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  • Footwear, leather and fur industry

1987

CIS 88-1203 Walrath J., Decouflé P., Thomas T.L.
Mortality among workers in a shoe manufacturing company
A case-control analysis of patient files at a large cancer treatment facility indicated that several bladder cancer patients had worked at a large shoe manufacturing company in the state of New York, USA. A mortality study was initiated to determine whether there was an unusual cancer risk associated with employment in this facility. Because company records were not available, local newspaper obituaries were used to identify former company employees who died between 1960 and 1979. Proportionate mortality analyses were conducted by using 4,734 death certificates and the general U.S. population for comparison. There were no excess deaths from nasal cancer or bladder cancer, and mortality from leukaemia was slightly lower than expected. Increased relative frequencies of digestive cancers were seen among men and women. There were significant excesses of deaths from multiple myeloma among both men and women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.615-623. 37 ref.

CIS 88-1202 Decouflé P., Walrath J.
Nasal cancer in the U.S. shoe industry: Does it exist?
Three recent, large-scale mortality studies in the USA do not show any deaths from nasal cancer as shown in other countries. The methodology of these studies is reviewed. Epidemiological and other considerations important in the assessment and interpretation of the absence of the risk are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.605-613. 22 ref.

CIS 88-1222 Karačić V., Skender L., Prpić-Majić D.
Occupational exposure to benzene in the shoe industry
Phenol in urine and benzene and toluene in blood were determined (33 workers) as indexes of benzene exposure where the benzene may be an undeclared constituent of solvents. Benzene and toluene were found in all samples; the amount of toluene was 4 times that of benzene. An increase in urinary phenol concentration might be a sufficiently sensitive parameter to assess benzene exposure when other data concerning the presence of benzene are not available.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.5, p.531-536. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 88-563 Guay D., Siemiatycki J.
Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry
A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among 2 groups of male workers (mean age: 43.2 years; mean number of years since first employment: 14.1 years; follow-up after cohorts were established: 15 years) in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment workers. One group was exposed to a large variety of chemicals (including carcinogens and mutagens) used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, and the other to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for the garment workers significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the garment workers. For French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (4 observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.2, p.181-193. 12 ref.

CIS 87-1353 Governa M., Calisti R., Coppa G., Tagliavento G., Colombi A., Troni W.
Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies in workers exposed to hexane
40 shoe factory workers who were exposed to hexane were investigated to see if there was a correlation between electroneuromyographic changes indicative of neuropathy and urinary excretion of the metabolic products of n-hexane and its isomers. 2,5-Hexanedione and γ-valerolactone were discovered in all cases, while 2-hexanol was found in 11 cases. 2,5-Hexanedione was the main metabolite in 39 cases. Metabolic products of cyclohexane were present in about one-fifth of the cases, while trichloroethanol, a metabolic product of trichloroethylene, was nearly always present, all at very low concentrations. Electromyographic abnormalities significant for early detection of toxic polyneuropathy were found in 14 cases. A statistically significant correlation of the electroneuromyographic scoring with the urinary metabolites was observed only for 2,5-hexanedione and γ-valerolactone. Since γ-valerolactone is probably not a true metabolite of n-hexane, the results support the hypothesis that polyneuropathies in shomakers are due to 2,5-hexanedione. For practical purposes the urinary concentration of 2,5-hexanedione can serve as a predictive measurement for early detection of neurotoxic lesions at preclinical stages.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1987, Vol.20, No.3, p.219-228. 26 ref.

