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  • Printing, photography and photocopying industry


CIS 94-1033
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Solvent safety in printing
This booklet describes the types of solvents found in the printing industry along with their health hazards, the health and safety information to be provided by suppliers and legal requirements for risk assessment and implementation of control measures. Fire risks and precautions are also outlined.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Aug. 1993. 13p. 10 ref.

CIS 94-922 Environment and work environment in the printing industry
Miljř og arbejdsmiljř i den grafiske branche [en danés]
This two-volume report is a joint effort of the environment and work environment authorities of Denmark. Volume I concentrates on the general environment. A comprehensive review of different techniques and processes used in the industry is given. Regulations on chemical waste and cleaner technology are outlined. Volume II gives 117 ways of improving the work environment in the industry. Chemical hazards, mechanical hazards, noise, ergonomics, psychosocial factors are also dealt with.
Vol.I: Miljřstyrelsen, Strandgade 29, 1401 Křbenhavn K, 1993. 58p. Illus. 22 ref. Index. Price: DKK 75; Vol II: Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, 1993. 68p. Illus. Index.

CIS 94-599 Approved code of practice for safety in photoengraving and lithographic processes
Contents of this code of practice: summary of the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (CIS 93-701); processes discussed in this code; brief summary of occupational safety and health policy in relation to photoengraving; general precautions and safe work methods (handling of acids and organic solvents, machines with condensing systems); precautions during the etching of magnesium and zinc plates, washout of photopolymer plates and lithographic etching with corrosive fluids.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Oct. 1993. 26p. Illus. Price: NZD 10.00.

CIS 94-318 Štětkářová I., Urban P., Procházka B., Lukáš E.
Somatosensory evoked potentials in workers exposed to toluene and styrene
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used to evaluate possible subclinical impairment of the nervous system in 36 rotogravure printers with severe exposure to toluene, 20 workers with severe exposure to styrene in a glass laminate manufacturing plant, and a comparison group of healthy subjects. Exposure was estimated by measurements of toluene and styrene in breathing zone air, hippuric acid in urine in the group exposed to toluene, and urinary mandelic acid in the group exposed to styrene. Peripheral conduction velocities in the arm and leg, and central conduction time after tibial nerve stimulation were decreased in both exposed groups. Prolonged latencies of peripheral and cortical SEPs were found in workers exposed to styrene. Some abnormalities in SEP's at peripheral or spinal and cortical levels were found in both groups. A trend toward increased frequency of abnormal SEPs with duration of exposure of toluene and styrene and alcohol abuse was found. Abnormalities in SEPs in the exposed groups are most probably of multifactorial origin. Central SEP abnormalities in both exposed groups could indicate early signs of subclinical dysfunction at spinal and cortical levels and could be due to toluene or styrene exposure, probably potentiated by alcohol consumption in the group exposed to toluene.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.520-527. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 94-256 Purdham J.T., Bozek P.R., Sass-Kortsak A.S.
The evaluation of exposure of printing trade employees to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
This study was undertaken to determine the exposures of printing press operators to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and total particulate (TP), and to evaluate the factors contributing to exposure in the printing industry. Personal time-weighted average exposures of press room workers were determined on two consecutive days at nine sites, including two newspaper operations. The average PAH exposure was 16.5µg/m3 (including naphthalene), the average TP exposure was 0.63mg/m3. Newspaper plants had significantly lower exposures than commercial printing operations. Factors identified as contributing to exposure to TP were: the effectiveness of the ventilation systems, the method of feeding the press, the type of paper and the print impression area.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1993, Vol.37, No.1, p.35-44. 25 ref.

