Printing, photography and photocopying industry - 330 entradas encontradas
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- Printing, photography and photocopying industry
Safety and health in offset printing, metal, paper, paperboard
L'hygiène et la sécurité dans l'imprimerie offset, métal, papier, carton. [en francés]
This article describes the principle hazards of offset printing machines (crushing, shear) and the appropriate safety measures (wire mesh and other types of screens, guards, etc., 2-handed controls), hazards due to the nature of the material printed on (metal, paper, paperboard) and the precautions to be adopted, and the general hazard encountered in offset printing works (falls, materials handling accidents, environmental hazards - inadequate lighting, noise -, occupational diseases - benzene poisoning, dermatitis, hearing loss -, fire) and the corresponding preventive measures.
Prévention et sécurité du travail, 1st quarter 1975, No.103, p.23-31. Illus.
Seki Y., Urashima Y., Aikawa H., Matsumura H., Ichikawa Y., Hiratsuka F., Yoshioka Y., Shimbo S., Ikeda M.
Trichloro-compounds in the urine of humans exposed to methyl chloroform at sub-threshold levels.
In order to detect any long-term effect of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) a survey was carried out in 4 intaglio printing plants with subthreshold levels of methyl chloroform (4, 25, 28 and 53ppm). Methods and results of urinalysis, environmental analysis, an inquiry into subjective symptoms and statistical analysis are described. Findings: no dose-dependent difference in health conditions; linear relationship between environmental vapour concentrations and total trichloro-compound levels in the urine of exposed workers; increased levels of urinary metabolites towards the weekend, together with a biological half-life of 8.7h, suggest storage of methyl chloroform in the body after repeated exposure. The West German threshold level of 200ppm is considered a tentative value of choice.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 27 Jan. 1975, Vol.34, No.1, p.39-49. Illus. 24 ref.
Printing and paper industry
Druck und Papier [en alemán]
This loose-leaf folder contains the text of the safety and health regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany as of July 1974, which must be observed by manufacturers, importers and users of papermaking and printing machines. The principal basis is the Act on technical working equipment of 1968 and its appendices. Also included are the texts of the ILO Convention 119 and Recommendation 118, and relevant extracts from the ILO Model Code of Safety Regulations. The 3rd supplement comprises texts concerning chemical laboratories, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organic peroxides, chlorine, cyanides, injection moulding machines for plastics, lasers, static electricity and noise control in the printing and paper industry.
Band 1, Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Fachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 62 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 3rd supplement, 1975. Approx. 1100p. Illus. Price: DM.79.00.
Il'in V.P., Bočkarev V.N.
Model survey of the distribution of alloy dust from type metal in a type-setting shop
Issledovanie na modeli haraktera rasprostranenija gartovoj pyli v pomeščenii [en ruso]
Description of a study undertaken on a model of a type-setting shop with 8 type-founding machines and equipped with local exhaust and air renewal systems. The distribution of the aerosols measured at the different workplaces represented in the model confirmed the measurements made in the workshop: the exhaust and ventilation openings were correctly placed and thus ensured complete elimination of the lead aerosols. The arrangement of the exhaust and air renewal systems in relation to the type-founding machines is illustrated by a diagram.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Aug. 1974, No.8, p.33-34. Illus.
Health and safety in offset printing on metal, paper, cardboard
L'hygiène et la sécurité dans l'imprimerie offset, métal, papier, carton. [en francés]
The major hazards associated with the use and maintenance of offset printing machines are mechanical (crushing and shearing). During normal operation, all moving parts (rollers, pinions, connecting rods, etc.) must be rendered inaccessible by barrier guards (fixed and mobile grids, hoods) connected electrically to the control circuit. In the event of manual operations on the rollers, it should be possible to set the later in motion only by simultaneously and continuously actuating two push-buttons placed one on each side of the operator. Further, particular hazards exist according to the material to be printed (metal or cardboard), e.g. spray of anti-offset powder. Health hazards are benzene poisoning, dermatosis and noise.
Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France, 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 1974. 13p. Illus. Gratis.