CIS 87-999 Soleo L., Coratelli A., Iacovone M.T., De Liso E., Margari L., Cassano F., Elia G., Fantuzzi A., Sassi C., Ambrosi L.
Neurophysiological study of a group of workers exposed to technical heptane in a rubber shoe factory
Indagine neurofisiologica su un gruppo di lavoratori esposti ad eptano tecnico in una fabbrica di calzature in gomma [en italiano]
This study involved 50 workers exposed to technical heptane and 2 groups of controls of roughly equal size. The technical heptane had the following composition: 38-40% n-heptane, 8-10% 3-methylhexane, 27-30% 2-methylhexane, 17-21% methylcyclohexane, <0.2% n-hexane and <3% other solvents (toluene, etc.). Exposure levels at work stations did not exceed TLV-TWA levels set by ACGIH for n-heptane. Nevertheless, in the exposed workers there was a significantly raised level of subclinical neuropathy involving the most distal sensitive tracts of the median nerve. Dysaesthesia and asthenia of the limbs were the most frequently noted subjective neurological symptoms among the exposed workers. No correlations were found between duration and extent of exposure to n-heptane and total technical heptane on one hand, and measured neurological functions on the other. It is recommended that TLVs be set for the components of technical heptane.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1987, Vol.78, No.1, p.68-74. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 87-951 Vandevyver B.
Working conditions in the shoe industry. Study in 4 factories
Conditions de travail dans l'industrie de la chaussure - Etude dans quatre entreprises [en francés]
In order to improve working conditions in a particular sector, a sound knowledge of the hazards and stresses which characterise that sector is required. Therefore, several research teams carried out a survey of working conditions in 4 shoe factories. The survey comprised observation, workplace environment measurements and questionnaires, concentrating mainly on solvent exposure and ventilation, physical environmental stressors (noise and heat), stresses related to time and work organisation and workplace layout.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1626-127-87, p.199-215. Illus. 44 ref.

1986

CIS 88-944
Comisiones Obreras
Riesgo de cáncer en la industria textil/piel/Riesgo de cáncer en la industria textil/piel
Booklet on health risks in these industries (especially cancer risks). Information on dangerous chemicals and work processes, legislation and TLVs is given as well as advice on preventive measures and safe working practices.
Federación Textil-Piel de CC.00., Madrid, Spain, 1986. 64p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 88-926 Quintanilla Almagro T.
Cabinas de dar cola: Sistemas de ventilación localizadas para el control del riesgo higiénico en los puestos de dar cola en la industria del calzado/Cabinas de dar cola: Sistemas de ventilación localizadas para el control del riesgo higiénico en los puestos de dar cola en la industria del calzado
Vapours of organic solvents from the glues used in the manufacture of shoes constitute an important health hazard. This article describes a study of the hygienic conditions in 318 gluing workplaces belonging to 166 companies in the province of Alicante, Spain. A large number of workers were exposed to high concentrations of, in particular, n-hexane, hexane and toluene. In many cases the concentrations exceeded the exposure limits. The gluing desks provided with a hood and an exhaust device showed to be very effective in reducing exposure when used properly, while desks without hoods and with the exhaust tube placed underneath were not acceptable. Recommendations for safe working conditions are included in the article as well as brief chemical safety data sheets on n-hexane, toluene, benzene, butanone, ethyl acetate and acetone.
Salud y trabajo, Mar.-Apr. 1986, No.54, p.55-63. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 88-206 Seniori Costantini A., Paci E., Scala D., Cariaggi P., Cipparrone G., Confortini M., Maddau C., Butt R., Dolara P., Salvadori M., Caderni G.
Monitoring of carcinogenic risks in tannery workers by means of desquamative lung and bladder cytology and urinary mutagenicity
Proportional mortality data on a cohort of tannery workers showed an increased risk of lung cancer, oesophageal cancer, sarcomas and leukaemias. From a cohort of workers and controls in the same area, data were obtained on urinary mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 and TA100 as tester strains, with and without metabolic activation. The mutagenic activity of the urine of tanning workers did not differ from that of clerical workers. Bladder desquamative cytology did not show any difference between clerical controls and workers. Pulmonary cytology specimens were normal or showed cellular atypical metaplasia. No cases with atypical cells or obvious neoplastic changes were found. The relative risk of pathological lung cytology was higher in chemical refining than in mechanical refining and tanning.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1986, Vol.31, No.1, p.21-30. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 87-393
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Prevention and control of anthrax [Federal Republic of Germany]
Verhütung und Bekämpfung des Milzbrandes [en alemán]
Directive concerning safety regulations for the prevention and control of anthrax.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1986. 6+4p.

CIS 87-208
Comité technique national des cuirs et peaux, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie
Shoe, slipper and leather-goods industry (Recommendation No.275)
Industries de la chaussure, pantoufle et maroquinerie - (Recommandation n°275) [en francés]
Recommendations adopted 23 Oct. 1985 by the National Technical Committee on Leather and Skins of the French National Health Insurance Fund. They concern the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases. Review of the accident risks in these industries. Preventive measures concerning machines and hand tools, as well as the environment (lighting, noise, harmful fumes), work posture and materials handling.
Travail et sécurité, June 1986, No.6, p.423.