CIS 93-2063 Mamolen M., Lewis D.M., Blanchet M.A., Satink F.J., Vogt R.L.
Investigation of an outbreak of "Humidifier Fever" in a print shop
An outbreak of "humidifier fever" affected 16 (57%) of 28 workers in a print shop. The most common symptoms were myalgia, chills or subjective fever, and cough. Illness began 5-13 hours after entering the workplace, and lasted 2-24 hours. A humidifier in use on the day of the outbreak was found to be contaminated with fungi, amoebae, and Gram-negative bacteria. The risk of illness was highest for those who had been on the job three months before the outbreak, a time when the humidifier was in constant use. Serological studies of print shop workers showed positive reactions to extracts of organisms isolated from the humidifier, but could neither distinguish ill from well workers, nor identify causative organisms. The presence of endotoxin-producing bacteria and the clinical syndrome are consistent with an organic dust toxic syndrome. Previous exposure appeared to be the major risk factor for illness.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.23, No.3, p.483-490. 19 ref.

CIS 93-1913
Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Investigation of accidents and ill health in the printing industry
This booklet explains the value and purpose of the investigation of accidents and ill health and lists the key points to consider during an investigation as well as improvements which may be made. Other topics include types of incident which need investigation, reporting and record-keeping, who should undertake the investigation and implementation of follow-up action. A detailed checklist for incident investigation and reports is included.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, June 1993. 16p. 31 ref.

CIS 93-1578 Ide C.W.
Developments in the darkroom: A cross-sectional study of sickness absence, work-related symptoms and environmental monitoring of darkroom technicians in a hospital in Glasgow
Nine female technicians using both manual and automatic photography processing methods were matched by age, sex and smoking habits with controls. All were interviewed using a questionnaire about symptoms experienced during the day in question and the preceding month. Sickness absence information was obtained, and there was an occupational hygiene evaluation of the working environment. The technicians had similar numbers of episodes of sickness absence to the controls (23 versus 24, respectively) but had many more days of absence attributed to sickness (204 versus 41). The total number of "monthly" symptoms experienced by the technicians was greater than the controls (11 versus 30) as was the number of "daily" complaints (26 versus 6). In all cases, respiratory symptoms were responsible for about one-third of problems, but the differences were not statistically significant. Occupational hygiene results were all within normal limits.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.27-31. 15 ref.


CIS 93-2056 Rotary offset printing machines - Accident prevention
Machines ŕ imprimer offset ŕ bobines - Prévention des accidents [en francés]
Survey of the different kinds of offset machines and of the hazards associated with them: machine hazards, falls, fires, chemical hazards, noise. Main preventive measures include: safety distances, protection against entrapment, restricted access to danger zones and platforms, safe storage of labelled chemicals, ventilation, and noise control.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1992, No.498, p.226-231. Illus.

CIS 93-1264 Nise G.
Urinary excretion of o-cresol and hippuric acid after toluene exposure in rotogravure printing
In 62 male rotogravure printers, the time-weighted average (TWA) toluene exposure during one workweek ranged from 8 to 496mg/m3 (median 96). Post-shift urinary excretion of hippuric acid showed a poor correlation with the air toluene concentration. Level of o-cresol excretion ranged from 0.08 to 2.37mmol/mol creatinine and was associated with the exposure (rs=0.57, p<0.0001), although the variation was considerable. However, this metabolite was significantly influenced by smoking habits, both in the worker and in 21 unexposed controls. The excretion of these metabolites was followed during vacation, when the workers were unexposed. After 2-4 weeks of vacation, the concentration of o-cresol was significantly higher for the smokers than the non-smokers (0.14 vs 0.06mmol/mol creatinine). No smoking-associated difference was found for the urinary hippuric acid concentration. However, there was an association between alcohol consumption and hippuric acid excretion (p=0.003); no such difference was shown for o-cresol. These results demonstrate that hippuric acid and o-cresol excretion are unsuitable for biological monitoring of toluene exposure when the exposure level is below 200mg/m3.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.63, No.6, p.377-381. 25 ref.

CIS 93-884
Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Monitoring for health and safety in print - A guide to management action
This booklet explains the need for good health and safety management and how to monitor health and safety performance. Monitoring systems include inspection, checks and evaluation of accidents, near misses and cases of ill health. Action and review following an inspection or investigation is described along with health and safety auditing and quality systems.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 16p. 39 ref.