Physiological study for rational planning of the work of checkers/sorters in the printing industry
Fiziologičeskoe obosnovanie racionalizacii trudovogo processa kontrolera-sortirovoščika v poligrafičeskoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Study of working conditions of bindery assistants checking and sorting high-quality paper, who constitute almost one-third of the labour force of a highly mechanised industry: visual tasks of great precision, manual work characterised by very many multifarious small movements with the fingers of both hands, extreme demands on the neuromuscular system. Physiological and ergonomic examinations performed on a large number of bindery assistants showed that muscualr strength, endurance, working capacity and the bioelectric activity of the muscles involved diminish during the workshift. Improvements proposed: air conditioning, higher illumination level, sound damping shields, functional furniture.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.5-9. Illus. 6 ref.
Rotary printing machines for endless paper
Machines à imprimer rotatives à bobines [en francés]
Data sheet making a study of the hazards of these machines and their use, and preventive measures. Details of safety measures (machine controls and signals, problems posed by old equipment, inspections) and health measures (intoxication hazards, environmental factors, surveillance). Appendices contain an example of safety measures, a list of French statutory provisions, conditions of employment of young persons under 18, and maximum allowable concentrations in the air (USSR and USA) of the chief solvents employed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Note technique No.114, Central Coordinating Committee (Comité central de coordination), Paris, 11 Dec. 1973. Paris, France, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.909-75-74. p.301-329. Illus.
Buringh E., Van Mourik Broekman J., Oskam N., Ijland M.
The effect of toluene on workers' health in rotary photogravure printing
Invloed van toluol op de gezondheid van arbeiders in rotatiediepdruk [en holandés]
Results of a questionnaire survey of 86 workers exposed to toluene in the printing industry and 150 controls working in a paper mill. The toluene-exposed workers had significantly more health disorders than the control group; they complained particularly about mental and physical fatigue, memory impairments, digestive disorders, jaundice and dizziness, and had a higher traffic accident rate. Other factors affecting the health of printing workers are dealt with. A discussion of this study and its results is published in the 5 Apr. 1974 issue (No.7, p.253-258) of the same periodical.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 11 Jan. 1974, Vol.52, No.1, p.13-18. Illus. 5 ref.
Bierwerth K., Sandstede P.
Determination and study of accident black spots with work on sheet-fed rotary offset presses
Ermittlung und Untersuchung der Unfallschwerpunkte an Bogen-Rotations-Offsetdruckmaschinen [en alemán]
In an analysis of 900 accidents occurring during work with sheet-fed rotary offset presses, a method for determining accident black spots using a computer is described: structure of the study, statistical analysis, examination of the different accident black spots. A detailed analysis (according to injury site, machine part and manufacturer) is presented, and possible preventive measures are indicated. A specific relationship was found between accident black spots and the different machine manufacturers.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Jan. 1974, No.1, p.11-19. Illus.
Current problems of occupational pathology in the printing trade
Problèmes actuels de la pathologie professionnelle dans l'imprimerie. [en francés]
MD thesis. A review of the main printing techniques and an analysis of French national occupational accident statistics for the bookmaking industry in 1971 (10,969 accidents, of which 1,389 were severe, among 229,429 employees), as well as preventive methods are presented. From these statistics and the examination of 39 occupational disease files collected in 1973 in the Paris region, the overall pathology of printing workers is described. An account is given of compensation and prevention problems based on French legal texts and practical recommendations. Improvements are suggested for the compensation of disorders not yet listed as occupational diseases.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1974. 57p. 35 ref.
Lithographic offset machines
Machines de lithographie offset. [en francés]
Translation of an extract from: La sicurrezza nell'industria grafica. Ente nazionale prevenzione infortuni, 220 E Via Alessandria, Roma, Italy, 1963, p.217-239. Illus. After some general considerations on the nip hazards in the operation and maintenance of rotary offset printing machines, the author gives the practical and psychological reasons for the difficulty in applying safety engineering techniques to this problem, and recommends a trip bar to protect workers from the in-running nip of the plate cylinder. He stresses the hazards involved in work on multicolour printing machines; some of these hazards can be eliminated by installing a protective guard covering the ink-feed rollers. The article also mentions accidents which may occur at delivery of stock (heavy rolls of paper, etc.). Practical advice concerning controls and the operation of these printing presses.
