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  • Footwear, leather and fur industry

1982

CIS 82-1460
National technical Committee on Hides and Skins, French Social Security Fund (Comité technique national des industries des cuirs et peaux, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Roll machines in the leather and hides industry
Machines à cylindres de l'industrie des cuirs et peaux [en francés]
Recommendation adopted 5 Nov. 1981, applying to all machines with 3 or more rollers. Aspects covered: drive mechanism and controls, safety devices, and workplace layout.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1982, No.107, Note No.1385-107-82 (Recommendation No.207), p.305-306.

CIS 82-1459
National Technical Committee on Hides and Skins, French Social Security Fund (Comité technique national des industries des cuirs et peaux, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Handling and transport of hides in tanneries and taweries
Manutention, manipulation et transfert des peaux dans les tanneries-mégisseries [en francés]
Recommendations adopted 5 Nov. 1981 concerning the layout of machines according to manufacturing process, handling methods used, cleanliness of floor surfaces, communication ways and means of access. Precautions for hanging hides, and personal protective equipment to be provided for staff.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1982, No.107, Note No.1382-107-82 (Recommendation No.204), p.295-296.

1981

CIS 84-1064 Vilanova Gisbert E.
Ponencia del calzado - Las neuropatías del calzado y su posible relación con inhibidores de colinesterasas
The incidence of toxic neuropathy in the shoe industry in Italy, Japan and Spain is compared. The similarity between this neuropathy and poisoning with triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP) and other neurotoxic agents is discussed, followed by a review of work on the detection of cholinesterase inhibitors in industry and of cholinesterase and its derivatives acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase) - catalytic reactions, location and functions (synapse physiology). The effects of cholinesterase inhibition by toxic agents such as TOCP are discussed (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, late neurotoxic effects and inhibition of pseudocholinesterase).
Prevención, July-Sep. 1981, No.77, p.15-22. Illus.

CIS 82-1995 Perbellini L., Brugnone F., Gaffuri E.
Neurotoxic metabolites of "commercial hexane" in the urine of shoe factory workers
Urine samples collected at the end of the work shift from 41 shoe factory workers were analysed for metabolites of 10 solvents of which commercial hexane was the main component. The concentration of these solvents was determined in breathing zone samples. 2,5-hexanedione was the principal hexane metabolite found in the workers's urine and is believed responsible for the development of neuropathy in this group of workers.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.12, p.1377-1385. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 82-1994 Bravaccio F., Ammendola A., Barruffo L., Carlomagno S.
H-reflex behavior in glue (n-hexane) neuropathy
The H-reflex response, and in particular the excitability cycle of spinal motor-neurones, were studied in a group of 12 females aged 19-41 years suffering from marked peripheral neuropathy. Motor and sensitive nerve conduction, electromyography, and clinical features were considered. An increased excitability of α-motor neurones was evident indicating spinal involvement in these patients.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.12, p.1369-1375. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 82-1993 Frontali N., Amantini M.C., Spagnolo A., Guarcini A.M., Saltari M.C., Brugnone F., Perbellini L.
Experimental neurotoxicity and urinary metabolites of the C5-C7 aliphatic hydrocarbons used as glue solvents in shoe manufacture
Rats were exposed to hexane, cyclohexane, pentane, heptane, and 2- and 3-methylpentane at 500-5,000ppm for 9-10h/day, 5-6 days/week for 7-30 weeks. None of the animals developed signs of neuropathy. Animals treated with hexane at 5,000ppm for 14 weeks or 2,500ppm for 30 weeks developed the typical giant axonal degeneration. No such alterations were found in rats subjected to the other solvents. Urinary metabolites of the various solvents were determined: 2-hexanol was the metabolite of hexane, while 2,5-hexanedione was present in smaller amounts. 2,5-hexanedione appears to reach an effective level at its site of action, during intermittent treatment with hexane, with difficulty; this explains the high concentrations necessary to cause polyneuropathy.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.12, p.1357-1367. 31 ref.