CIS 87-226 The shoe industry. Working conditions in four factories
L'industrie de la chaussure. Les conditions de travail dans quatre usines [en francés]
This study was conducted between 1983 and 1985. Various work processes are examined: cutting, stitching, assembly, finishing. Hazards analysed include exposure to solvents, noise, heat, time- and work-organisation-related stress. Preventive methods include good ventilation and proper work-station layout.
Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1986. 55p. Illus.

CIS 86-1072 Marrett L.D., Hartge P., Meigs J.W.
Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to leather
A case-control study of 2982 cases of bladder cancer and 5782 controls in the USA showed an odds ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence limits: 1.0, 1.9) after adjustment for sex, age and cigarette smoking. The risk was highest among those first employed in a job involving exposure to leather before 1945. No dose-response relationship was found. Those employed in "dusty" leather jobs had a slightly higher risk of bladder cancer than those with other types of exposure to leather.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1986, Vol.43, No.2, p.96-100. 17 ref.

CIS 86-1071 Merler E., Baldasseroni A., Laria R., Faravelli P., Agostini R., Pisa R., Berrino F.
On the causal association between exposure to leather dust and nasal cancer: further evidence from a case-control study
A case-control study of 21 cases of nasal cancer in Northern Italy (in a region where shoemaking is a traditional industry) and 39 controls showed an overall odds ratio for subjects exposed to leather dust of 47.1 for men, and 3.5 for women. The odds ratio was higher for adenocarcinoma and among workers exposed to the worst working conditions. There was also a significant dose-effect relationship.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1986, Vol.43, No.2, p.91-95. 14 ref.

CIS 86-759 Baxter P.J., McDowall M.E.
Occupation and cancer in London: an investigation into nasal and bladder cancer using the Cancer Atlas
This case-referent study of male deaths in certain boroughs of London (United Kingdom) found a significant relationship between nasal cancer and occupations involving heavy exposure to wood dust on one hand, and between bladder cancer and road transport driving and the handling of leather on the other. Consistently raised relative risk ratios for bladder cancer were also found for some other occupations (woodworking, fitting, printing, machining, plumbing and automobile repair).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1986, Vol.43, No.1, p.44-49. Illus. 39 ref.

1985

CIS 87-289 Fire hazards in shoe factories
Les dangers d'incendie des usines de chaussures [en francés]
Information note issued by the Centre national de prévention et de protection (France), an organisation that specialises in fire prevention and protection. Summary: flammable liquids and ignition sources in the shoe industry (mainly: acetone, ethyl alcohol, toluene, gasoline); storage and uses of these liquids; dust and waste matter found in shoe factories; fire protection.
Face au risque, Oct. 1985, No.126, p.71-74.

CIS 86-1851 Ivanov V.A., Kravec V.A.
Investigation of the vibration of punch presses in the shoe industry and of ways to reduce it
Issledovanie vibroaktivnosti vyrubočnyh pressov obuvnoj promyšlennosti i puti ee sniženija [en ruso]
The noise and vibration emitted by two typical presses for punching out shoe soles were measured and the vibroacoustic fields on and around the machines were mapped. Noise and vibration levels were positively correlated. Maximum noise and vibration in the operating cycle occurred at the point where the sole material had just been punched through. It is proposed that hard rubber or plastic be used to shroud the presses, that they be coated with mastic having a modulus of elasticity of 109N/m2, and that areas of high-frequency vibration be damped with softer coatings (modulus of elasticity 107N/m2).
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Oct. 1985, No.10, p.41-42. 2 ref.

CIS 86-1691 Kovařík J., Kuželová M., Fiedlerová D., Popler A., Šírl J.
Neurologic findings in persons exposed to toluene for long periods
Neurologické nálezy u osob dlouhodobě exponovaných toluenu [en checo]
The health status of 25 shoe factory workers exposed to adhesives containing toluene was examined. The MAC for toluene in workplace air was exceeded, and the urine of the exposed persons had elevated levels of hippuric acid. Subjective neurovegetative complaints were recorded in 85% and objective neurotic symptoms in 60% of the workers. EEG recordings differed from those seen in healthy members of the general population.
Československá neurologie a neurochirurgie, 1985, Vol.48/81, No.2, p.73-77. 15 ref.

