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  • Printing, photography and photocopying industry

1987

CIS 89-1015 Machines for the printing branch. Printing presses. Safety [Finland]
Graafisen alan koneet. Painokoneet. Työturvallisuus [en finlandés]
This standard specifies technical safety requirements for nip protection, starting alarm, access ways and railings, control elements and manuals. Detailed requirements for sheet printing and cylinder printing machines are included.
Finnish Standards Association, Bulevardi 5, 00120 Helsinki 12, Finland, Apr. 1987. 11p. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 89-223 Heim T., von Däniken A.
List of chemicals used in the graphic arts: Guide for the handling of substances hazardous to health and the environment
Liste des produits chimiques utilisés dans la branche graphique - Indications concernant la manipulation des substances dangereuses pour la santé et l'environnement [en francés]
Commentaries and definitions in this manual are in French. The list of chemicals is in German and French. It includes for each product listed: trade name, use, manufacturer's name, composition, toxicity level (on a scale of 1 to 5, 1 being "extremely toxic"), the MAK value (FRG MAK values), additional data (chemical family, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, skin absorption, etc.).
Union suisse des lithographes, Optingenstrasse 5, 3000 Berne 25, Switzerland, Jan. 1987. 43p. + Annex.

CIS 88-1979 Fukaya Y., Ohno Y., Matsumoto T., Arafuka M.
Blood lead and blood pressure - An analysis of health examination materials in two companies for lead poisoning
Chichū enryō to chiatsu - Bōni jigyōjo de no en kenshin shiryō kara [en japonés]
Whether blood pressure is higher among those occupationally exposed to low concentrations of lead is a matter of interest in recent epidemiological studies. To explore this issue, 348 male workers in a vinyl chloride-manufacturing company and a newspaper company were examined. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure appeared to increase with age and obesity. Blood levels decreased as obesity increased. Systolic blood pressure was higher among those with high blood lead levels (7µg/dL or more), when they were both young (less than 43 years old) and less obese (less than 3.5% of the obesity index). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure appeared to be higher among those with high blood lead levels when they were obese, irrespective of age. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Aug. 1987, Vol.42, No.3, p.754-761. 18 ref.

CIS 88-1995 Bajnova A., Muhtarova M., Mihajlova A., Hristeva V.
New data about occupational risks associated with photocopying
Novi danni za professionalnija risk pri fotokopirane [en búlgaro]
Thirteen operators were examined for occupational dermatoses necessitating reassignment. The concentration of airborne ozone 60min after setting the machines in operation was 0.15-0.17mg/m3. Attemps to detect airborne selenium were unsuccessful. Pruritis, papulovesicular rashes and occupational contact eczema were established 4-6 months after beginning work. Confirmed contact allergens in 6 of the operators were toner type B, drum-cleaning fluid and fuser oil. Epicutaneous tests of mercury, cobalt, chromium, mercaptobenzothiazole, colophany and Peru balsam were positive. Measures for reducing exposure of the operators to the allergens were put in practice.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.6, p.32-36. 20 ref.

CIS 88-1567 Safety in the use of chemical products in the printing industry
This directive covers chemical hazards (effects of inhalation, skin and eye contact, ingestion; exposure limits; fire and explosion); using chemicals safely (general scheme; collection of information; selection of the least hazardous product; risk assessment; control measures for inhalation, skin and eye contact, ingestion, fire and explosion; storage, handling and transport; spillage control; disposal; maintenance work; housekeeping; first aid; personnel instruction and training; record keeping and control measures review). Legal references and sources of information and advice are given.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 14p. 48 ref.

CIS 88-1056
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat Vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyh sojuzov
Approval of a standard list of strenuous and hazardous jobs in enterprises of the printing industry for which workers may be awarded supplemental payments on account of working conditions [USSR]
Ob utverždenii tipovogo perečnja rabot s tjaželymi i vrednymi uslovijami truda na kotoryh mogut ustanavlivat'sja doplaty rabočim za uslovija truda na predprijatijah poligrafičeskoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
This decision 80 of 3 Oct. 1986 brings into force a list of 49 jobs that includes: production of polyurethane resins and fabrication of rolls from the material: preparation of synthetic glues; assembly of printed materials; retouching, printing and mounting of negatives and slides; welding of plastics with high-frequency equipment. This list replaces the one approved by decision No.326/34 of 14 Dec. 1972.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No.6, p.49-51.