CIS 82-1952 Acheson E.D., Cowdell R.H., Rang E.H.
Nasal cancer in England and Wales: An occupational survey
Report of an epidemiological survey of nasal cancers registered in England and Wales in 1963-1967 to determine the occupational history of the patients and their smoking and snuffing habits. Data were collected by postal survey of the patient or close relative (1935 cases); in 104 cases, interviews were carried out to obtain more precise information on the nature of the job or the type of dust the worker might have been exposed to. The survey confirmed the high incidence of nasal cancer in cabinet makers and wood machinists, no significant increase in incidence in carpenters and joiners, increases in boot and shoe operatives and repairers, and in nickel smelters. The significant excess of cases found among coalminers, gas, coke and chemical industry furnacemen, and foundry furnacemen and labourers may be associated with coal and coke dust exposure. No excess incidence was found among textile workers. Study of nasal tumour histology gave no definite indication of any association between histological type and occupation, except in the well-know relation between adenocarcinoma and furniture and footwear industry work.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1981, Vol.38, No.3, p.218-224. 18 ref.

CIS 81-2094 Order of 3 April 1981 to extend to the entire national territory the general provisions concerning the protection of workers using rotary drums in tanneries and tawing works
Arrêté du 3 avril 1981 portant extension à l'ensemble du territoire des dispositions générales visant à protéger les utilisateurs de tonneaux tournants dans les tanneries et les mégisseries [en francés]
Aspects covered: guarding of access to hazardous areas; device for immobilising drum; design and layout of work platforms; removal of liquid waste; emergency stop devices; maintenance and checks.
Journal officiel de la République française, 8 May 1981, No.108, supplementary issue, p.4395-4396

CIS 81-1647 Montesanti V., Liso N.
Long-term effects of polyneuropathy due to industrial adhesives. Clinical and electromyographic findings in 10 cases.
Contributo allo studio degli esiti a distanza delle polineuropatie da collanti industriali. Osservazione clinico-elettromiografica di 10 casi [en italiano]
Findings over a period of 1 year minimum and 6 years maximum in 10 patients with polyneuropathy due to industrial adhesives (exposure from 1971 to 1976). Functional recovery occurs normally after 16-18 months without clinically appreciable neurological sequelae, while it took longer for electromyographic findings to return to normal (in no case less than 24 months).
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1981, Vol.72, No.2, p.107-112. 7 ref.

CIS 81-1399 Wood, leather and some associated industries.
Data are given in 2 monographs: wood (lumber and sawmill industries, furniture and cabinet making, carpentry and joinery, pulp and paper industry); leather (tanning and processing industries, boot and shoe manufacture and repair, leather goods manufacturing industry). Appendices: mortality indices; occupational risks; chemicals used or produced and dyes used in the respective industries.
Evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Feb. 1981. 412p. 366 ref. Price: SF.60.00.

CIS 81-1352 Perbellini L., Brugnone F., Faggionato G.
Urinary excretion of the metabolites of n-hexane and its isomers during occupational exposure.
Environmental levels of the components of commercial hexane were measured in 5 shoe factories: they were 32-500mg/m3 for n-hexane, 11-250mg/m3 for 2-methylpentane, and 10-204mg/m3 for 3-methylpentane. Urinary metabolites found in 41 workers at the end of the work shift were 2-hexanol, 2,5-hexanedione, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and γ-valerolactone (for n-hexane), and 2-methyl-2-pentanol and 3-methyl-2-pentanol. n-Hexane exposure was correlated more positively with 2-hexanol and 2,5-hexanedione than with its other 2 metabolites. There was a good correlation between n-hexane exposure and total metabolites. The respective metabolites were highly correlated with 2- and 3-methylpentane exposure. Urinary excretion of metabolites may be used for monitoring exposure to n-hexane and its isomers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.20-26. Illus. 10 ref.

1980

CIS 82-541 Lollar R.M.
Are carcinogens a chronic health hazard in the tannery workplace?
A review of the epidemiological and case-history studies on which are based the accusations that the leather and leather products industry in the USA is a significant contributor to industrial carcinogenesis. 5 categories of chemical substances are defined (nitroso amines; dyes, especially benzidine-based direct dyes; chromium chemicals, especially insoluble chromate pigments; aromatic organic solvents; and tannin), their carcinogenic potential reviewed and their use in various sectors of the leather industry analysed. Recommendations are given on control of exposure to these substances for different leather industry jobs. The industry's reputation of being a high-risk industry for occupational cancer has not been validated.
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 1980, Vol.75, No.12, p.510-525. 26 ref.