CIS 93-639
The Scottish Office
Fire safety in the printing industry
Contents of this guidance note: legal requirements; causes of fires; fire risk management; general fire precautions (training, means of escape, fire alarms, sprinklers and smoke control systems, extinguishers, maintenance and testing); housekeeping; hazards and precautions in various operations. Appendices include: examples of fires in the printing industry; selecting the appropriate extinguisher; permit-to-work; fire-resisting structures; solvent recovery; safety precautions for blanket wash systems in heat-set web offset printing.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 50p. Illus. 77 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 92-1990 Lucas A.D.
Health hazards associated with the cyanotype printing process
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a Health Hazard Evaluation for an artist who had reported various symptoms while making handmade quilts. The artist used the cyanotype printing process to transfer photographic prints to fabric. The process utilises potassium dichromate as an optional ingredient which is used to fix the colour and prevent fading. Potassium dichromate is a highly toxic compound; it contains hexavalent chromium (Cr Vl) in a soluble form. Chromic acid mists and chromate dusts (chromium Vl materials) are severe irritants of the naso-pharynx, larynx, lungs, and skin. The artist's work areas were tested for contamination for Cr Vl compounds, although the process had been discontinued 18 months prior to sampling. Some lingering contamination was detected at the workbench, washbasin, and on implements. The recommendations made to the artist included decontamination instructions and medical advice.
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, Jan.-Feb. 1992, Vol.11, No.1, p.18-20. 6 ref.


CIS 93-671
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules pertaining to controls of printing and paper converting machinery
Sicherheitsregeln für die Steuerungen von Druck - und Papierverarbeitungsmaschinen [en alemán]
These safety rules concern controls of machines used in the printing and paper converting industry, as regulated by German directives VBG 5 (Power equipment, see CIS 89-47) and VBG 7i (Printing and paper converting, see CIS 87-373). Contents: scope; definitions; general requirements (three categories of equipment are established); machinery and equipment; operation of equipment; inspection; entry into force (1 Jan. 1992 for electromechanical controls; 1 Oct. 1991 for others). In appendix: what to do in case of a malfunction; list of possible malfunctions; prescriptions and related safety rules.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, Oct 1991. 22p.

CIS 93-253 Hashimoto D.M., Kelsey K.T., Seitz T., Feldman H.A., Yakes B., Christiani D.C.
The presence of urinary cellular sediment and albuminuria in newspaper pressworkers exposed to solvents
A cross-sectional study of 215 newspaper pressroom workers (76% of the total eligigle) was conducted to investigate the relationship between organic solvent exposure and increased urinary cellular sediment. Thirty-two compositors were surveyed as referents. Industrial hygiene measurements showed low-level airborne exposure to organic solvents and minimal airborne exposure to glycol ethers. There was a high prevalence of solvent-related dermatitis, indicating significant dermal exposure to these substances. Pressworkers were exposed to solvent mixtures associated with dose-related increases in leukocyturia alone or in urinary cellular sediment. The presence of urinary cellular sediment was associated with increasing frequency of use of five organic solvent mixtures. The increase in urinary cellular sediment may be due to the effects of solvents on the kidney. Sixteen percent of pressmen and no compositors were found to have primarily low-grade albuminuria. Workers with urinary cellular sediment were significantly more likely to have detectable albuminuria, which was more likely to occur with increased frequency of use of four solvent mixtures.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.516-526. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 92-1906 Michaels D., Zoloth S.R., Stern F.B.
Does low-level lead exposure increase risk of death? - A mortality study of newspaper printers
This study examined the mortality of newspaper typesetters (N=1,261) followed from 1961 to 1984, in order to investigate the effects of low-level lead exposure. Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated using New York City comparison rates. The all-cause SMR was 0.74, significantly different from 1.00. Other statistically significant deficits were deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease (SMR=0.63) and non-malignant diseases of the respiratory system (SMR=0.57) and digestive system (SMR=0.65). These can be attributed to the comparison bias known as the healthy worker effect. The SMR for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) was 1.35, on the edge of statistical significance. For those printers employed for 30 years or more, the CVD SMR was 1.68. No significant excesses were seen for any other cause of death in any exposure stratum. These findings suggest the possibility that lead exposure at levels below the current US permissible exposure limit (PEL) may also be associated with CVD mortality.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1991, Vol.20, No.4, p.978-983. 40 ref.

