicians (377 men and 101 women) with more than three years of experience in clinical practice. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the multivariate relationship between the variables and prolonged fatigue. High workload was positively associated and better career satisfaction was negatively associated with prolonged fatigue. Prolonged fatigue was negatively associated with better relationships with other physicians and staff for male physicians. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.59-66. Illus. 40 ref.
Buddeberg-Fischer B., Klaghofer R., Stamm M., Siegrist J., Buddeberg C.
Work stress and reduced health in young physicians: Prospective evidence from Swiss residents
This study on young physicians investigated their perceived job stress, its association with the amount of working hours and its impact on self-reported health and overall satisfaction during residency. A cohort of Swiss medical school graduates was followed up from 2001. In their second and fourth years of residency, 433 physicians assessed their effort-reward balance, overcommitment, physical and mental well-being and overall satisfaction. Findings are discussed. Stress at work in young physicians, especially when being experienced over a longer period in postgraduate training, has to be a matter of concern because of its negative impact on health and overall satisfaction and the risk of developing symptoms of burnout in the long run.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2008, Vol.82, No.1, p.31-38. 47 ref.
Maguire P., Raphael B., Martinek N.
Health workforce: Challenges for occupational mental health
Nursing personnel, which constitutes the bulk of the health workforce, is exposed to many risk factors for their mental health and wellbeing. These include burnout, long hours, violence, feelings of helplessness, stress associated with increasing and new demands, an ageing workforce and high expectations from the public. A range of issues also confront medical practitioners, both in general practice and hospital-based care sectors. This article proposes key principles for protecting the mental health of health workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2008, Vol.24, No.6, p.519-530. 61 ref.
Sherman M.F., Gershon R.R., Samar S.M., Pearson J.M., Canton A.N., Damsky M.R.
Safety factors predictive of job satisfaction and job retention among home healthcare aides
Although many work characteristics associated with job satisfaction in home health care have been documented, a unique aspect of the work environment of home health care aides that might also affect job satisfaction is the fact that their workplace is a household. To obtain a better understanding of the potential impact of the hazards within the household environment on job satisfaction and job retention in home care, a risk assessment study was conducted. Data from a sample of 823 New York City home health care aides were obtained by means of questionnaires and analysed. Household job-related risks, environmental exposures, transportation issues, threats, verbal and physical abuse and violence were significantly correlated with home health care aides' job satisfaction and job retention. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1430-1441. Illus. 20 ref.
de la Hoz R.E., Hill S., Chasan R., Bienenfeld L.A., Afilaka A.A., Wilk-Rivard E., Herbert R.
Health care and social issues of immigrant rescue and recovery workers at the World Trade Center site
This article reviews the experience of immigrant workers involved in rescue and recovery work at the World Trade Center (WTC). This group was comprised largely of male immigrants from Latin America (predominantly from Ecuador and Colombia) or from Eastern Europe (predominantly from Poland). Recent reports have begun to document the disproportionate burden of occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses experienced by immigrant workers in the United States. The WTC experience of immigrants exemplified this burden but, additionally, highlighted that this burden is exacerbated by limitations in access to appropriate health care, disability and compensation benefits, and vocational rehabilitation services. A clinical programme, designed to address the complex medical and psychosocial needs of these workers, is described and was successfully established.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.50, No.12, p.1329-1334. 9 ref.
Hakanen J.J., Schaufeli W.B., Ahola K.
The job demands-resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement
The objective of this study was to test the motivational and health impairment processes of the job demands-resources model. Subjects consisted of a representative sample of 2555 Finnish dentists, who responded to two questionnaires at a three-year interval. Findings supported both the motivational process and the health impairment process. Job resources influenced future work engagement, which, in turn, predicted organizational commitment, whereas job demands predicted burnout, which, in turn predicted later depression. Non-occupational demands and resources did not influence the motivational or health impairment process over time.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2008, Vol.22, No.3, p.224-241. Illus. 57 ref.