CIS 88-1206 Malker H.S.R., Gemne G.
A register-epidemiology study on cancer among Swedish printing industry workers
The Swedish Cancer Environment Registry, a population-based Cancer Registry, has been supplemented with 1960 census data on occupation and industry. This information system was used to generate hypotheses on occupational high-cancer-risk groups and to discuss some methodological problems connected with register epidemiology. By successive exclusion of parts of the original population of printing industry workers with excess risks of lung and cervical cancer, it was possible to consider similarities and differences between subgroups. The excess risk of cervical cancer disappeared when gainfully employed persons and blue-collar workers were used as controls. After the exclusion procedure there was an excess risk of lung cancer among typographers and lithographers in printing enterprises, especially in some birth-cohorts, due possibly to the working environment.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1987, Vol.42, No.2, p.73-82. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 88-543 Deng J.F., Wang J.D., Shih T.S., Lan F.L.
Outbreak of carbon tetrachloride poisoning in a color printing factory related to the use of isopropyl alcohol and an air conditioning system in Taiwan
Three workers from a colour printing plant were admitted to hospital with acute hepatitis. One of the 3 had superimposed acute renal failure and pulmonary oedema. Results of comprehensive medical examinations of workers from the plant and of an on-the-scene investigation led to the conclusion that the outbreak was in all likelihood due to a combined exposure to carbon tetrachloride and isopropyl alcohol. This outbreak underscores the importance of adopting appropriate industrial hygiene measures in a rapidly industrialising nation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.1, p.11-19. Illus. 16 ref.

1986

CIS 89-1333
Health and Safety Commission; Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Safety in the use of isocyanate pre-polymers in the printing and printed packaging industries
This guidance was adopted under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 with the aim to secure safe working conditions when materials containing organic isocyanate pre-polymers are used in the printing and printed packaging industries. It makes recommendations designed to ensure that the airborne emission of isocyanates into the workroom atmosphere is minimised and for the provision of protective equipment, when necessary, together with recommendations on the training and information that people who may be exposed to isocyanates should receive. Sections dealing with air monitoring and health assessment are also included. Other materials, such as fire safety and control of highly flammable liquids are referred to, but only to the extent that these are directly relevant to the use of isocyanate pre-polymers. In the appendices: isocyanates used in flexible packaging; decontaminants; technical and legal references.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1986. 13p. 28 ref. Price: GBP 2.75.

CIS 87-1378 Nethercott J.R., Nosal R.
Contact dermatitis in printing tradesmen
During a 2-year period in Toronto, Canada, 21 printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis were evaluated. 67% had allergic contact dermatitis; 29% due to ultraviolet-cured ink components. Irritant contact dermatitis accounted for 33% of the cases. The prognosis in printing tradesmen with contact deratitis is guarded, except for those with allergic contact dermatitis due to UV-cured components, as the tradesmen who were sensitised to other contactants eventually left the trade. Offset lithography was associated with the problem in 18 of the 21 cases. A brief outline is given of the printing processes in common use.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1986, Vol.14, No.5, p.280-287. 20 ref.

CIS 87-1484 Noise reduction at buckle folding machines
This guide contains measures which can be used on new machines as well as on machines already in service. Covered are: noise levels at the machines; noise reduction at new machines; noise reduction for other machines (general principles, noise hoods, practical design considerations, compressor noise, full machine enclosure); legal requirements in the United Kingdom; availability of noise hoods for the machines; bibliography.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1986. 9p. Illus. Appendices. Bibl. Price: Ł2.50.

CIS 87-967 Health and safety for small firms in the print industry
This guide is intended for employers and employees. Covered are: processes (origination, printing, finishing); office equipment; safety and the law (health, chemicals, inks, solvents and adhesives, mechanical safety, safe systems of work, noise, fire and explosion, electrical hazards, manual handling, fork lift trucks, place of work, selecting new premises, acquiring a new machine, use of new materials or substances, safety organisation, training, health and safety representatives, legal requirements, the factory inspector, keeping up to date); organisations and addresses.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1986. 27p. Illus. 54 ref. Appendices. Index. Price: Ł3.50.