CIS 86-1367 Bittersohl K.U., Bittersohl G.
Epidemiological investigations into the haematotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of benzene and benzene-containing mixed solvents
Epidemiologische Untersuchungen zur hämatotoxischen und hepatotoxischen Wirkung von Benzen und benzenhaltigen Lösungsmittelgemischen [en alemán]
An assessment of the data on 85 persons newly registered between 1973 and 1982 as suffering from occupational disease due to exposure to benzene has shown that this intoxication occurs primarily in the chemical and shoemaking industries. The disease has to be considered severe, because >20% of the affected persons have a disability of > 50% and/or die of the consequences of the intoxication. The mean exposure time was 15.2 (2-38) years. Only 16% of the persons newly registered as suffering from this occupational disease had been exposed to benzene alone. All the other persons were exposed to mixed solvents. After elimination of the persons who were abusing alcohol and those suffering from previous non-occupational lesions, the assessment reaffirms the haematotoxic effect of benzene; liver lesions are the result of the simultaneous effect of other solvents, especially alcohols. No hepatotoxic effect can be attributed to benzene.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1985, Vol.31, No.3, p.168-170. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 86-1108 Balabanova L.V., Puzakin V.G.
New material with chemical-resistant film coating for work clothes
Novyj material s himičeski stojkim plenočnym pokrytiem dlja specodeždy [en ruso]
Brief announcement of a new material developed by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Films and Synthetic Leathers (USSR). Elastokož-T Resistant consists of a textile base coated on both sides with ethylene-propylene diene rubber. It is light (360-380g/m2), flexible (bending force 2.6cN along the warp, 2cN along the filling) and strong (tear strength 156daN along the warp, 115daN along the filling). The material resists concentrated and dilute acids, bases and hydrogen peroxide. It is appropriate for protective clothing for workers exposed to these agents in the production and processing of synthetic and natural fibres and in the processing of furs.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Jan. 1985, No.1, p.9.

CIS 86-138 Pippard E.C., Acheson E.D.
The mortality of boot and shoe makers, with special reference to cancer
This study covers 5017 men known to have been employed in the boot and shoe manufacturing industry in 3 towns in the United Kingdom in 1939. At the end of 1982, 68.4% were known to be dead. The anticipated excess of nasal cancer was found. Excess mortality from leukaemia and rectal cancer was also found. Some supporting evidence for a risk of rectal cancer in this industry was found in the literature.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1985, Vol.11, No.4, p.249-255. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 85-2042 Pippard E.C., Acheson E.D., Winter P.D.
Mortality of tanners
A follow-up mortality study of 833 men known to be working in the tanning industry in 1939 in the United Kingdom (573 worked in making leather tanned by vegetable extracts for soles and heels, 260 in making leather tanned by chrome, for the upper parts of shoes). There were no significant excesses of deaths due to any commonly occurring cancer. In fact, among workers in the first group, deaths from all causes and deaths from causes other than malignant neoplasms were significantly lower than expected. There was 1 death due to nasal cancer and 1 death due to soft tissue tumour.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1985, Vol.42, No.4, p.285-287. 17 ref.

CIS 85-1691 Vidović R., Kansky A.
Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics
Results of patch tests of 2 groups (30 with and 30 without skin lesions) chosen from 400 workers in a plastic shoe factory. The tests included a standard battery of substances plus 4 phthalates widely used as plasticisers. Of the 11 workers with contact dermatitis, 6 were sensitive to phthalates and 5 to coal tar (also present in the granulated vinyl raw material). Reactions to dioctyl phthalate were even more numerous among the asymptomatic subjects than among the others, which shows the high sensitising potential of phthalates.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1985, Vol.33, No.3, p.104-105. 13 ref.