Schoenfisch A.L., Dement J.M., Rodríguez-Acosta R.L.
Demographic, clinical and occupational characteristics associated with early onset of delivery: Findings from the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System, 2001-2004
This cross-sectional study explored associations between preterm delivery and demographic, clinical and occupational characteristics of women employed at a university hospital in the United States. A comprehensive surveillance system linking individual-level data from human resources, medical insurance claims and a job-exposure matrix was used to identify women with a single live birth between 2001 and 2004 and describe maternal characteristics during pregnancy. Preterm delivery occurred in 7.1% of the 1,040 cases examined, a lower prevalence than observed in the general United States population. Prevalence of preterm delivery was highest for nurses, nurses' aides and office staff. In multivariate analyses, preterm delivery was positively associated with several clinical conditions: placenta praevia, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.911-922. 84 ref.
Luckhaupt S.E., Calvert G.M.
Deaths due to bloodborne infections and their sequelae among health care workers
Using data from the National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) system in the United States, a matched case-control design was employed to examine the relationship between health-care employment and death from HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), liver cancer and cirrhosis from 1984 to 2004. Employment in the health-care industry was associated with increased risk of death from HIV (odds ratio OR 2.27), HBV (OR 1.98) and cirrhosis (OR 1.09) among males, and death from HCV among both males (OR 1.46) and females (OR 1.22). Nursing was the occupation with the highest risk among males for HIV and HBV, but female nurses were at decreased risk of dying from HIV (OR 0.69).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.812-824. 41 ref.
Cunningham C., Doody C., Blake C.
Managing low back pain: Knowledge and attitudes of hospital managers
The objectives of this study were to identify hospital managers' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding low back pain (LBP), the difficulties encountered in managing the worker with LBP and the organizational needs in relation to managing LBP at work. It was carried out by means of a cross-sectional survey of 92 managers at an Irish university hospital using a self-administered questionnaire. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The response rate was 64%. Findings are discussed. Hospital managers' knowledge of their role in LBP management needs to be improved. Managers believed better information, improved staff resources and easier access to occupational health and ergonomic services would facilitate their management of workers with LBP.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.282-288. 28 ref.
Ayers K.M.S., Thomson W.M., Newton J.T., Rich A.M.
Job stressors of New Zealand dentists and their coping strategies
The aim of this study was to investigate job stressors and coping strategies among New Zealand dentists by means of a nationwide postal survey of a representative sample of 700 dentists. The response rate was 65%. The most commonly-reported stressors were treating difficult children (52%), constant time pressure (48%) and maintaining high levels of concentration (43%). The strategies most utilized for managing work-related stress included interactions with people (78%), sports (64%) and forgetting about work (59%). There were differences in the strategies used by male and female practitioners. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.275-281. 25 ref.
Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Preissler G., Jauch K.W., Pitz M., Nowak D., Peters A., Wichmann H.E.
Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles
Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a "surgical smoke" containing ultrafine (<100nm) and accumulation mode particles (<1µm). The objective of this study was to measure the amount of particulates in surgical smoke generated during various surgical procedures and to determine the particle concentrations to which operation room personnel are exposed using a condensation particle counter. Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation caused a very high number concentration (>100000/cm3) of particles in the diameter range of 10nm to 12µm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surroundings. In the presence of an efficient air circulating system, ultrafine particles were evacuated within seconds. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Dec. 2008, Vol.3, No.31, 6p. Illus. 29 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-31.pdf [en inglés]
Gulalp B., Karcioglu O., Sari A., Koseoglu Z.
Burnout: need help?
The objective of this study was to characterize staff of the emergency departments of all state hospitals of a region of Turkey with respect to burnout. Participants including physicians, nurses and assistant nurses responded to a questionnaire that included the Maslach Burnout Inventory together with other items. Scores were analyzed with regard to individual characteristics, namely overtime work, marital status, the number of children, occupation, salary, career satisfaction, satisfaction in private life. The only factor which was statistically significantly related to burnout was job dissatisfaction. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Dec. 2008, Vol.3, No.32, 5p. 14 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-32.pdf [en inglés]
Hewitt J.A., Whyte G.P., Moreton M., van Someren K.A., Levine T.S.