CIS 81-1074 Ambrosio L., Rossi L., Pennarola R., Tangredi G., Carbone U., De Martino F.
Glue polyneuropathy in the Campania region - Clinical and epidemiological aspects - Experimental study
La polineuropatia da collanti nella regione Campania: aspetti clinico-epidemiologici - Contributo sperimentale [en italiano]
42 workers with glue polyneuropathy at various stages were studied as well as 60 workers still active in shoe manufacture. Workers' subjective assessments were a useful criterion of the presence of latent polyneuropathy. EMG studies confirmed nervous conduction disturbances in a high percentage of subjects still in activity. Determination of serum cholinesterase was the most valuable laboratory test. The presence of triorthocresyl phosphate in synthetic leather is considered a factor in the development of the clinical symptoms.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1980, No.4, p.17-30. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 81-556 Brugnone F., Perbellini L.
Pollution by solvents and workers' positions in shoe upper factories
Inquinamento da solventi e mansioni lavorative nei calzaturifici e tomaifici [en italiano]
4 shoe factories and 3 shoe upper factories were studied. n-Hexane, 2- and 3-methylpentane, cyclohexane, and methylcyclopentane were found in the atmosphere of all factories. Acetone and methylethyl ketone were present in the shoe, but not the shoe upper, factories. Levels of the solvent mixture were higher than the calculated TLV in the shoe factories lacking ventilation facilities and in all the shoe upper factories. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 3 workers exposed to n-hexane concentrations above 360mg/m3.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1980, Vol.71, No.4, p.343-352. 6 ref. English translation from the Health and Safety Executive Translation Service, No.11011 (1985), 17p.

CIS 80-1979 Cecchi F., Buiatti E., Kriebel D., Nastasi L., Santucci M.
Adenocarcinoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses in shoemakers and woodworkers in the province of Florence, Italy (1963-77).
13 cases of adenosarcoma were recorded. Of the 11 cases traced, 3 were in woodworkers with considerable exposure to wood dust, and 7 were in shoemakers, mostly trimmers. The association with occupation was statistically significant.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.37, No.3, p.222-225. 21 ref.

CIS 80-1896 Subbotin A.I., Savel'eva L.A., Kašnikov Ju.V., Kobylinskij A.I., Koval'skaja A.P.
Cleaning of gases given off in finishing processes in polymer sole manufacture
Obezvreživanie gazovyh vybrosov, obrazujuščihsja v processe otdelki polimernyh podošv [en ruso]
Vapours given off during finishing and drying processes in the manufacture of polyurethane soles contain a mixture of organic solvents (ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons, esters). A recently developed installation for removal and cleaning of the polluted air (consisting of an adsorption filter, a desorption-condensate separator and a cyclone furnace to burn the desorbed mixture) is described.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Jan. 1980, No.1, p.37-39. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 80-1363 Perbellini L., Brugnone F.
Lung uptake and metabolism of cyclohexane in shoe factory workers.
Cyclohexane (CH) in environmental air, alveolar air and blood, and cyclohexanol in urine were determined in 22 workers. All parameters correlated well with one another. Mean alveolar CH was 78% of environmental CH. Blood CH was 53-78% of alveolar CH. Urinary cyclohexanol corresponded to 0.1-0.2% of absorbed CH. Biological monitoring of CH in the alveolar air and urine is a reliable means of determining occupational exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.45, No.3, p.261-269. Illus. 12 ref.

1979

CIS 81-244 Frontali N., Guarcini A.M., Spagnolo A., Amantini M.C.
Substances causing polyneuropathy used in the shoe industry (triaryl phosphates, aliphatic C5-C7 hydrocarbons)
Sostanze capaci di provocare polineuropatia, impiegate nella industria calzaturiera (triarilfosfati, idrocarburi alifatici C5-C7) [en italiano]
This literature survey reviews the incidence of polyneuropathy in Italy, as well as, for each of the substance groups, the terminology; physicochemical characteristics; industrial uses; routes of entry, distribution, excretion, and accumulation; toxicity; metabolism and mechanism of neurotoxic action; monitoring of the workplace and exposed workers; standardisation.
Annali dell'istituto superiore di sanità, 1979, Vol.15, Part II, p.273-324. Illus. 231 ref.

CIS 80-1759 Pérez Torio P., Mazarrasa Mowinkel F.O.
Algunas consideraciones sobre la utilización de los valores urinarios de cromo en la valoración higiénica de un proceso de curtido de pieles
The results of a study in 4 tanners were compared with those of an earlier study in chromium plating workers. The method of analysis of urinary chromium is described. Determination of urinary chromium concentrations is not considered sufficient for evaluation of the exposure levels for tanners.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1979, Vol.27, No.108, p.8-13.

CIS 80-1441 Decoufle P.
Cancer risks associated with employment in the leather and leather products industry.
Case-control studies are reported in workers at plants manufacturing leather products, and shoemakers and shoe repairers. In men, the relative risk increased with duration of employment and was independent of smoking habits. Male leatherworkers showed significant increased risks for mouth, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers. There was an elevated risk of malignant lymphomas in men and women.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1979, Vol.34, p.33-37. 30 ref.