Traduction INRS 65-A-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973. 24p. Illus.
Sheet-metal offset printing machines
Machines à imprimer sur support métallique à feuilles par procédés offset. [en francés]
These recommendations, adopted on 20 June 1973, concern single or coupled machines. The ways and means of preventing accidents due to mechanical hazards (crushing, shearing, cutting, etc.) and the hazards of falls, toxicity and fire are described. Controls and warning devices which should be provided are specified and the difficulties of improving old equipment are stressed. Sample safety rules, a list of maximum permissible concentrations of vapours from the principle solvents used, and the text of the joint agreement of 14 June 1965 on the conditions of work of young persons in offset press shops are appended.
Recommendation No.105, National Joint Technical Committee for the Metals Industry (Comité technique national de la métallurgie), French National Sickness Insurance Fund (Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie), Paris, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 4th quarter 1973, No.73, Note No.873-73-73, p.531-539.
Gramoni R., Perez J., Rey P.
Lighting standards and visual perception at workposts (lithography and textile industry)
Normes d'éclairage et perception visuelle aux postes de travail (lithographie et industrie textile). [en francés]
A study of the lighting of 3 workposts involving considerable eye strain: lithographic workers' luminous workbenches; mending weaves and fabric, and inspecting knitted fabric, in the textile industry. The article reviews the complaints of lithographic workers and the results of eye tests carried out on them. Laboratory experiments were carried out to quantify the diminution of visual acuity the workers complained of and which it was impossible to detect objectively. Apart from the question of the recommended level of illumination at a given workpost, the authors stress the importance of the distribution of luminance which ergonomists designing the lighting for a workpost should bear in mind.
Lille médical, 1973, Vol.18, No.8, p.909-916. Illus. 3 ref.
Accidents in the printing industry.
Discusses accidents and their causes from the labour inspector's point of view. Various types of guards on printing machines, guillotines, etc. (fixed, interlocking and automatic guards and trip devices) are illustrated and discussed. A breakdown of accidents (1966-1968) caused by 18 types of machine used in the printing industry is given in tabular form.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.151-161. Illus.
Photogravure solvent survey.
Describes a pilot environmental survey in 3 gravure machine rooms, which showed atmospheric solvent levels of from 0.25 to 1.5 times the composite TLVs allied to an exposure time of considerably less than 8 h per shift. When taken together with the results of a clinical questionnaire, it appeared unlikely that the solvent levels were the cause of the complaints which initiated the surveys. A discussion of the survey between the author and various experts is briefly reported.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.167-173. 1 ref.
Hall S.A., Hammond A.
Multiple solvent vapours under hot conditions in photogravure package printing.
Investigation of heat strain and solvent vapour concentrations in a colour photogravure printing workshop showed a remediable exposure to radiant heat from hot ducting on machines, and an acceptable average level of multiple solvent vapours. Reasons for further monitoring of vapour concentrations are given. Methods are described and results are shown in tabular form.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.175-181. Illus. 3 ref.
Migraine and colour retouchers.
Investigation of a report of a high prevalence rate of migraine in a group of colour retouchers in a photogravure shop showed the incidence to be no greater than in a control group of page-planners or in a previous large-scale population survey. The author concludes that scientific measurement is advisable before accepting subjective impressions on cause and effect in problems of occupational health. A discussion of the paper is briefly reported.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.199-201. 5 ref.
Investigation into an outbreak of rhinitis and asthma in a printing works.
An outbreak of rhinitis and asthma among 16 printing workers was investigated. 2 men who had the longest history of rhinitis and asthma gave positive skin and nasal provocation test response to gum acacia, suggesting allergy to this polysaccharide. Dextrose has been substituted for the acacia with satisfactory results. The author believes that gum acacia as a hazard requires further investigation.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.203. 1 ref.