The effects of a graduated aerobic exercise programme on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the NHS workplace: A randomised controlled trial
This study examined the effect of an aerobic exercise programme implemented during working hours on the cardiovascular profile of a sedentary workforce of a United Kingdom hospital. Twenty staff members of a unit of a London hospital were randomly assigned to an exercise (12 subjects) or control (8 subjects) group. The exercise group was prescribed a progressive aerobic exercise-training programme to be performed four times a week for eight weeks. The control was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Oxygen consumption at two and four minutes, peak oxygen consumption, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose and total cholesterol were determined in both groups pre-intervention and at four-week intervals. Findings confirm that a moderate exercise programme can be successfully incorporated into working hours and can significantly improve physical capacity and cardiovascular health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Feb. 2008, Vol.3, No.7, 10p. Illus. 42 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-7.pdf [en inglés]
Xhauflaire-Uhoda E., Macarenko E., Denooz R., Charlier C., Piérard G.E.
Skin protection creams in medical settings: Successful or evil?
Skin creams are often used for protection against chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene. However some creams fail to offer protection against a variety of xenobiotic agents. In this study, two skin creams were assayed comparatively for a protective effect against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in hospital settings. Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two creams. While one showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, the other presented an irritant potential itself.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2008, Vol.3, No.15, 7p. 37 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-15.pdf [en inglés]
Estryn-Behar M., van der Heijden B., Camerino D., Fry C., Le Nezet O., Conway P.M., Hasselhorn H.M.
Violence risks in nursing - Results from the European "NEXT" study
Recent research suggests that violence in health care is increasing and that it strongly influences the recruitment and retention of nurses as well as sick leave and burnout levels. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of violence in nursing and to provide a basis for appropriate interventions. A total of 39,894 nurses from 10 European countries responded to a questionnaire at baseline and one year later. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between frequency of violence, factors related to teamwork and various work-related factors and outcomes, such as burnout, intention to leave nursing and intention to change institution. Findings are discussed. This study supports efforts aimed at improving teamwork-related factors as they are associated with a decrease in violence against nurses.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.107-114. 26 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/107 [en inglés]
Musharrafieh U.M., Bizri A.R.N., Nassar N.T., Rahi A.C., Shoukair A.M., Doudakian R.M., Hamadeh G.N.
Health care workers' exposure to blood-borne pathogens in Lebanon
The objective of this study was to assess the pattern of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) at a 420-bed hospital in Beirut, Lebanon. A total of 1,590 BBF exposure-related accidents reported to the Infection Control Office over a 17-year period were retrospectively analysed. Results are expressed in terms of long-term trends, categories of personnel exposed and causes of the incident. The study shows that health care workers continue to be exposed to blood-borne pathogens. Findings and their implications are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.94-98. Illus. 29 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/2/94 [en inglés]
Petersen M.R., Burnett C.A.
The suicide mortality of working physicians and dentists
Using all deaths and corresponding census data in 26 states of the United States from 1984 to 1992, this study examined the suicide risk for physicians and dentists. Age-standardized suicide rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated for white male and white female physicians and white male dentists. For white female physicians, the suicide rate was elevated compared to the general working population (SRR 2.39). For white male physicians and dentists, the overall suicide rates were reduced (SRR 0.80 and 0.68 respectively). For older male physicians and dentists, however, elevated suicide rates were observed. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2008, Vol.58, No.1, p.25-29. 21 ref.
http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/25 [en inglés]
Ahn Y.S., Lim H.S.