CIS 87-538
Comité technique national du livre, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie
Continuous platen printing presses (Recommendation R 277)
Presses ŕ platine travaillant en continu (Recommandation R 277) [en francés]
This text modifies and supplements Recommendation No. 121 (see CIS 86-840). It concerns the hazards presented by the holders for the paper rolls, by the printing elements themselves and by the finishing and folding machinery, and describes appropriate ways of assuring operator safety.
Travail et sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 1986, No.9-10, p.555-556. Illus.

CIS 87-551 Vogt P., Spycher M.A., Rüttner J.R.
Pneumoconiosis due to rare earths (Cerium pneumoconiosis)
Pneumokoniose durch "Seltene Erden" (Cer-Pneumokoniose) [en alemán]
Slowly progressive restriction in respiratory function was observed in five reproduction photographers who had been exposed to fumes of carbon arc lamps for more than a decade. In all cases interstitial lung fibrosis had developed and accumulations of fine granular dust particles were found in the tissue. Combined analyses including X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, plasma analysis, X-ray microanalysis and electron diffraction revealed the presence of rare earth minerals (mainly cerium compounds) in all lungs. The rare earth minerals originating from the core of the burned carbon rods used in the arc lamps represent the etiological factors responsible for the development of so-called "cerium pneumoconiosis".
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 1986, Vol.116, No.38, p.1303-1308. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 86-1904 Hansen T.B., Andersen B.
Ozone and other air pollutants from photocopying machines
The ozone emission from 69 different units was determined by a described standard procedure. The emission rates ranged from 0 to 1350µg/min. The maximum ozone concentration in the breathing zone of 19 workers ranged from 0.001 to 0.15ppm. Technical conditions for the amount of ozone generated are described and the efficiencies of activated carbon filters are evaluated. Concentrations for selenium and cadmium were less than the limit of detection, 0.004 and 0.6µg/m3, respectively. Dust concentrations (toner) in the air exhausted from photocopiers ranged from 0.05 to 0.5mg/m3. Vapours from the resins in the toner were detected but the health hazards from these vapours and the possible products from reaction with ozone are unknown and require further research.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1986, Vol.47, No.10, p.659-665. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 86-1445 Commercial printing - Safety and health guide for supervisors, joint health and safety committees, employees
Aspects covered: legal requirements; hazard analysis; chemical, electrical and mechanical safety; press operations; materials handling; information sources.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1986. 55p.

1985

CIS 90-1848
Branchesikkerhedsrĺdet
Work with photocopying machines
Arbejde med fotokopimaskiner [en danés]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on safe practices for work with photocopying machines: technical description of the duplication process; a checklist for safe working methods (placement of the machine, noise and temperature, cleaning and maintenance, ventilation, ozone filters, toner powders); health hazards associated with ozone (Danish TLV: 0.1ppm), toner powders, photosensitive materials, heat and noise. A list of relevant Danish laws, directives and other useful literature is appended.
Arbejdsmiljřfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, 1st ed., 1985. 7p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 88-938 Monitoring of lead poisoning in battery manufacturing workers and in printers
Akü ve matbaa işçilerinde kurşun zehirlenmesi taranmasi [en turco]
This survey (with an inserted English-language summary) of 744 battery workers and 604 printers demonstrated high (>49.9µg/dL) blood levels in 25.2% of the battery workers and 4.1% of the printers, while it showed "acceptable" (30-49.9µg/dL) blood lead levels in 16.1% of the battery workers and 6.9% of the printers. Protoporphyrin IX analysis showed a higher percentage of affected workers: 69.8% among the battery workers and 13.2% among the printers registered high (>79.9µg/dL) protoporphyrin IX levels. In general, blood lead level determination proved to be more sensitive a test of lead exposure than protoporphyrin IX analysis.
IŞGÜM, PK: 393 Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey, 1985. 49p.