CIS 80-1071 Ceccarelli S.
Electromyographic study of glue polyneuritis - Refining the diagnosis
L'indagine elettromiografica nelle polineuriti da collanti - Prospettive di affinamento diagnostico [en italiano]
Motor conduction velocity, distal latency of motor response, and electromyographic activity on voluntary contraction were studied in 62 shoe industry workers. The method is of great importance in diagnosis of subclinical disturbances.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Jan.-Mar. 1979, Vol.3, p.61-66. 5 ref.

CIS 80-317 Putilov A.V., Kuz'min V.I.
Determination of flashpoint of adhesives
Opredelenie temperatury vspyški kleevyh kompozicij [en ruso]
Results of tests on adhesives (neoprene-, natural rubber-, polyvinyl chloride- and polyurethane-based) containing highly flammable solvents such as ethyl acetate and petroleum spirit (motor fuel). The flashpoints were between -9 and -12°C. The flashpoint of adhesives used in the footwear industry is that of the solvents they contain.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Apr. 1979, No.4, p.63.

CIS 80-249
International Labour Organisation, Programme of Industrial Activities.
The effects of technological progress on work in the leather and footwear industry.
Les effets des progrès techniques sur les conditions de travail et le milieu de travail dans l'industrie du cuir et de la chaussure. [en francés]
In this report prepared for the Second Tripartite Technical Meeting for the leather and footwear industry (Geneva, 1979), Chapters V to VII are devoted to physical hazards due to increasing mechanisation in this industry (noise, vibration, machinery guarding, explosions, working conditions in developing countries, statistics of occupational accidents reported in Japan, Singapore, United Kingdom and United States, 1975-1977), chemical hazards due to the use of organic solvents (e.g. benzene) and other harmful chemicals (respirable dust, dyes, tanning and finishing products) and the organisation of safety and health services (medical examinations, monitoring of toxic substances and health risks, safety and health committees, safety and health training, duties and responsibilities of workers and management).
Report III, International Labour Office, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1979. 69p. Price: SF.12.50.

CIS 80-248
International Labour Organisation, Programme of Industrial Activities.
Second tripartite technical meeting for the leather and footwear industry.
Deuxième réunion technique tripartite pour l'industrie du cuir et de la chaussure. [en francés]
General report prepared on the basis of replies to questionnaires sent by the ILO to governments, reviewing present conditions of work in this industry. Chapter 3, of 13 chapters, deals with improvement of the working environment (measures taken in 21 countries, special committees set up in several countries, protection against hazards due to the use of benzene and other chemicals). Chapter 7 contains 2 pages describing the International Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (PIACT).
Report I, International Labour Office, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1979. 163p. Price: SF.20.00.

CIS 80-155 D'Andrea F., Cavazzini M., Perbellini L., Apostoli P., Zampieri P.
Vestibular changes in shoe manufacturing workers
Alterazioni vestibolari in operai calzaturieri [en italiano]
Studies in 78 workers exposed to n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, methylcyclopentane present in the glues and 86 controls showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of vestibular function changes in the exposed workers. The changes were typical of the toxic nucleo-reticular syndrome, involving the nerve structure of the medulla oblongata. Symptoms complained were emotional disorders (48%), dyspeptic disturbances (29%), subjective vertigo (20%), headache, asthenia, mucosal irritation. Exposure levels were not high, and there was no dose-effect relation.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1979, Vol.70, No.1, p.16-20. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 79-1711 Brugnone F., Perbellini L., Grigolini L., Apostoli P.
Solvent exposure in a shoe upper factory - II. Methylcyclopentane, 2-methylpentane, and 3-methylpentane concentration in alveolar and environmental air and in blood.
For part I, see CIS 79-181. These studies were performed in 20 workers of a shoe upper factory. Workplace air samples were also taken. Alveolar and blood concentrations and lung uptake were correlated with environmental concentrations. Alveolar air and blood monitoring can thus replace environmental monitoring of these solvents.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1979, Vol.42, No.3-4, p.355-363. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 79-1646 Schubert H., Agatha G.
Allergic properties of p-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resins
Zur Allergennatur der para-tert. Butylphenolformaldehydharze [en alemán]
On account of the widespread use of polychloroprene glues containing a p-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin in the shoe and leather industry, and the increased incidence of allergic contact eczema it produces, the allergic properties of these resins were studied in depth. The allergological investigations, the methods used and the reactions obtained with the substances tested are described. P-tert-butylphenol-formaldehyde does not appear to be the most important hapten involved. The eczematogenic substances identified are described.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1979, Vol.27, No.2, p.49-52. 22 ref.