Occupational infectious diseases among Korean health care workers compensated with industrial accident compensation insurance from 1998 to 2004
Using the database of the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation, the 307 cases of occupational infectious diseases among the health care workers who were compensated from 1998 to 2004 were analyzed. Women accounted for 83% of the compensated cases. The most common age group was that of 20-29 yrs of age. The majority of infections were tuberculosis, hepatitis, chickenpox, AIDS and scabies. The major types of occupations were nurses, doctors, clinical pathology technicians and workers who were taking care of patients. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.448-454. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_5_448.pdf [en inglés]
Lan C.C., Feng W.W., Lu Y.W., Wu C.S., Hung S.T., Hsu H.Y., Yu H.S., Ko Y.C., Lee C.H., Yang Y.H., Chen G.S.
Hand eczema among university hospital nursing staff: Identification of high-risk sector and impact on quality of life
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the specific conditions that may pose a higher risk for occurrence of hand eczema and to evaluate the impact of hand eczema on life quality. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from nursing staff at a university hospital in Taiwan. The overall response rate was 93%, equivalent to 1132 completed questionnaires. Two hundred and forty-eight (22%) subjects reported occurrence of hand eczema. Occurrence of hand eczema was significantly associated with nursing for over 10 years and working in a special care unit, with prevalences of 27% and 26%, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2008, Vol.59, No.5, p.301-306. 16 ref.
Hungria Xavier A.C., Veiga Barcelos C.R., Peixoto Lopes J., Gandarela Chamarelli P., de Souza Ribeiro S., da Silva Lacerda L., Palacios M.
Workplace moral harassment in Rio de Janeiro health sector: Some characteristics
Assédio moral no trabalho no setor saúde no Rio de Janeiro: algumas características [en portugués]
This study examines the magnitude and some of the characteristics of the phenomenon of workplace moral harassement in the health care sector in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from previous randomized survey carried out in 2001 were analysed. All cases (1569) and their variables related to moral harassment were selected for the analysis. The occupational group of nurses' aides presented the highest proportion of moral harassment victims (22.7%) and the most frequent perpetrators were co-workers, supervisors and managers (48.7%). The victims' most frequent psychological reaction was "becoming super-alert". Although a certain proportion (38.5%) reported to their supervisors they had been morally harassed, action was taken in only 20% of the cases. The need to implement institutional measures to control violence at work is emphasized.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.15-22. Illus. 19 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20117%20Ass%C3%A9dio%20moral.pdf [en portugués]
Lorenzi R.L., de Oliveira I.M.
Tuberculosis in nursing personnel - A population based epidemiological approach
Tuberculose em trabalhadores de enfermagem: uma abordagem epidemiológica de base populacional [en portugués]
This study examines the risk of tuberculosis among nursing personnel in Brazil using the São Paulo Tuberculosis Program database "EPI-TB". The standardized incidence ratio was calculated taking as reference the population in the city of São Paulo in the year 2004. The 20-29 age interval showed an increased risk among nurses when compared to the reference population. Among 15 to 19 year-old nurses' aides there was also an increase of risk. It is concluded that nursing personnel may be considered at risk of nosocomial tuberculosis and should be monitored for nosocomial TB. The ways of improving health surveillance practices in Brazil are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.6-14. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20117%20Tuberculose.pdf [en portugués]
Health care sector
Secteur des soins de santé [en francés]
Gezondheidszorgsector [en holandés]
This folder consists of the guide for the participative identification of hazards (Dépistage participatif des risques, Déparis) adapted to the health care sector. It contains the following documents: booklet presenting the SOBANE (screening, observation, analysis and expertise) strategy; leaflet inviting participants to attend a Déparis meeting; Déparis participative guide applied to the health care sector containing 18 tables addressing various aspects of the job.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2008. Folder containing several booklets and leaflets. Illus.
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=19480 [en holandés]
http://www.emploi.belgique.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=19778 [en francés]
Maisons de repos [en francés]
Rusthuizen [en holandés]
This folder consists of the guide for the participative identification of hazards (Dépistage participatif des risques, Déparis) adapted to pensioners' homes. It contains the following documents: booklet presenting the SOBANE (screening, observation, analysis and expertise) strategy; leaflet inviting participants to attend a Déparis meeting; Déparis participative guide applied to pensioners' homes, containing 17 tables addressing various aspects of the job.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2008. Folder containing several booklets and leaflets. Illus.
http://www.emploi.belgique.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=19754 [en francés]
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=19468 [en holandés]
Uribe Llopis P., Barbero del Palacio P., Alonso Cobo M.T., Bardón Fernández-Pacheco I., Caso Pita M.C.