CIS 88-946 Newspaper print rooms: measurement of total particulates and cyclohexane soluble material in air
Guidance note on an empirical laboratory method using filters and gravimetric estimation. The smallest quantity of material that may be weighed with this method and with a coefficient of variation of 10% is 50µg. The precision will vary with the balance used and with details of handling procedure. As the determination is gravimetric, any particulate airborne material will contribute to the final figure. Additional information is presented on the properties and occurrence of dust and mists in newspaper print rooms.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 2QY, United Kingdom, Aug. 1986. 4p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: GBP 0.50.

CIS 87-373
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Printing and paper converting [Federal Republic of Germany]
Druck und Papierverarbeitung (VBG 7i) [en alemán]
Directive concerning safety regulations for machinery in the printing and paper converting industries.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Oct. 1985. 23+20p. Illus.

CIS 86-1756 Robak B., Schlecht M., Streich W.
Stress due to procedures and operations in the printing industry
Verfahrens- und tätigkeitsspezifische Arbeitsbelastungen in der Druckindustrie [en alemán]
This report is based on the results of factory inspections, individual and group interviews and a research project carried out in the printing industry in 1980. The description of working conditions concentrates on the type of work and stress combinations (noise, dangerous materials, physical stress, monotony, responsibility, time constraints, night and shift work) present in the printing industry. Various factory sizes (according to the number of employees), printing technologies, machine equipment and types of products are considered. The combinations of factors mentioned are reduced to three ideal types, forming the framework of the report: magazine production using photogravure printing (large enterprises), newspaper production using relief printing (medium-sized enterprises), job-production using offset printing (small enterprises). Presentation of applied or recommended measures for the reduction of stress.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 144p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 86-840
(Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés)
Prevention of occupational accidents and diseases in the publishing industry: Recommendation R 121
Prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles dans les industries du livre: Recommandation R 121 [en francés]
This document contains recommendations for the prevention of risks inherent in the use of machinery in the publishing industry. Preventive measures common to all machines are provided first, followed by measures appropriate for each machine category: printing presses, gilding and embossing machines, hole-punching machines, trimmers, shears, baling presses, binding and stitching machines. An appendix discusses two-hand controls, and electronic guards, and it gives a list of permissible concentrations in workplace air of the principal solvent fumes found in the industry. Examples are given of safety rules and regulations in effect in France.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Nov. 1985. 239p. Illus.

CIS 86-555 Guillotine cutters
Aspects covered in this data sheet: description of the various cutters and their safety systems; hazards (hand injuries from knives and clamps); safe operating procedures; maintenance and repair.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 8p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 86-356 Lundström R., Lindberg L.
Whole-body vibration in work in a standing position
Helkroppsvibrationer vid arbete i stĺende ställning [en sueco]
About 100 places of work, including ships, aircraft, trains and printing houses were investigated as regards human exposure to whole-body vibration while standing. Vibration at frequencies of 0.2-100Hz was measured in 3 perpendicular directions under normal operating conditions. Third-octave bands and broad-banded frequency weighted acceleration levels were determined. Low vibration levels, in most cases below 100dBv, were generally found for all environments; in some cases levels were below the perception threshold for vibration. The highest vibration levels were found in the vertical direction but on ice-breakers dominant vibrations in the front-to-back direction could also be demonstrated. No limitations in working-hours should in general be recommended according to the guidelines given in relevant Swedish or ISO standards.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 84p. Illus. Price: Swe.cr.40.00.