1978

CIS 80-1065 Rossi L., Tangredi G., Carbone U., Pelosi F.M.
Value of haematochemical indicators in the prevention of glue polyneuropathy
Valore di alcuni indici ematochimici nella prevenzione medica della polineuropatia da collanti [en italiano]
Serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, aldolase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and serum and erythrocyte cholinesterase were measured in 60 shoe workers and 20 rabbits exposed to the solvents of the glues most commonly used (chief constituent n-hexane). There were no subjective or objective signs of polyneuropathy in the workers, and laboratory tests showed no significant changes in either the animals or the humans. Electroneurophysiological examination showed preclinical signs in 9 of 11 workers. This appears to be the only early test of polyneuropathy. A fall in serum cholinesterase may also be of value as a warning signal.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Suppl. 1978, Vol.2, p.97-111. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 79-1971 Mazzella di Bosco M.
Polyneuropathy due to glues and solvents
La polineuropatia da collanti e solventi [en italiano]
All cases occurring in Italy and reported to the insurance institute in 1975 are reported. There was a total of 173 cases, which are broken down by sex (67 men, 106 women), occupation (mainly shoe and handbag industry), and form of the disease (manifest clinically in 82, subclinical in 91). The findings are discussed in the light of the literature.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, Nov.-Dec. 1978, Vol.117, No.6, p.1163-1169. 33 ref.

CIS 79-1683 Desantis M.
Glue neuropathy: Epidemiological study and preliminary results of experimental poisoning
Neuropatia da collanti: Inquadramento epidemiologico e risultati preliminari di intossicazioni sperimentali [en italiano]
After a review of the literature (incidence, aetiology), results of studies in chickens with glue distillates used in the shoe industry, hydrocarbon mixtures and tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) are reported. The chickens developed paralysis, with diffuse degeneration of the myelin sheath and of central and peripheral neurons. Cyclohexane and TOCP are regarded as the probable cause of toxic polyneuritis in shoe workers.
Securitas, Mar.-Apr. 1978, Vol.63, No.3-4, p.207-219. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 79-1682 Bartolucci G.B., De Rosa E., Cocheo V., Manno M., De Zanche L., Negrin P., Fardin P.
Polyneuropathy in the shoe industry: an experimental, aetiological and clinical contribution
Polineuropatia nell'industria calzaturiera: Contributo sperimentale, etiologico e clinico [en italiano]
An investigation in 20 shoe manufacturing plants, using new methods of factory sampling and laboratory testing, is reported. The proportion of tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) was high in many imitation leathers used. Solvent pollution (mainly n-hexane) was generally high. Electromyographic examination of 120 glue-exposed workers showed 18 cases of subclinical polyneuritis. The possibility that other agents in addition to TOCP or n-hexane are involved in the toxic effects is discussed. Elimination of TOCP as a component of unprocessed materials, and radical lowering of the threshold limit value of n-hexane, are recommended.
Securitas, Mar.-Apr. 1978, Vol.63, No.3-4, p.187-206. 28 ref.

CIS 79-1754 Valsecchi M., Fiorio A.
Technical process in the tanning industry and related hazards
Ciclo tecnologico dell'industria conciaria e rischi connessi [en italiano]
The techniques used in tanning plants in a region of Italy (Valle del Chiampo) are described in detail. Hazards discussed are: noise; vibration; inadequate lighting; microclimate; accidents; zoonoses; allergic alveolitis. The substances used in each process are listed.
Securitas, Mar.-Apr. 1978, Vol.63, No.3-4, p.132-144. 31 ref.

CIS 79-1408 Dyro F.M.
Methyl ethyl ketone polyneuropathy in shoe factory workers.
Case reports are presented concerning 3 women who developed polyneuropathy while exposed to concentrations of methyl ethyl ketone and acetone or toluene at levels well below the threshold limit values. It is suggested that there is a cumulative effect and that TLVs for all organic solvents should be reexamined with respect to inhalation and absorption from the skin.
Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1978, Vol.13, No.3, p.371-376. 8 ref.