CIS 92-1628 Ruijten M.W.M.M., Verberk M.M., Sallé H.J.A.
Nerve function in workers with long term exposure to trichloroethene
Certain functions of the nervous system were compared between 31 printing workers (mean age 44) exposed to trichloroethene (trichloroethylene) (mean duration 16 years) and 28 controls (mean age 45). The mean cumulative exposure of the exposed workers was 704ppm x years. For the assessment of the exposure effect relation a multiple linear regression model was used. In the sural nerve the conduction velocity was reduced and the refractory period was prolonged. The latency of masseter, but not of the blink reflex, was increased. No impairment was found in the functions of motor and autonomic nerves. Thus, refractory period may be a sensitive indicator of preclinical toxic neuropathies. Long-term exposure to trichloroethene at threshold limit values (about 35ppm) may slightly affect the trigeminal and sural nerves.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.48, No.2, p.87-92. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 92-1567 Yoshikawa H., Yoshida M., Hara I.
Change of visual acuity observed in VDT workers in a printing company
Insatsu gaisha no 'VDT' sagyōsha ni mitome rareta shiryoku henka [en japonés]
A yearly ophthalmological examination was performed for two VDT worker groups (workers routinely engaged in both VDT work and key-punch work at a printing company and office people handling VDTs irregularly at a chemical company) and two control groups (typesetters at a printing company and office workers at a chemical company) for three years. All the groups showed lower subjective refractive power in the last than in the first examination; the greatest decrease was found in the routine VDT workers followed by typesetters. Information on naked visual acuities of the routine VDT workers three years before VDT introduction showed that the reduction in visual acuity occurred after VDT introduction. Accommodative powers of workers at the printing company were lower than those of workers at the chemical company, irrespective of VDT work, and the most subjective ophthalmological symptoms were observed in the routine VDT workers. However, no changes of accommodation symptoms were observed between the first and the last examination in any group. VDT work may be associated with the decline in visual acuity of the routine VDT workers, while the key-punch or typesetting work involved more visual burden than the irregular VDT work.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 20 Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.519-526. 18 ref.

CIS 92-1255 Chang Y.C.
An electrophysiological follow up of patients with n-hexane polyneuropathy
Electroneurographic (ENeG) and evoked potential (EP) studies were regularly performed on 11 printing workers with n-hexane polyneuropathy after cessation of exposure. At the initial examination, the ENeG studies simulated a demyelinative process. Further slowing of nerve conduction velocity, or further decreasing of action potential amplitude, or both, in the follow up ENeG study were found in about half the patients. After the patients had regained full motor capability, conduction velocities in motor nerves were still significantly slowed. These ENeG characteristics correlate with the pathological and pathophysiological changes in experimental hexacarbon neuropathies. The initial findings from the EP studies indicated a conduction abnormality in the central nervous system (CNS). Residual abnormalities were also found in the interpeak latency of auditory EPs in the brainstem and in the absolute latency of scalp somatosensory EPs from the peroneal nerve. Astroglial proliferation in the CNS probably impedes recovery of the abnormalities in EP.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1991, Vol.48, No.1, p.12-17. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 91-1894 Yakes B., Kelsey K.T., Seitz T., Hashimoto D., Feldman H.A., Christiani D.C.
Occupational skin disease in newspaper pressroom workers
Studies of printing industry tradespeople have reported an increased problem of dermatologic abnormalities, including contact dermatitis and dermatitis attributed to solvent exposure. The reported cross-sectional health survey of dermatological conditions was conducted in a follow-up of perceived skin abnormalities among newspaper pressroom workers. 215 pressroom workers and 34 compositors at a large northeastern US newspaper printing facility were surveyed. Printing pressroom workers reported skin condition symptoms at a significantly higher rate than did the compositor referent group. Pressroom workers also were found to be at a significantly elevated risk of developing dermatitis after self-reported exposure to certain commonly used solvents. This emphasises the need for proper work practices, product substitution where possible, and appropriate protective glove use by newspaper pressroom workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.711-717. 15 ref.