CIS 86-193 Maizlish N.A., Langolf G.D., Whitehead L.W., Fine L.J., Albers J.W., Goldberg J., Smith P.
Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents
In this cross-sectional study of behavioural performance by printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents, 124 exposed and 116 unexposed workers from 4 plants participated in a battery of behavioural tests, exposure tests and a medical examination. The major solvents concerned were isopropanol and haxane. No significant relationship was found between solvent exposure level and mental impairment as measured in any of the 10 behavioural tests. In comparisons of exposed and non-exposed workers, memory span was significantly shorter in the exposed group, while no significant differences were found in the other tests. No abnormalities of clinical significance were found in any of the workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1985, Vol.42, No.9, p.579-590. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 86-147 Garabrant D.H.
Dermatitis from aziridine hardener in printing ink
13 of 51 workers developed dermatitis of the hands and face after handling a water-based ink containing a polyfunctional aziridine hardening agent made from propylenimine and trimethylolpropane triacrylate. The incidence of dermatitis was highest among the ink mixers who handled the undiluted aziridine, was lower among printers who handled ink containing 2-4% aziridine, and was zero in workers who did not handle ink. The mean latency from 1st contact with the ink to development of the rash was 3.2 months among the ink mixers and 6.2 months among the printers. Improper work practices and inadequate protective clothing contributed to the problem.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1985, Vol.12, No.4, p.209-212. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 86-80 Slater R.
Ammonia - Its use in reprographic print rooms
This information note deals with the specific hazards of working with ammonia liquor (a solution of ammonia in water), used as the developer in reprographic printing: irritation and damage to the eye; damage to the mucous lining of the mouth, throat and stomach due to swallowing. Main preventive measures: following the operator's handbook; avoiding spillings; in case of spillage, immediate mopping up.
Safety Practitioner, May 1985, Vol.3, No.5, p.30-31. 1 ref.

1984

CIS 85-1932 Freeman S.
Allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one in gum arabic
Proxel GXL (1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one) is a preservative widely used in industry. The manufacturer states that it is a known skin irritant and sensitiser, but these facts are not well known. In the given case, a lithoprinter developed a contact allergy to the compound when it was used in the gum arabic solution used to coat printing rollers. Proxel GXL should be included in the patch test battery used for printers and other workers who may encounter the compound in engineering fluids, adhesives, paints, etc.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1984, Vol.II, No.3, p.146-149. 9 ref.

CIS 85-1736 Halton D.M.
Occupational exposures from spirit-duplicator operations
Risques auxquels s'exposent les travailleurs qui emploient un duplicateur ŕ alcool [en francés]
The current technology used in spirit duplicating is briefly described. The potential for overexposure to methanol is discussed and preventive measures are presented.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 1H6, 1984. 9p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 85-850 Haberland W., Meyhak J.
Printing and paper
Druck und Papier [en alemán]
This loose-leaf collection of all the OSH regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the design, manufacture, installation and use of machines and processes for the wood and plastics industries (particularly, the 1979 version of the law on safety engineering and the safety rules promulgated by the industrial mutual accident insurance associations). This update contains a list of French standards which are equivalent to German ones (with safety specifications), directives for testing laboratories, notifications of the banning of dangerous equipment, various legal cases and the list of MAK values for 1984. A section on international law contains Convention 119 and Recommendation 118 of the ILO concerning machine safety, and the EEC regulations on safe working methods and work with low voltage.
Band 1, Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Fachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 6200 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Federal Republic of Germany, 16th update, 1984. Vol.1 complete: 1800p. Price: DM.119.00.

CIS 85-846 Occupational hygiene aspects of reprographic activities
Arbeidshygiënische aspekten van reprografische werkzaamheden [en holandés]
Report prepared by a special work group. Sections deal with: stress factors; standards, directives and recommendations with regard to noise, chemical factors and thermal indoor climate; pattern of complaints; offset equipment (techniques, chemical aspects, noise, precautions to be taken); photocopying equipment (techniques, toner, chemical aspects, noise, light source, precautions); electronic stencil scanners; afterprocessing equipment; hygiene measures to be taken in reprography rooms (ventilation, thermal comfort). Points to be considered when offset and copying equipment is purchased, rules for calculating the evaporation volume of washing and rinsing fluids, danger symbols and other useful information are appended.
Rijks Geneeskundige Dienst, Afd. Arbeidshygiëne en Ergonomie, Postbus 20012, 2500 EA Den Haag, Netherlands, Aug. 1984, 43p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 85-538 Approved code of practice for photo-engraving and lithographic processes
This code covers etching of magnesium and zinc plates, solvent washout of photopolymer plates and lithographic etching with corrosive fluids. A summary of Department of Labour policy and general precautions and safe working methods are provided.
Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand, 1984. 22p. Illus.