Hacia un hospital sin látex
The objective of this work was to describe the steps taken in a public hospital in Spain in order to achieve the goal of being a "latex-free hospital". This policy was chosen because of the increasing number of cases of latex allergy. Besides protecting workers, the actions are also aimed at protecting patients against possible post-operation allergic reactions.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.212, p.99-108. Illus. 15 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n212/original6.pdf [en español]
Lucena García S., Fernández Escribano M., Fernández Mundet N., Muedra Sánchez M., Otero Dorrego C., Pérez Zapata A., Taboada de Zúñiga Romero I.
Guía de valorización de riesgos laborales en el embarazo y lactancia en trabajadoras del ámbito sanitario
This guide is a reference document aimed at occupational physicians to help them adopt preventive and protective measures to increase the safety and health of pregnant women and nursing mothers working in health care services. It describes the main prevention measures to be taken against physical agents (including ionizing and non-ionizing radiation), chemical agents (including ethylene oxide, anaesthetic gases and formaldehyde), biological agents and ergonomic risk factors (physical workload, work organization, shift work, work schedules and night work).
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlo III, c. Sinesio Delgado, 6, 28029 Madrid, Spain, 2008. 196p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Needham I., Kingma M., O'Brian-Pallas L., McKenna K., Tucker R., Oud N.
Workplace violence in the health sector
Proceedings of a conference on workplace violence in the health care sector held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22-24 October 2008. Papers are grouped into chapters addressing the following issues: keynotes; economic aspects and implications of workplace violence; gender aspects; legal and ethical aspects; epidemiology, patterns and trends; policies and operational strategies; scientific aspects; social and psychological aspects; staff training and education.
Kavanah, Eemster 2, 7991 PP Dwingeloo, The Netherlands, 2008. 384p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Boya F.O., Demiral Y., Ergör A., Akvardar Y., De Witte H.
Effects of perceived job insecurity on perceived anxiety and depression in nurses
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of perceived job insecurity on depression and anxiety among nurses working in the private health sector in Izmir, Turkey. A total of 462 nurses from 16 hospitals participated. Perceived quantitative and qualitative job insecurity were measured by means of structured questionnaires. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Job strain was assessed by the demand-control-support questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Anxiety (odds ratio OR 2.2) and depression (OR 2.5) were significantly associated with qualitative job insecurity. Similarly, quantitative job insecurity was associated with anxiety (OR 3.4) and depression (OR 2.2).
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.613-619. 26 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_613.pdf [en inglés]
Caruso C.C., Waters T.R.
A review of work schedule issues and musculoskeletal disorders with an emphasis on the healthcare sector
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a significant cause of morbidity in healthcare workers. The purpose of this report is to assess research across studies that examined the relationship between demanding work schedules and MSD outcomes. A literature search identified 23 publications that examined MSDs and long work hours, shift work, extended work shifts, mandatory overtime or weekend work. Eight of these studies that examined long work hours and had some controls for physical job demands reported a significant increase in one or more measures of MSDs. Other studies had incomparable methods and types of shift work, and therefore, no clear trends in findings were identified. The review discusses current gaps in knowledge and suggests research priorities.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.523-534. Illus. 73 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_46_6_523.pdf [en inglés]
Burgos Díez P., Rescalvo Santiago F., Ruiz Albi T., Velez Castillo M.