CIS 79-783 Štěpánek O., Hassman P., Hassmanová V., Chytilová M., Kuželová M., Skutilová I.
Severe epidemic of skin disease due to Ursol in fur industry workers
Hromadný výskyt kožních onemocnění z ursolu u pracujících v kožešnickém průmyslu [en checo]
The epidemic occurred in 1970 among the personnel of a fur garment factory in southern Bohemia. It was manifested by burning of the eyes, oedema of the eyelids, burning of the throat, coryza and cough, and spasmodic breathing difficulties in isolated cases. The commonest manifestation was occupational dermatitis, in 49 subjects (20 cases of contact eczema and 29 of toxic irritative dermatitis). The epidemic was chiefly due to technical changes (use of a new protective grease), as a result of which residues of the dye based on Ursol D (p-phenylenediamine) were not completely removed by washing, giving rise to a risk of contamination by traces of free diamines during garment manufacture. Prevention measures (stricter control of pollution, ventilation, possibly substitution of Ursol-based dyes) eliminated the hazard.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1978, Vol.30, No.7, p.268-270. Illus. 10 ref.

1977

CIS 78-1383 Abbritti G., Colangeli C., Madeo E.
Shoe workers' polyneuropathy - Aetiology and epidemiology
La polineuropatia "dei calzaturieri" - Etiologia e epidemiologia [en italiano]
The clinical picture of this condition if briefly reviewed, with attention to the distinction between mild and severe forms. Epidemiological data from the literature are presented showing the great increase since 1957 in incidence of polyneuropathy caused by exposure to glue; 490 cases were reported in 1957-1973. Data on the authors' studies in 122 affected workers are reported. The hypothesis that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is responsible for the condition is discussed in some detail. Conclusions: the chief causative factors are inhalation of paraffin hydrocarbons with a low boiling point used after the prohibition of benzene (n-hexane, pentane, 2-methylpentane, etc.) and possibly others, including TOCP; unsatisfactory hygiene conditions leading to excessive exposure.
Securitas, Jan.-Feb. 1977, Vol.62, No.1-2, p.24-35. 44 ref.

CIS 78-786 Bartolucci G.B., Mazzotta M., Manno M., De Rosa E.
Industrial exposure to TOCP and n-hexane and serum cholinesterase changes
Esposizione industriale a TOCP ed n-esano e comportamento della colinesterasi sierica [en italiano]
Serum cholinesterase levels were significantly lower in 206 workers, especially women, exposed to tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) and n-hexane than 99 controls. A primary toxic action of these compounds on the protein-forming functions of the liver is postulated.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1977, Vol.68, No.3, p.222-231. 15 ref.

CIS 78-550 Sinicyna E.L.
Occupational hygiene in the leather industry
Gigiena truda v koževennoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Summary of this manual: outline of the technology of leather manufacture; working conditions in tanneries and currying workshops (harmful substances in air, microclimate, noise and vibration, physical workload at different stages in leather working); worker's health status (sickness absenteeism, occupational diseases such as dermatosis, anthrax, Q fever); health engineering (enclosure, automation of processes involving toxic or carcinogenic substances, ventilation and exhaust, noise control, etc.).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", ul. Nekrasova 10, 192104 Leningrad, USSR, 1977. 151p. Illus. 99 ref. Price: Rbl.1.22.

CIS 77-2001 Malten K.E.
Formaldehyde-p-tert-butylphenol resins and p-tert-butylphenol in occupational medicine
Les résines formaldéhyde-paratertiaire butylphénol et le paratertiaire butylphénol en médecine du travail. [en francés]
Report of a study of the role of formaldehyde-p-tert-butylphenol resins and their starting materials in allergic disorders in the footwear industry and in shoe repair workers. Preventive measures include: modification of concentration, gluing to be carried out in isolated premises, precautions in handling, use of impermeable aprons, personal hygiene, worker information. A group allergy may exist between p-tert-butylphenol and the resin itself, although each product individually is capable of producing sensitisation; p-tert-butylphenol, in the manufacturing stage and in the chemical industry, can cause achromia which can be reproduced in animal experiments.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Apr.-May 1977, Vol.38, No.4-5, p.427-435. Illus. 19 ref.

1976

CIS 77-557 Good work practices for tannery workers.
This little, well-illustrated booklet is addressed to workers in an industry where the accident and illness rate is 5 times the average for all other industries. Contents: noise (earmuffs and earplugs); eye protection; dermatitis; anthrax; chemicals; inhalation of toxic materials; ventilation and respirators; machinery guarding; working and walking surfaces; fire prevention.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-157, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 22p. Illus.