1984

CIS 86-903 Kel'bert D.L.
Occupational safety in the mechanisation of heavy and laborious work in textile production and light industry
Bezopasnost' truda pri mehanizacii tjaželyh i trudoemkih rabot v tekstil'noj i legkoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents of this manual for engineers and industrial safety specialists: safe machine placement and in-plant traffic flow; safe work with lifting equipment, overhead transport, conveyors, ground transport, and pneumatic conveyors; work organisation for safety; basic safety devices (guards, travel and speed limiters, interlocks, signalisation, electrical safety, noise and vibration control). Particular attention is given to the mechanisation of loading and unloading operations in spinning, weaving, footwear and clothing factories.
Izdatel'stvo "Legkaja i piščevaja promyšlennost", l-j Kadaševskij per. 12, 113035 Moskva M-35, USSR, 1984. 199p. Illus. Bibl. Price: Rbl.0.70.

CIS 86-838
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in shoe repair premises
This guidance note covers: brief description of the main types of shoe repair; machinery hazards and precautions (attaching machines, roughing and scouring machines, finishing machines, abrasive wheels, edge setting equipment, heel breasting attachment, the Naumkeag tool, stitching machines); health hazards (dust, solvents and adhesives, fire risks, electrical hazards, air receivers, personal protection equipment, lighting, floors and working spaces); training. The appendix provides a glossary of terms used in the industry and the laws and regulations applying in the United Kingdom.
HM Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, Nov. 1984. 11p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 86-366 Kvasnička B.
Risk of hearing damage in the shoe industry
Riziko poškození sluchu v obuvnickém průmyslu [en checo]
Noise spectra were obtained for mechanical and hydraulic cutting machines. Mechanical cutters were noisier. Levels of noise emitted by the mechanical cutters varied by 10dB, depending on the material being cut. Audiometric data were collected for 557 workers at 10 workstations and the percentages of male and female workers with normal hearing, hearing loss, and perceptual hypacusis were tabulated with age and seniority data.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.2, p.56-60. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 86-140 Perbellini L., Brugnone F., Mozzo P., Cocheo V., Caretta D.
Methyl ethyl ketone exposure in industrial workers - Uptake and kinetics
Very little data being available on the uptake, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), the present study compares alveolar concentrations of MEK with exposure and with blood MEK concentrations. Urinary excretion of MEK and its metabolite, acetylmethylcarbinol, was also compared with exposure. The solubility of MEK in body tissues and a multicompartmental model allowed the estimation of the distribution and kinetics of MEK.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.54, No.1, p.73-81. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1525 Zapol'skij Ju.M., Kuljanov V.V., Karabanov Ju.F., Koročkin S.V.
Fire safety in the production of polyurethane-based artificial leather
O požarobezopasnosti v proizvodstve iskusstvennyh kož na osnove poliėfiruretanov [en ruso]
Temperature and concentration limits of flammability were determined for 7 commercial polyurethane solutions and 3 solvent mixtures used in the footwear industry. The solutions and solvents fell into 2 categories: those containing ethyl acetate as the principal solvent, which had wide flammable limits, and those containing dimethylformamide as the principal solvent, which had lower and narrower flammable limits.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Jan. 1984, No.1, p.50-51. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 85-1581 Lindner H., Knoche H.
Demands of sewing on vision in relation to workplace illumination
Sehanforderungen und Beleuchtung an Näharbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
Sewing is the major task in the fabrication of textile articles and footwear; it is a cause of considerable visual stress. Typical visual tasks in sewing are described. Working posture, the distance of the workpiece from the worker and the direction of incident light are analysed. Sewers should be able to vary freely the direction of lighting, even directing light parallel to the line of sight. Present task-lighting fixtures do not meet this requirement.
Augenoptik, 1984, Vol.101, No.2, p.35-39. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 85-1733 Puntoni R., Valerio A., Cresta E., Filiberti R., Bonassi S., Vercelli M.
Mortality study of workers in a tanning mill
Studio di mortalità fra i lavoratori di una conceria [en italiano]
A mortality study of 722 men and 320 women with at least 6 months work experience in a tannery. When compared with the overall mortality rate of their city of residence (Genoa, Italy), adjusted for sex and age, the only significantly raised cause of death was intestinal cancer (8 observed versus 4.3 expected). Overall mortality rate among the workers was actually lower than expected, probably because of the healthy worker effect.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1984, Vol.75, No.6, p.471-477. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 85-1444 Iacovone M.T., Soleo L.
Ergonomic intervention in the workplace in a plant manufacturing rubber-soled shoes
L'intervento ergonomico su di un posto di lavoro nell'industria delle calzature con suola in gomma [en italiano]
An ergonomic methodology and its practical application in a shoe factory are described. 3 types of curing presses were considered: manual, semi-automatic and automatic. Tasks were analysed at each press type according to their environmental hygiene aspects (microclimate, noise, dust and vulcanisation fumes, lighting), according to their ergonomics (cardiac effort, posture, psychological factors) and according to their safety. Most aspects of work improved with the use of automatic and semi-automatic presses, but dust and vulcanisation fumes increased, and so did the number of burns.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1984, Vol.75, No.3, p.221-235. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 85-1135 Shoe sole moulding machines - A code of practice
This illustrated code of practice applies to the construction and operation of machines for the injection moulding of shoe soles. Aspects covered: hazards (hand injuries, burns, electric shock); machine guard requirements; safe operating procedures; inspection and maintenance; training; interlocking systems; relevant legislation.
Footwear Joint Industry Safety Committee, SATRA House, Rockingham Road, Kettering, Northamptonshire NN16 9JH, United Kingdom, Mar. 1984. 37p. Illus. Appendices.