CIS 85-231 Haberland W., Meyhak J.
Printing and paper
Druck und Papier [en alemán]
This loose-leaf compendium contains all the safety and health regulations in effect in the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the design, construction, installation and use of machinery in the printing and paper industries (such as the law on safety engineering, 1979 version, and the codes of practice and safety regulations laid down by the industrial mutual accident insurance associations). This update contains notifications of compliance labels, comments on the law on safety engineering, and a list of MAC values. Convention 119 and Recommendation 118 of the International Labour Organisation relating to machine guarding and European Economic Community regulations relating to technical working rules and to low-voltage electric work are listed under "International Law".
Band 1, Schriftenreihe Maschinenschutz, Deutscher Fachschriften-Verlag, Felsenstrasse 23, 6200 Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, Federal Republic of Germany, 15th update, 1984. Vol.1 (complete): 1700p. Price: DM.119.00.

CIS 84-1948 Goh C.L., Kwok S.F., Rajan V.S.
Cross sensitivity in colour developers
Four workers in photographic developing laboratories in Singapore developed allergic contact dermatitis in response to the colour developer CD4 (2-amino-5-(N-ethyl-N-(β-hydroxyethyl)amino)toluene sulfonate); they presented with lichen planus-like eruptions and 1 with an eczematous reaction. Patch tests showed that the patients were also sensitive to the chemically related developers CD2 and CD3. 3 of the 4 workers were unable to return to their jobs. Although the 4th took protective measures when returning to work, the dermatitis recurred.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1984, Vol.10, No.5, p.280-285. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 84-1750 Frederick L.J., Schulte P.A., Apol A.
Investigation and control of occupational hazards associated with the use of spirit duplicators
Health hazard evaluation conducted by NIOSH to determine the possibility of adverse health effects in teacher aides using direct-process methanol duplicating machines. Concentrations of airborne methanol in the duplicating room ranged from 365-3080ppm; 15 of 21 measurement exceeded the 800ppm (15min) limit recommended by NIOSH. Workers reported significantly more methanol poisoning symptoms than a non-exposed control group. A mean 96% reduction in exposure was accomplished using inexpensive enclosures and existing room exhaust systems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.51-55. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 84-1583 Kulmala I., Tapola M., Christiansen V.
(Technical Research Centre of Finland)
Ventilation of screen printing plants
Seripainon ilmanvaihto [en finlandés]
The heavy use of organic solvents in screen printing establishments can result in concentrations of these solvents in the air of the workplace exceeding the TLV, even in the presence of general ventilation. This report evaluates the effect of 4 local exhaust systems suitable for such workplaces. The concentration of solvents in the air was reduced by 80-90% after correct application of these local exhaust systems. The effect of a canopy hood used in one screen printing unit was also evaluated. Directions are given for the design of ventilation systems in these workplaces.
Government Printing Centre, P.O. Box 516, 00101 Helsinki 10, Finland, 1984. 121p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 84-1661 Lidén C.
Occupational dermatoses at a film laboratory
A questionnaire survey answered by 103 of the 114 employees of a cinematographic film processing laboratory revealed that 43 of the employees had some exposure to chemicals in their work, and that 21 of them had dermatoses. Clinical examination and patch testing showed that 12 cases were due to contact allergy to one of the chemicals CD-2, CD-3, Metol or PBA-1. Tests with guinea pigs showed the isothiuronium salt PBA-1 to be a potent sensitiser. Two cases of lichenoid reaction to colour developing agents were also seen. Five types of protective glove were tested. CD-2 and Metol penetrated all 5, CD-3 penetrated thin polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene and latex, and PBA-1 penetrated none.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1984, Vol.10, No.2, p.77-87. Illus. 43 ref.

1983

CIS 89-209 Hansen T.B.
Investigation of hazardous airborne components from electrostatic copying processes
Sundhedsskadelige stoffer i luften ved fotokopiering - Elektrostatisk [en danés]
This report covers the number and types of these copiers in Denmark. The toxicology of ozone and risks from other potential hazardous substances are described. Concentrations of 0.1ppm ozone in the breathing zone and 0.05-1.0ppm in the machine exhausts were found. An exhaustive literature review is included.
Arbejdsmiljřfondet, Vesterbrogade 69, 1620 Křbenhavn V, Denmark, 1983. Illus. 87 ref.