Estudio de obesidad en el medio sanitario
This study analyses the prevalence of overweight and obesity among health care workers. It involved a sample of 806 health care workers of a region of Spain, for which medical histories and anthropometric data were available. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass indices of >25 and >30 respectively. Overall, the prevalences were found to be comparable to those reported in literature concerning the general population. After correcting for age, the prevalence of obesity was slightly higher for men. Other findings are discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.54, No.213, p.75-80. Illus. 9 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v54n213/original6.pdf [en español]
The care-home environment presents special challenges for the safety and health practitioners, in particular because of the need to balance the concept of risk with aims of ensuring independence and dignity for a vulnerable group of elderly people. This article offers some advice for professionals in this sector.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 2008, Vol.26, No.10, p.44-46. Illus. 11 ref.
Comparing the Job Strain and Job Demand-Control-Support models in direct-care disability workers: Support for support
This study evaluated the relationship of physiological indices of stress (cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A) to the job strain and the job demand-control-support models. A sample of 98 direct-care disability workers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Job Content Questionnaire. In addition, participants' morning saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol and immunoglobulin A concentration levels. The job strain and job demand-control-support models were tested using structural equation modelling. The job demand-control-support model successfully fitted with the data and was able to predict physiological outcomes; the job strain model did not. Salivary immunoglobulin A levels were predicted more successfully than the cortisol levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.316-323. Illus. 40 ref.
Westberg H., Egelrud L., Ohlson C.G., Hygerth M., Lundholm C.
Exposure to nitrous oxide in delivery suites at six Swedish hospitals
Occupational exposures to nitrous oxide in delivery suites in six Swedish hospitals were evaluated, together with various scavenging techniques. 8h time-weighted averages (TWAs) and short-term (15 min) peak exposures were determined for 36 midwives and assistant midwives. Diffusive samplers were used for monitoring, and analysed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effect on exposure of different types of scavenging systems was studied by mixed model analysis. Findings are discussed. A large number of TWAs exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. Masks connected to scavenging systems significantly reduced exposures. Furthermore, using a forced general air ventilation system in addition to improved working methods substantially improved the air quality in the delivery suites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.829-836. 19 ref.
Consequences of violence exposures by emergency nurses
Emergency nurses are among the most likely groups of health care professionals to be exposed to violence. Violence exposure is the witnessing or receiving of a violent act with or without the intention to cause physical or psychological harm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature in relation to emergency nurses' exposure to violence and discuss the implications for emergency nursing practice. A review of the literature was conducted using the keywords violence, emergency nursing, health care workers and productivity. Emergency nurses exhibited anxiety, vulnerability, guilt, anger, sadness and peer blaming following violence exposures. Violence exposures affect emergency nurses both physically and psychologically. Interventions should be developed to reduce the negative consequences of violence exposures.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 2008, Vol.16, No.4, p.409-418. 12 ref.
Chou C.F., Johnson P.J.
Health disparities among Americas' health care providers: Evidence from the integrated health interview series, 1982 to 2004
The objective of this study was to examine whether health status and obesity prevalence differ by race or ethnicity and work classification among health care workers in the United States. Data representing health care workers aged 20 to 64 between 1982 and 2004 were retrieved from the Integrated Health Interview Series. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Over time, there was a decline in the self-reported health status of health care workers, together with a rise in the prevalence of obesity. Moreover, there was a clear social gradient across workforce categories, which is widening over time. Finally, within workforce categories, there were significant race-related relationships in health status and prevalence of obesity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2008, Vol.50, No.6, p.696-704. Illus. 36 ref.
Simcox A.A., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Does work as a nurse increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes?
A population-based study was conducted to assess whether work as a nurse during pregnancy increased the risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age. The study population was selected from The Finnish Prenatal Environment and Health Study of 2568 newborns and included 128 newborns of nurses and 559 newborns of office workers as a reference group. The risk of low birth weight (odds ratio OR 1.02) and preterm delivery (OR 0.81) did not differ between newborns of nurses and office workers, but the risk of small-for-gestational-age was substantially higher among newborns of nurses (OR 1.99).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.590-592. 11 ref.