CIS 85-775 Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens D., Romero L., González M.A., Harto A.
Sensibilidad de contacto a resina para-terciario-butil-feno-formol (Resina PTBP)
A study of 1,400 patients in an occupational dermatology clinic. Positive patch tests to PTBP were found in 15 cases, of which 3 could be identified as of certain occupational origin (all 3 were shoemakers with exposure to PTBP-containing glue).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1984, Vol.31, No.123, p.27-35. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 85-759 Mutti A., Falzoi M., Lucertini S., Arfini G., Zignani M., Lombardi S., Franchini I.
n-Hexane metabolism in occupationally exposed workers
This study was conducted on 10 workers in a shoe factory. The n-hexane concentrations in the workplace air ranged from 8-1143mg/m3 over 8h, with a median concentration of 243mg/m3. Alveolar retention of n-hexane was about 25%, corresponding to a lung uptake of 17%. Post-exposure alveolar excretion (monitored for 6h) was about 10% of the total uptake. The main metabolites of n-hexane were determined in urine samples collected before, at the end, and 15h after the work shift. Urinary concentrations were low, though related to original n-hexane concentrations in air. The best estimate of overall exposure was provided by end-of-shift concentrations of 2,5-hexanedione, 3mg/g creatinine of which would correspond to ab. 50ppm of n-hexane in air (mean daily exposure).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1984, Vol.41, No.4, p.533-538. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 84-1886 Practical guide to ventilation - 5: Ventilation of gluing shops for small objects (shoes)
Guide pratique de ventilation - 5: Ventilation des ateliers d'encollage de petits objets (chaussures) [en francés]
Guidance note serving as a reference document for the design and operation of ventilation equipment in these workshops. Contents: summary of hazards (glues and adhesives used) and of pollution sources; requirements to be met; design (configuration, dimensions, work tables with built-in exhaust ventilation); technical solutions relating to the design of the workshop and of workflow, choice of equipment depending on the workplace and on the exhaust speed required. Examples of industrial implementation are shown. Toxicity information and ergonomic recommendations are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1984, No.116, Note No.1488-116-84, p.287-312. Illus. 7 ref.

1983

CIS 86-1747 Tanning industry safety and health guide
The material in this guide illustrates to everyone involved the types of safety and health hazards commonly encountered in this industry. Charts indicate what the hazards are, how they are likely to occur and the means to reduce or eliminate them through engineering controls, work practices, personal protective equipment, administrative controls, and education and training.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1983. 265p. Bibl.

CIS 86-1155 Bujanov A.A., Sviščev G.A., Filatov I.P.
Labour protection in the leather industry
Ohrana truda v koževennom proizvodstve [en ruso]
This manual presents the major provisions of USSR labour protection legislation. Contents: analysis of accident causes, organisation of safety work, hygienic requirements for the design and use of industrial buildings and structures, fundamentals of occupational hygiene, electrical safety, safety in the use of lifting and pressure equipment, safety engineering in main production shops, auxiliary shops and chemical laboratories, personal protective equipment, protection of the environment, fire protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Legkaja i piščevaja promyšlennost'", 1 Kadaševskij per.12, 113035 Moskva, USSR, 1983. Illus. 208p. Price: Rbl.0.75.