CIS 77-113 Abbritti G., Siracusa A., Cianchetti C., Coli C.A., Curradi F., Perticoni G.F., De Rosa F.
Shoe-makers' polyneuropathy in Italy: the aetiological problem.
122 cases of shoemaker's polyneuropathy occurring in 1971-1974 are reviewed. Samples of the glues and solvents used were analysed. The disease is more common in women (68%) than in men, and generally begins during winter or early spring. It occurs almost exclusively among workers in small shoe factories with low standards of hygiene. The primary causative agents are probably paraffin hydrocarbons with a low boiling point (pentane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, etc.) rather than the triorthocresyl phosphate most often held responsible.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1976, Vol.33, No.2, p.92-99. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 76-1091 Pollini G., Biscaldi G.P., Carosi L.
Benzene-induced acute aleukaemic leucosis, with diffuse leukaemic infiltration of the parenchyma
Leucosi acuta aleucemica benzolica con diffusa infiltrazione parenchimale leucemica [en italiano]
Case report of a shoe-industry worker who has been employed in glueing soles for 2 years. The original condition diagnosed, benzene-induced progressive haemopathy, developed into leukaemia, which was recognisable only at autopsy. Clinical and pathological details of the case are given, and possible pathogenic mechanisms discussed.
Lavoro umano, Jan. 1976, Vol.28, No.1, p.10-16. Illus. 5 ref.

1975

CIS 77-1840
ON 79-8080, Bureau of Standards (Uřad pro normalizaci), Praha.
Safety rules for tannery machines
Bespečnostní předpisy pro koželužské stroje [en checo]
This standard, approved on 19 Apr. 1974 with entry into force on 1 Feb. 1976, applies to new machines and to existing machines, which must be modified to comply with the standard within 5 years. General provisions are followed by safety rules for various machines (tanning pits, tanning drums, splitting machines, roll machines, dryers, staking machines, buffing machines, boarding machines, graining machines, measuring machines, etc.). Other sections are devoted to: machine design (maintenance, assembly and transport); access to workposts above floor level; design of moving parts, hydraulic system, operating controls, electrical equipment; local exhaust ventilation; qualifications of machine operators, safety training; maintenance.
Vydavatelství ÚNM, Hostivař, Praha 10, Czechoslovakia, 1975. 23p. Price: Kcs.6.00.

CIS 77-243 Procházka J., Kvasnička B., Zeman M.
Risk of electrostatic buildup during glue production
Riziko elektrostatických nábojů při výrobě lepidel [en checo]
This study is concerned with glues for the shoemaking industry, prepared from natural and synthetic rubbers or polyurethanes dissolved in commercial grade petrol or various combinations of toluene, acetone and ethyl acetate. The risk of formation of electrostatic charges is present mainly at the mixing stage. After stating the problem, the authors report the preventive measures taken in the undertaking concerned: earthing of all conductive parts of machinery; elimination of polyethylene in the packing material for the glue granulate; injection of solvents tangentially to the mixer wall by a non-sparking metal nozzle; improvement of conductibility of granulates by means of conductive additives which do not affect the properties of the end-product; maintenance of a moderate flow rate of the solvents in relation to the pipe diameter.
Kožařství, 1975, Vol.25, No.12, p.343-344. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 76-2042 Oeconomos J.
Footwear manufacture
Fabrique de la chaussure. [en francés]
After a summary of technical aspects and brief considerations on premises, the various hazards and their prevention are dealt with: risk of pricking, nicking, having the hand dragged into the machine (sewing, skiving, nailing, cementing, heal nailing, clicking, trimming machines); toxic hazards associated above all with the use of neoprene adhesive, methyl ethyl ketone, cyclohexane, ethyl acetate; fire hazard; dust; risk of kyphosis. A detachable card (2p.) recapitulates the main contents of the article.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th quarter 1975, No.60, p.33-38.