Puriene A., Aleksejuniene J., Petrauskiene J., Balciuniene I., Janulyte V.
Self-perceived mental health and job satisfaction among Lithuanian dentists
The aim of this study was to document dentists' self-perceived mental health and job satisfaction of Lithuanian dentists. A postal questionnaire survey was mailed to all the 2449 licensed dentists registered with the Lithuanian Dental Association. The response rate was 68.2%. The questionnaire investigated dentists' mental health and job satisfaction during the previous year. The majority of respondents (80.7%) reported being satisfied with their job. Nervousness (89.2%) and burnout (83.6%) were the most prevalent mental complaints and they also tended to be the most chronic of all reported mental disorders. Increasing age significantly reduced the possibility of nervousness or depression and increased the possibility of being satisfied with dental practice. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2008, Vol.46, No.3, p.247-252. Illus. 35 ref.
Nabe-Nielsen K., Garde A.H., Tüchsen F., Hogh A., Diderichsen F.
Cardiovascular risk factors and primary selection into shift work
This study examined possible differences between future shift workers and future day workers as regards cardiovascular risk factors before taking up their work and the differences that remained after control for socio-demographic factors. Altogether 2870 social and health care workers in Denmark filled out a questionnaire a few weeks before finishing their formal training and again one year after graduation. They answered questions on diabetes, hypertension, lifestyle habits and socio-demographic factors. Compared with future day workers, fixed evening or fixed night workers already smoked more before they began shift work. Being an ex-smoker was significantly associated with shift work. Possible causes of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2008, Vol.34, No.3, p.206-212. 29 ref.
von Thiele Schwarz U., Lindfors P., Lundberg U.
Health-related effects of worksite interventions involving physical exercise and reduced workhours
This study examined the health-related effects of two worksite interventions, namely physical exercise and reduced workhours, on women employed in dentistry. It involved 177 women from six dental care centres in Sweden, who were divided into three groups: a group subjected to 2.5 hours of weekly, mandatory physical exercise performed during workhours, a group with a reduction of weekly workhours from 40h to 37.5h and a control group. Biomarkers and self-ratings in questionnaires were obtained before the intervention, as well as six and twelve months after the intervention. It was found that the two interventions had differing effects on biomarkers and self-reports of health. There was a decrease in blood glucose and in upper-extremity disorders in the exercise group, and increased blood high-density lipoprotein and waist-to-hip ratio among those working reduced hours. It is concluded that interventions involving a reduction in workhours are more effective if these hours are used for physical exercise.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2008, Vol.34, No.3, p.179-188. Illus. 39 ref.
Ruotsalainen J., Serra C., Marine A., Verbeek J.
Systematic review of interventions for reducing occupational stress in health care workers
This literature survey evaluated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing stress and burnout at work among health care workers. It is concluded that there is some evidence available for a reduction in stress levels from person-directed, person-work interface, and organizational interventions among health care workers. This finding should lead to a more active stress management policy in health care institutions.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2008, Vol.34, No.3, p.169-178. Illus. 60 ref.
Teschke K., Chow Y., Chung J., Ratner P., Spinelli J., Le N., Ward H.
Estimating nurses' exposures to ionizing radiation: The elusive gold standard
This study assessed ionizing radiation exposure in 58,125 nurses in British Columbia, Canada, in view of gathering data for use in a subsequent epidemiological study on cancer morbidity and mortality. It involved a survey of nurses in more than 100 hospitals and health care centers, together with a monitoring of the data reported to the National Dose Registry of Health Canada. Findings are discussed. The difficulty in exposure assessment likely arises because although fewer than 10% of nurses are exposed to ionizing radiation, the settings in which they are exposed vary tremendously. This means that careful hazard assessment is required to ensure that monitoring is complete where exposures are probable, without incurring the excess costs and lack of specificity of including the unexposed personnel.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2008, Vol.5, No.2, p.75-84. Illus. 26 ref.
Johnson D.L., Lynch R.A.