CIS 01-468 Barbotin B., Delaporte L., Duval J.M., Henry J.L., Lahitte A., Le Guilly H., Marquet R., Pladys P.
Estudio de los riesgos profesionales en artes gráficas
Etude de nuisances dans l'industrie graphique [en francés]
Se llevó a cabo un estudio sobre los riesgos profesionales en artes gráficas por un grupo de médicos laborales. Proporciona una encuesta de las técnicas y las tareas profesionales asociadas con los distintos tipos de impresión y encuadernación, tanto tradicionales como modernas, junto con sus correspondientes riesgos laborales. Se resume la legislación francesa relevante, prestando especial atención a la legislación y a los reglamentos relativos a la exposición a disolventes orgánicos y al plomo. También se proporcionan estadísticas de enfermedades profesionales y accidentes del sector en Francia.
Association interentreprises de médecine du travail, 9, pl. du Général-Kœnig, 35000 Rennes, [ca. 1990]. 143p. Ilus. 35 ref.

CIS 92-735 Ordinance concerning machinery used in graphical work [Sweden]
Translation into English of the Regulations originally abstracted as CIS 83-1823. They became effective on 1 Apr. 1984, and apply to machinery installed before 1 apr. 1989. They set the standards for the ergonomic design and for the safety of graphic arts equipment. Contents: definitions; word processing workstations (CRT displays terminals, keyboards, light tables, lighting, copiers, plate etching equipment); printing presses (platen presses, cylinder presses); cutters (guillotines, circular shears); cutting-out and embossing platens; folders; staplers. Commentary describes and illustrates with numerous examples the protective devices.
National Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 21p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 92-943 Urban P., Lukáš E.
Visual evoked potentials in rotogravure printers exposed to toluene
Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from stimulation by checkerboard pattern reversal were examined in 54 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene (all men, aged 22-64 years, duration of exposure 1-41 years). A control group consisted of 46 subjects (23 men and 23 women; aged 22-54 years). The VEPs were abnormal in 24% of workers. The frequency of abnormal VEPs correlated positively with the duration of exposure to toluene and also with the degree of alcohol drinking. A VEP measurement was made in 78% of the exposed workers two years after the first examination. No statistically significant difference between the two results was found. This suggests a marked stability of the observed VEP changes. These changes can be interpreted as a subclinical sign of dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) related to exposure to toluene and also to alcohol consumption.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1990, Vol.47, No.12, p.819-823. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 91-1905 Health hazards due to photographic and duplicating equipment and methods of protection against these hazards
Al-akhtaar us-sihhiyyat un-naajma (an al-laat it-taswiir id-dau'ii wa l-laat in-naskh wa turuq ul-himaaya min haathihi l-akhtaar [en árabe]
Review of the physical and chemical hazards presented by photocopiers, facsimile machines, spirit duplicators and other office machines that use strong light sources or chemical products. Associated mechanical hazards, such as those presented by staplers, are also mentioned.
Arab Labour Office, Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic, 1990. 10p.