CIS 76-1644 Matsushita T., Arimatsu Y., Ueda A., Satoh K., Nomura S.
Hematological and neuro-muscular response of workers exposed to low concentration of toluene vapor.
Report on studies in 38 female shoe industry workers exposed to 60-100ppm toluene, and a control group. Subjective symptoms (weakness, dysmenorrhoea, itching, dermatitis of hands) were significantly more frequent in the exposed group. The other chief differences found were in the rate of Mommsen's toxic granules in the peripheral neutrophils, urinary hippuric acid levels, and results of neuromuscular function tests. It is suggested that the TLV for toluene in Japan, 100ppm, be reconsidered.
Industrial Health, Sep. 1975, Vol.13, No.3, p.115-121. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 76-540
Ministry of Employment and Labour (Ministère de l'emploi et du travail), Bruxelles.
Royal order concerning safety precautions with certain machines used in the leather and hides industry
Arrêté royal relatif aux prescriptions de sécurité concernant certaines machines utilisées dans l'industrie des cuirs et peaux. [en francés]
This order dated 30 May 1975 enters into force on 1 Dec. 1976. The machines to which the order refers are listed and defined. It is prohibited to import, offer for sale or use machines which do not comply with a certain number of general provisions (guarding of projecting moving parts and running nips, exhaust ventilation of dust and devices against accidental starting-up). Special provisions concerning roll machines, vacuum dryers, satinising and graining presses, skiving machines, stretching machines, fluffing machines, brushing machines, trimming machines, glossing and glazing machines, boarding and pummelling machines.
Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 4 Nov. 1975, Vol.145, No.213, p.13858-13862.

CIS 76-539 Directives for tanning machines
Richtlinien über Gerbereieinrichtungen [en alemán]
This directive applies to machines and equipment for tanning and finishing furs and skins. Contents: general provisions, construction and equipment (rotating drums, splitting machines, roll machines, drum machines, boarding machines, satinising and graining presses, reciprocating-roll machines, tawing or chamoising machines, vacuum dryers, staking machines, stoning jacks and refleshing machines, shaving machines, fluffing machines, brushing machines); instructions for operation of these machines. Illustrated commentaries on various points.
Form. 1995, Swiss National Insurance Institute (Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt), Luzern, Switzerland, Sep. 1975. 27p. Illus.

CIS 76-538 Müller J.
Safe work with rotary tanning drums
Bezpečnost pracujících při práci s koželužskými sudy [en checo]
The Council of Europe has adopted the following recommendations concerning rotary tanning drums (CIS 442-1970, Jz Xje (054)): the rotating parts of these machines should be fenced to prevent access, by enclosures, railings or other means; automatically-operated rotary drums should be fitted with a guard or fence electrically interlocked with the drum power drive, as well as a mechanical device for blocking or securing the drum (brake, prop, etc.). Pits under the drums should be surrounded by a toe-board at least 5cm in height. Examples of the application of these recommendations in the Czechoslovak tanning industry.
Kožařství, 1975, Vol.25, No.1, p.10-14. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 76-249 Schoental R.
Chromium carcinogenesis, formation of epoxyaldehydes and tanning.
This letter to the editor offers a possible explanation of the carcinogenic action of calcium chromate in arachis oil and a possible connection with the tumours among tanners. The triglycerides in the oil are hydrolysed by lipases from lysosomes in damaged cells. The glycerol and polyunsaturated fatty acids are oxidised by the chromate to carcinogenic aldehydes and epoxy aldehydes, e.g. trimethoxycinnamaldehyde (from acrolein) and glycidal. There is an analogy between carcinogenesis and the process of tanning; chrome tanning depends upon reactions of epoxy aldehydes with amino acids. Similar mechanisms may also operate for other oxidising agents and explain the anticarcinogenic role of antioxidants.
British Journal of Cancer, Sep. 1975, Vol.32, No.3, p.403-404. 11 ref.

CIS 75-2085 Mastromatteo E.
Environmental health and plant manager.
This paper is part of a panel on occupational safety and health held at the 1973 annual meeting of the American Leather Chemists Association. A picture is presented of environmental changes and effects on health and their implications to plant managers. Subject areas discussed include community pollution, in-plant pollution, and consumer protection. The problems in tanneries are dermatitis and bronchitis due to chemicals used in tanning.
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, Aug. 1975, Vol.70, No.8, p.342-348.

CIS 75-1759 Giuliano G., Ronchi O., Rossi L., Focardi L.
Toxic polyneuritis in footwear industry workers - A longitudinal electromyographic study
Polineuropatia tossica in operai dell'industria calzaturiera - Studio elettromiografico longitudinale [en italiano]
Results of repeated electromyographic tests in 15 young workers in the footwear industry who were exposed for several years to solvent vapours from leather adhesives. Sensorimotor polyneuritis of the upper and lower limbs was diagnosed in 12 of them (i.e. 80%), and in the 3 others the lower limbs only were affected. The authors were unable to establish a correlation between the clinical symptoms and the electromyograms. They noted in most cases a diminution of the polyneuropathy 18 months after the first symptoms were observed.
Lavoro umano, Mar. 1975, Vol.27, No.2, p.33-41. 11 ref.

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