Printing, bookbinding, and cardboard and paper converting machinery
Maskiner for trykkerier, bokbinderier, kartonasje- og papirvareindustri [en noruego]
Safety rules made under the Norwegian Workers' Protection Act of 1956: machinery suppliers' duties; employers' and employees' duties; general safety rules; special rules for typesetting and plate-making machines (line saws, plate cutters, routers, etc.), printing machines (proofing presses, platen presses, rotary and cylinder printing machines, etc.), papercutting guillotines and trimmers, slitters, folding machines, punching and embossing presses, wire-stitching machines, book-cover machines, corrugated-board machines.
Verneregler Nr.3, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, 20 Feb. 1973. 32p. Illus.
Szadkowski D., Pett R., Angerer J., Manz A., Lehnert G.
Chronic occupational exposure to solvents - II. Toluene level in blood and excretion rates of metabolites in urine as criteria for the exposure of photogravure printers
Chronische Lösungsmittelbelastung am Arbeitsplatz - II. Schadstoffspiegel im Blut und Metabolitenelimination im Harn in ihrer Bedeutung als Überwachungskriterien bei toluolexponierten Tiefdruckern [en alemán]
The relationship between toluene blood level and hippuric acid excretion was investigated in 94 photogravure printers with toluene exposure. Toluene in air and blood was determined by gas chromatography (see part I, CIS 2697-1973, Dafb Dafc Qif Qnl), and hippuric acid by spectroscopy. The results show good correlation between toluene concentrations in air and blood, whereas the excretion rates of hippuric acid showed no dependence on the concentrations of toluene in air or in blood. Phenol levels in the urine were closely related to the excretion of hippuric acid. The authors doubt the value of determining phenol excretion in urine for the supervision of workers exposed simultaneously to benzene and toluene.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 31 Aug. 1973, Vol.31, No.4, p.265-276. Illus. 23 ref.
Safety specifications for controls and signaling devices for printing presses.
This standard, sponsored by the National Safety Council and the Printing Industries of America, lays down safety specifications for the design, layout, designation, colour scheme, and safety interlocking features of main drive controls and signalling devices for: web-fed commercial and publication printing presses; sheet-fed printing presses; and web-fed newspaper publication printing presses. Letterpress, planographic and gravure variants of the above presses are covered.
ANSI B65.1-1972, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA. Standard approved 8 Aug. 1972. 19p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: US-$3.75.
Early changes in the ovarian function of women in occupational contact with inorganic lead.
Results of ovarian function studies in 100 female workers exposed to lead-tin alloys in a printing-plate factory. Diagnostic techniques used were cytology of vaginal smears, determination of ALAD activity and urinary coproporphyrins, and counts of stippled erythrocytes and reticulocytes. Comparisons with a control group of 100 non-exposed female workers showed a greater incidence of anovular cycles and cycles with disturbed lutein phase in lead workers. The disorders observed enable the harmful effects of inorganic lead to be detected at an early stage.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.161-166. Illus. 15 ref.
Brief health disorders due to air humidifiers in printing shops
Kurzdauernde Gesundheitsstörungen durch Luftbefeuchter in graphischen Betrieben [en alemán]
Influenza-type illness and other signs and symptoms (cough, dyspnoea) attributed to the use of centrifugal humidifiers were discussed. The water tank was acting as a culture medium for bacillus subtilis which was being vaporised with the water. Hygiene measures were introduced and no further illness was observed when the humidifier was put into service again. Similarities of this disease to byssinosis and threshers' lung were noted. Similar phenomena were encountered in dentists.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Feb. 1972, Vol.22, No.2, p.35-38. Illus. 5 ref.
Magnusson B., Mobacken H.
Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylate printing plates in a printing plant
Reference to the literature on acrylic resin or monomer sensitisation and a brief description of the production of photopolymer printing plates (metal plates coated with light-sensitive acrylic monomer) is followed by a report on 4 cases of contact dermatitis in printers. Patch tests gave strongly positive reactions to unexposed monomer taken from the plates. The composition of the acrylic resin is patented and it was not possible to determine the nature of the contact allergen. Tests with methylmethacrylate and four other acrylic monomers proved negative.