CIS 84-1672 Sjögren B., Hedenstierna G.
Pulmonary function and concentrations of alpha1-antitrypsin and immunoglobulin E in workers exposed to pancreatic enzymes
14 male workers exposed to pancreatic enzymes in a tannery, and a group of 14 non-exposed referents matched for age, sex, height and smoking habits, were studied by interview, spirometry and the single-breath nitrogen washout technique. Symptoms in the airways were reported by 7 of the subjects when weighing pancreatic enzymes. The exposed group did not show any deterioration in pulmonary volumes, forced expiratory flow, airway closure, or gas distribution when compared to the referents, and the serum levels of IgE did not differ between the groups. The exposed group had significantly higher plasma levels of α1-antitrypsin, possibly due to a compensatory response to increased levels of proteases within the lungs.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.385-390. 28 ref.

CIS 84-1356 Innocenti A., Paggiaro P.L.
A case of occupational asthma due to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)
Un caso di asma professionale da difenilmetano-diisocianato) (MDI) [en italiano]
The case history of a man producing polyurethane shoe soles is presented, together with the results of bronchial provocation tests in which no cross-reaction between MDI and toluene diisocyanate was found.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1983, Vol.74, No.5, p.391-393. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 84-1438 Tanning industry safety and health guide
This guide covers all occupational safety and health aspects of the tanning industry in Ontario, including legal requirements, analysis of hazards specific to chrome tanning, vegetable tanning and fur skin dressing, chemical safety, special concerns (physical hazards, personal hygiene, safety), resource materials (bibliography, material safety data sheets).
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1983. 265p. (loose leaves). Bibl.

CIS 84-1145
Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)
Plastics, leather and footwear - Health and safety 1976-82
A survey of OSH developments in the British industries of: plastics converting (moulding machines, expanded polystyrene machines); footwear (revolution presses, solvents, footwear machinery, cutting presses, attaching and laminating machines; exposure to dust, solvents, isocyanates, noise, high-frequency radiations); leather goods (tannery drums, multi-roller leather machines, tanning processes, leather finishing, dyestuffs, anthrax, leather dust). Accident statistics, by industry, cause and geographical region, are shown.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1983. 38p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: £4.00.

CIS 83-1965 Carlomagno S., D'Angeli A., Menegozzo M.
n-Hexane-induced polyneuropathy in the shoe and leather industries: modifications in its clinical features and epidemiology following partial measures of primary prevention
Polineuropatia da n-esano nell'industria calzaturiera e pelletiera: modificazioni del quadro clinico-epidemiologico a fronte di parziali misure di prevenzione primaria [en italiano]
A study of 15 cases of neuropathy in an Italian shoe and leather-goods factory, occurring in the period 1975-1980. Data were collected on symptoms, length of disease, factory output, concentration of various chemicals in the air of the factory (compared with their TLV's). Polyneuropathy, due to the presence of n-hexane in the air, disappeared once preventive measures eliminated its cause.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1983, Vol.74, No.2, p.111-122. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 83-1643
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Ethyl acrylate
Acrylate d'éthyle [en francés]
Synonym, uses, physical and chemical properties, storage, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (animal tests show that it is an irritant; it irritates human skin and mucous membranes - American (ACGIH) TLV: 5ppm). French regulations on occupational health and safety and neighbourhood protection are mentioned, as are French and international transport regulations. Technical and medical recommendations are offered.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, p.433-436. 16 réf.