CIS 85-1737 Halton D.M.
Photocopiers - do they pose a health hazard?
Photocopieurs - présentent-ils des dangers pour la santé? [en francés]
When installling and using photocopying machines special attention should be given to: 1) the refilling and disposal techniques for toner in dry machines (air vented from the machine into the copier room should be filtered); 2) the levels of isodecane produced by machines using a liquid toner; 3) the levels of ozone produced by any type of photocopier (the availability of charcoal ozone filters should be explored); 4) the heat and noise levels; 5) the possibility of exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 1H6, Apr. 1983. 23p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 85-1145
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Safety in newspaper production
This guidance publication covers: description of newspaper production; cleanliness, temperature, lighting and noise conditions; reel handling; presses and their guarding; the publishing room; maintenance; fire prevention and firefighting; training; health hazards. A hazard checklist is given and there is a glossary of technical terms.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1983. 33p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: Ł4.00.

CIS 85-861 Featherstone D., Shaw S.
Overexposure: health hazards in photography
This book provides information for photographers about chemicals and processes that may jeopardize their health and about those which pose few problems. Chapters cover: harmful chemicals and their action on the human body; safety in the darkroom and studio; black-and-white and colour photographic processes; historical silver processes; non-silver photographic processes; photographic printmaking processes; conservation and restoration. A trade name index is provided.
The Friends of Photography, P.O. Box 500, Carmel, CA 93921, USA, 1983. 329p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$14.95.

CIS 85-549 Nijman F.
Wet- and dry-process photocopying machines - Risks associated with their use
Fotokopieer- en fotostencilapparaten - Enkele risico's bij het gebruik [en holandés]
Health hazards presented by these machines include ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, airborne toner, metal vapours released from photosensitive drums, diazo compounds contained in photosensitive paper, vapours of ammonia and developers (depending on the type of copier), pyrolysis products, particles of soot and disagreeable odours (released during the cutting of stencils in polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene). Recommendations: exhaust ventilation, air filtration. Formulas are given for calculating the required air turnover for rooms containing different types of photocopier.
De veiligheid, Sep. 1983, Vol.59, No.9, p.449-453. 24 ref.

CIS 85-145 Cullen M.R., Rado T., Waldron J.A., Sparer J., Welch L.S.
Bone marrow injury in lithographers exposed to glycol ethers and organic solvents used in multicolor offset and ultraviolet curing printing processes
Following a fatal case of aplastic anaemia in a printer, dermal and respiratory exposures to dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and a range of aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons used for offset and ultraviolet-cured multicolour printing were evaluated in a search for possible workplace substances with marrow toxicity. Evaluation of 7 co-workers revealed normal peripheral blood pictures, but bone marrow specimens demonstrated clear patterns of injury in 3, and the others had non-specific signs of a marrow effect. These changes could not be explained by known risk factors. Possible bone marrow toxicity resulting from exposure to glycol ethers and ultraviolet curing processes is suggested. Peripheral blood counts were an insensitive tool in the study of haematologic toxins acting at the bone marrow level.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1983, Vol.38, No.6, p.347-354. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 84-1973 Sorsa M., Donner M., Falck K., Heinonen T., Hemminki K., Husgafvel-Pursiainen K., Lindbohm M.L., Mäki-Paakkanen J., Norppa H., Vainio H.
Genotoxic effects of occupational chemical exposure
Työperäisen kemiallisen altistumisen genotoksiset vaikutukset [en finlandés]
A study of groups of workers in the reinforced plastics, rotogravure printing and rubber industries. The reactivity, metabolism and mutagenicity of some potential problem chemicals were studied in the laboratory. Worker exposure to genotoxic agents was then assessed by determining the mutagenicity of urine samples, with bacteria as the indicator organisms. Examination of lymphocytes from the workers showed a marked elevation in chromosomal aberrations in reinforced plastics workers, who are exposed to styrene; rubber workers, who are exposed to several agents, showed frequencies of chromosomal aberration only slightly higher than control values, and printing industry workers, exposed to toluene, showed no increase at all. Smoking was associated with chromosome defects. There was no elevated frequency of spontaneous abortion among women in the rubber industry as a whole, and no teratogenic effect was observed. A subset of the women in the rubber industry was at risk of spontaneous abortion, but no cause was identified.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1983, No.3, p.170-191. Illus. 102 ref.