Berufs-Dermatosen, June 1972, Vol.20, No.3, p.138-142. 10 ref.
Fire hazards in the printing industry
Les risques d'incendie dans les industries des arts graphiques [en francés]
This profusely illustrated brochure designed for small and medium-sized printing works gives statistical data on fires in the Paris region, reviews the relevant French statutory provisions, and indicates safety precautions for printing works. The hazards are due in particular to the use of a flammable printing substrate, the use of combustible inks and the occurrence of static electricity. These hazards are considered and the individual departments of a printing works are dealt with (printing preparation, printing, ink preparation, guillotining, stapling, binding, waste disposal) with an indication of the most effective fire-prevention measures and the most suitable fire-fighting equipment. A page is devoted to the evacuation of the premises in the event of a fire, and another page to recent developments which will reduce the fire hazard.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1972. 68p. Illus. 13 ref.
Determining optimal characteristics for acoustic signals used in printing and papermaking machinery
Beitrag zur Ermittlung optimaler akustischer Signaleffekte bei Druck- und Papierverarbeitungsmaschinen [en alemán]
Serious accidents continue to occur on printing and papermaking machinery because the signal emitted when machnes are started up is not heard due to the background noise in the workshop. Frequency-band analyses were carried out on acoustic signals and machine noise, and the results were compared in order to determine the optimal frequency range and sound power level of the acoustic signal and the optimal location for the signal generator to ensure that the signal is audible above the machine noise. Human factors are also considered and proposals are made for imporving safety conditions.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, Aug. 1972, No.8, p.285-292. Illus. 11 ref.
Papermaking - Paper processing - Printing
Papiererzeugung - Papierverarbeitung - Druck [en alemán]
This plastic covered loose-leaf folder contains safety regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany, which must be observed by manufacturers, importers and users of papermaking and printing machines. The previous edition (see CIS 71-435) has been supplemented by provisions on plastics processing, regulations under the Work Equipment Act, and rules and data sheets on eye protection, benzene, chlorinated hydrocarbons, noise protection, press guarding and polyurethane paints. Also included are the texts of ILO Convention 119 and ILO Recommendation 118, and the ILO Model code of safety regulations.
Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Fachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 62 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1972. 2nd supplement. Complete document: approx. 800p. Illus. Bibl.
Safety in print - Guarding of wire stitching and book sewing machines [United Kingdom]
Methods of preventing accidents on wire stitching and book sewing machines. Sections cover: a summary of the requirements of the Factories Act 1961 regarding machine guarding; safe working methods; types of guard suitable for wire stitching and book sewing machines; and useful safety features (finger guard on industrial sewing machines, retaining device for sewn sections and safety devices on foot controls).
British Federation of Master Printers, 11 Bedford Row, London WC1R 4Dx, United Kingdom, Jan. 1972. 32p. Illus.
Pasternack B., Ehrlich L.
Occupational exposure to an oil mist atmosphere - A 12-year mortality study
The mortality pattern of 778 pressmen occupationally exposed to oil mist and a control group of 1,207 compositors was investigated in a newspaper plant for the period 1958-1969. The factors considered included age, duration of employment at the plant, and causes of death. There were no statistically significant differences between the mortality patterns of pressmen and compositors first employed at the plant when they were less than 40 years of age, but there were significant differences between pressmen and compositors first employed when they were at least 40yrs old and who spent at least 20yrs at the plant.
Archives of Environmental Health, Oct. 1972, Vol.25, No.4, p.286-294. Illus. 17 ref.
Health and Safety at Work Series, No.11, Department of Employment, London.
Guarding of hand-fed platen machines.
Describes and illustrates automatic trip or "stop motion" guards for prevention of accidents between the platen and the form of these printing machines. Reproduces 6 rules specifying minimum standards for these guards, agreed upon in 1938 by users of these machines and printers' engineers, followed by practical notes on trip guards, design and fitting, testing and training of operators.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1971. 10p. Illus. Price £0.10.
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