1982

CIS 84-208 Mutti A., Ferri F., Lommi G., Lotta S., Lucertini S., Franchini I.
n-Hexane-induced changes in nerve conduction velocities and somatosensory evoked potentials
The cerebral evoked responses to 256 electrical stimulations of the median nerve were averaged in 15 women from a shoe factory and 15 controls. Maximal motor conduction velocity and distal sensory conduction velocities were significantly reduced in the exposed workers. Some components of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) had an increased latency. Results were not completely consistent. SEP may give additional information on nervous function even in subjects with peripheral neuropathy. SEP results suggested some neurotoxic effects of n-hexane on the central nervous system too.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1982, Vol.51, No.1, p.45-54. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 83-1741
(Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Presses for the hide and leather industries
Presses de l'industrie des cuirs et peaux [en francés]
Recommendations adopted 25 Nov. 1982. They concern general safety measures with respect to controls, colour codes for controls and signal lights, display of instructions and personal protection. Special provisions are given for swivelling-table presses, open-front and mobile-carriage presses, rising-platen presses, hot-bed presses, and presses for plating, gilding, embossing, glossing, stamping, pleating and printing.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, Note No.1440-112-83, p.401-402.

CIS 83-923 Bujanov A.A., Sviščev G.a., Umanskij S.I.
Exhaust-ventilation and dust-collecting equipment in shoe and leather-article manufacturing plants
Aspiracionnye i pyleuboročnye ustanovki obuvnyh i kožgalanterejnyh predprijatijah [en ruso]
Sections cover: characteristics of dusty waste occurring in these industries; types of dust extraction equipment; removal of deposited dust using vacuum cleaners; design of exhaust-ventilation and dust-collecting equipment; fans, ducting, shutters, plenums, dust arrestors, filters; examples of how to calculate exhaust and dust-collecting systems; operation and maintenance of exhaust systems; principles of noise and vibration control in thse systems; atmospheric pollution control; safety engineering and fire protection (prevention of fires and explosions in exhaust and dust-collecting systems, safe maintenance and repair work).
Izdatel'stvo "Legakaja i piščevaja promyšlennost'", 1-j Kadaševskij per.12, 113035 Moskva M-35, USSR, 1982. 184p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: Rbl.0.75.

CIS 83-752 Ceccarelli S., Bartolucci G.B.
Clinical and electromyographic findings on the long-term sequelae of polyneuropathy due to industrial glues
Osservazione clinico-elettroneurografica degli esiti a distanza delle polineuropatie da collanti industriali [en italiano]
A review of 24 cases of polyneuropathy due to exposure to industrial glues. There was good correlation between clinical and electromyographic findings - in particular maximum motor conduction velocity. Advice is given for the correct electromyographic follow-up of patients with toxic polyneuropathy due to industrial glues.
Lavoro umano, Sep.-Oct. 1982, Vol.30, No.2, p.80-83. 10 ref.

CIS 83-147 Tóth B.
Health effects of chemicals used in the leather industry
Bőrgyártási vegyianyagok egészségügyi hatásai [en húngaro]
A review is given of the hazardous chemicals used in leather processing (toxic substances in beamhouse, tanning and finishing operations) and the effects that these chemicals may have on the health of leather workers. Measures to protect the health of workers in the leather industry are reviewed.
B@o"r- és cip@o"technika, 1982, Vol.32, No.7, p.246-253. 22 ref.

CIS 82-1922 Stern R.M.
Chromium compounds: production and occupational exposure
Brief description of the production of chromium-containing chemicals and alloys, and literature survey of occupational exposure in the welding, chromate, chromium plating, ferrochromium, tanning and leather working and chromium pigment industries. For most occupations, exposure is to a mixture of Cr oxidation states and solubility fractions with a few notable exceptions: in the tanning industry, exposure is almost exclusively to soluble Cr(III), in the plating industry to soluble Cr(VI), and in the pigment industry, some wokers handling only lead chromate are exposed primarily to insoluble Cr(VI). Because of the wide variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the material of which airborne occupational exposures are composed, one can expect that the deposition, accumulation, clearance, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of chromium differs widely from industry to industry, and great care must be taken in comparing exposures.
Svejsecentralen, Park Allé 345, 2600 Glostrup, København, Denmark, 1982. 80p. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 82-1460
National technical Committee on Hides and Skins, French Social Security Fund (Comité technique national des industries des cuirs et peaux, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Roll machines in the leather and hides industry
Machines à cylindres de l'industrie des cuirs et peaux [en francés]
Recommendation adopted 5 Nov. 1981, applying to all machines with 3 or more rollers. Aspects covered: drive mechanism and controls, safety devices, and workplace layout.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1982, No.107, Note No.1385-107-82 (Recommendation No.207), p.305-306.

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