CIS 84-1505 Määttä T., Mattila M.
The effect of lifting tables on workload in the graphics industry
Lavanostimen vaikutus nostotyön ergonomiseen kuormitukseen graafisessa teollisuudessa [en finlandés]
Description of an automatic lifting table used to reduce the workload involved in lifting paper stacks in a printing shop. The table was placed at the loading and unloading ends of a guillotine shear. Average load on the whole body of the workers involved decreased by 35%, load on the back by 40% and on the lower limbs by 90%.
Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Labor Protection, P.O. Box 527, 33101 Tampere 10, Finland, 1983. 18p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 84-1574 Hoffmann S.
Research into the influence of dark-room work on the visual system
Untersuchungen über den Einfluss von Dunkelraumarbeit auf das visuelle System [en alemán]
Ophthalmologic study of 150 workers in the film-production industry who regularly work in dark-rooms. Results are classified according to subjective complaints and pathological findings, taking into consideration immediate adaptation of the eyes and sensitivity to glare. Half the workers had neurovegetative disorders (not confirmed by pathological observations). Results of nyctometric examinations were all within the normal range. The neurovegetative disorders can be explained by using Hollwich's hypothesis on the composition of the retina and the energetic proportion of the optic tract.
Folia Ophthalmologica, 1983, No.8, p.29-34. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 84-1395 Pedersen N.B., Senning A., Nielsen A.O.
Different sensitising acrylic monomers in Napp printing plate
Three chemically pure fractions were isolated from Napp printing plate and subsequently identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectrophotometry and elemental analysis. One of the fractions elicited positive reactions in 3 Napp-allergic printers, and another fraction elicited a positive response in one of them. The 2 allergens were 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Hydroxyethyl methacrylate was also found in another printing plate, Nyloprint WD.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.459-464. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 84-1353 Cesana G.C., Zanettini R., Galli M., Ferrario M., Panza G., Grieco A.
Stress and coronary risk in shiftworkers
164 newspaper printing workers exposed to noise of approx. 90dBA were studied by questionnaire (Italian translation of a NIOSH method), psychometric tests, individual health file, and clinical and laboratory data analysis. There was a progressive increase in adaptation and selection with the aging of the working population; a breakdown in adaptation was associated with the main behavioural coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor such as cigarette smoking; there were no correlations between adaptation indices and laboratory CHD risk factors. At the same time, the reliability of the NIOSH questionnaire for the Italian working population was confirmed.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1983, Vol.74, No.5, p.351-360. 46 ref.

CIS 84-1444 Commercial printing safety and health guide
This manual covers all occupational safety and health aspects of the printing industry in Ontario. This includes legal requirements, analysis of specific hazards, recognition and control of chemical and physical hazards, safety precautions and procedures, resource materials.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1983. 191p. (loose leaves). Bibl.

CIS 84-1327 Nethercott J.R., Jakubovic H.R., Pilger C., Smith J.W.
Allergic contact dermatitis due to urethane acrylate in ultraviolet cured inks
7 cases are reported: 6 were allergic and one irritant. A urethane acrylate resin accounted for 5 cases of sensitisation, one of which was also sensitive to pentaerythritol triacrylate and another also to an epoxy acrylate resin. One case was an allergy to trimethylpropane triacrylate. The process is described, in which plastic containers had print applied to their exterior surface by offset printing and were then led past a bank of intense UV lamps to dry the printed surface. In addition to patch tests on the affected workers, studies on the sensitisation and irritancy potentials of the acrylates and of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate are reported.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.241-250. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 84-551 Casey P., Hagger R., Harper P.
A collaborative study of 'ink mist' in U.K. newspaper press-rooms
The printing of newspapers by the letterpress process produces a relatively stable aerosol composed of small droplets of printing ink. Gravimetric and optical methods of collecting and quantifying the ink mist are evaluated and are comparable and reproducible. Levels of ink mist in the press rooms are given in terms of typical benzo(a)pyrene (b(a)p) content (as a measure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content), which ranged from 0.0052 to 0.018µg/m3. Methods for determining b(a)p in ink aerosols by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography are described.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1983, Vol.27, No.2, p.127-135. Illus. 7 ref.

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