An efficient analytical method for particle counting in evaluating airborne infectious isolation containment using fluorescent microspheres
The containment efficiency of patient isolation enclosures in hospitals must be verified to protect staff, other patients and visitors. This article reports on the development and validation of a simple technique to measure the low count concentrations of escaping airborne particles that might be present outside an isolation enclosure, based on micrometer-sized fluorescent polystyrene latex microspheres as a surrogate for pathogenic bioaerosols. Particles are released into the isolation enclosure and air is sampled inside and outside the room to capture airborne particles on 25mm diameter filters, which then allows the number of particles to be quantified using a random field counting approach. The method was found to be specific, sensitive and accurate.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.271-277. Illus. 8 ref.
FitzSimons D., François G., De Carli G., Shouval D., Prüss-Üstün A., Puro V., Williams I., Lavanchy D., De Schryver A,, Kopka A., Ncube F., Ippolito G., Van Damme P.
Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne pathogens in healthcare workers: Guidelines for prevention and management in industrialized countries
The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board (VHPB) convened a meeting of international experts from the public and private sectors in order to review and evaluate the epidemiology of blood-borne infections in healthcare workers, to evaluate the transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses as an occupational risk, to discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and to review recommendations for infected healthcare workers. This meeting outlined a number of recommendations for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis, including the training of personnel, application of standard precautions and hepatitis B vaccination. Other topics addressed included ethical and legal issues, the assessment of risk and costs, and the role of the VHPB. Participants also identified a number of terms that need harmonisation or standardisation in order to facilitate communication between experts.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2008, Vol.65, No.7, p.446-451. 29 ref.
Curr N., Dharmage S., Keegel T., Lee A., Saunders H., Nixon R.
The validity and reliability of the occupational contact dermatitis disease severity index
An occupational contact dermatitis disease severity index (ODDI) was designed to assess the severity and functional disability caused by occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) of the hands in patients attending an occupational dermatology clinic in Australia. The objective of this study was to assess the intra-observer reliability, inter-observer reliability, internal consistency, acceptability and convenience of this instrument, based on the clinical assessment of 95 patients with OCD. The ODDI was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess the severity and functional limitations caused by OCD.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2008, Vol.59, No.3, p.157-164. Illus. 42 ref.
Dulon M., Kromark K., Skudlik C., Nienhaus A.
Prevalence of skin and back diseases in geriatric care nurses
This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of hand eczema, low back disorders (LBD) and neck/shoulder disorders (NSD) in 1390 geriatric nurses and nursing aides, and their association with work-related risk factors. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and clinical examinations. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for common risk factors were calculated by logistic regression. The prevalence of hand eczema was 18.0%. Hand cleaning and hand care were not predictive for hand eczema. LBD was observed in 47.9% and NSD in 16.6% of the nurses. Increasing age and years in the nursing profession, prior treatment of back disorder and psychological stress were significant risk factors for LBD and NSD. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.81, No.8, p.983-992. 36 ref.
Medicine and ionizing radiation: Information note for helping analyse risks in radium therapy
Médecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide à l'analyse des risques en curiethérapie [en francés]
This information note on radiation protection is more specifically aimed at radiation protection specialists and occupational physicians. It describes the various procedures, specific dangers, analysis and evaluation of the hazards as well as prevention methods. The procedures described concern low-level radium therapy applications (continuous radiation or intermittent radiation on demand, using a source projector), with the exception of pulsed systems (sequential radiation).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2008, No.114, p.189-199. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20119/$File/TC119.pdf [en francés]
Rybacki M., Michowicz A.
Exposure to viruses at the workplace, with the example of viral hepatitis
Zagrożenia wirusowe w miejscu pracy na przykładzie wirusowego zapalenia wątroby [en polonés]
The characteristics of hepatitis B and C viruses are presented, together with their infection mechanisms. The occupational groups most exposed to infection hazards from these viruses are mentioned, together with the methods of prevention and treatment.
Praca i Zdrowie, 2008, No.1, p.10-16. Illus.
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