CIS 91-1598 Sakai T., Araki T., Ushio K.
Accumulation of erythrocyte nucleotides and their pattern in lead workers
Nucleotides in erythrocytes of lead-exposed subjects were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Most of the pyrimidine levels correlated well with blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) and pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activity. Highly significant correlations were found between Pb-B and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose (UDPG), cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP), or CDP-choline (CDPC). The levels of these compounds were sharply elevated when P5N activity was reduced to levels less than 7µmole/h.g haemoglobin (Hb), which corresponded to a Pb-B of 60µg/100g. Therefore, concentration of these nucleotides may provide a useful index of lead poisoning. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were correlated negatively with Pb-B, whereas adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentrations were correlated positively with Pb-B. These results suggest that lead affects not only pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism but also purine nucleotide metabolism (the energy production system).
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1990, Vol.45, No.5, p.273-277. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 91-923 Svensson B.G., Nise G., Englander V., Attewell R., Skerfving S., Möller T.
Deaths and tumours among rotogravure printers exposed to toluene
A cohort of 1020 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene and employed for a minimum period of 3 months during 1925-85 was studied. Estimated yearly average air levels reached a maximum of about 450ppm in the 1940s and 1950s but were only about 30ppm by the mid-1980s. Exposure to benzene had occurred up to the beginning of the 1960s. Compared with regional rates, total mortality did not increase during the observation period 1952-86 (129 observed deaths v 125 expected). There was no increase in mortality from non-malignant diseases of the lungs, nervous system, or gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Among the specific cancers, only those of the respiratory tract were significantly increased (16 v 9). There were no dose response relations with cumulated toluene dose (ppm years). There were no significant increases of tumours at other sites, including leukaemias/lymphomas/myelomas.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1990, Vol.47, No.6, p.372-379. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 91-504 Conditions of work in the printing and allied trades - Report III
Les conditions de travail dans les industries graphiques - Rapport III [en francés]
Working paper and report for the Third Tripartite Technical Meeting for the Printing and Allied Trades, Geneva, 1990. Chapter 1 examines the legal protection obtained by legislative and contractual means for workers in the printing and allied trades by tracing the development of major elements of working time - normal hours of work, overime, paid annual and public holidays. Chapter 2 deals with the arrangement of working time (shift work, night work and part-time work). Chapter 3 is devoted to work organisation and content, reviewing them in the light of the technological changes that have characterised the printing and allied trades in the last 10yrs. The report concludes with a summary and a list of suggested points for discussion.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1990. iii, 42p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 15.00.

CIS 91-664
Health and Safety Executive
Laser safety in printing
Contents of this safety guide: general principles of the use of lasers in printing and equipment hazards; principles of laser safety and responsibilities of designers, manufacturers and others; safety measures required for typical laser products including printers, copiers, scanners and larger equipment such as engravers and platemaking systems; safety during servicing. Appendices provide a list of relevant legal requirements, an outline of how a laser works, a classification of lasers and laser products, and a summary of engineering safety features.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 16p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.

CIS 91-180 Kalliokoski P.
Estimating long-term exposure levels in process-type industries using production rates
Exposure to toluene was investigated in 2 rotogravure plants in Finland. Good correlations were found between personal monitoring data and exposure estimates based on continuous area monitoring and data supplied by workers on the time spent in various areas of the plants. The study indicated that this kind of estimation procedure based on the association between production rate and exposure level does not always lead to fully accurate exposure levels, although it does help in the understanding of how production rates affect in-plant emissions of pollutants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1990, Vol.51, No.6, p.310-312. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-1929 Heim T.
Inquiry into the negative impact on man and the environment of work in the graphic-arts industry
Erhebung über Belastung von Mensch und Umwelt durch Tätigkeiten in der graphischen Industrie [en alemán]
Results of a nationwide questionnaire survey conducted by consultants on behalf of the Swiss Lithographers' Union. Exposure and pollution data are broken down by operation or professional specialty. For the industry as a whole, the principal problems in decreasing order of importance are: odours in ambient (workplace) air, solvents in ambient air, special solid and liquid wastes, waste in general, dust in ambient air, wastewater, noise and odours in exhaust air. Summary in French.
Schweizer Lithographenbund, Optingenstrasse 5, Postfach, 3000 Bern 25, Switzerland, Dec. 1990. 57p. Illus.

CIS 90-1629 Gennart J.P., Lauwerys R.
Toxicological hazards in the printing industry
Les risques toxicologiques en imprimerie [en francés]
Literature survey. Toxic hazards in the printing industry are analysed in relation to their effects on the skin, the central nervous system, the liver, the kidney, the lung, the cardiovascular and the haematopoietic systems. The main hazards of printing techniques are teratogenicity and carcinogenicity of organic solvents and other chemicals present in printing plants.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.1, p.47-54. 75 ref.


CIS 90-1661
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Office copying machines
Contents of this information note on the safe use of office copying machines (photocopiers, microfiche and microfilm reader-printers, colour copiers, laser printers, facsimile equipment, plan printing machines, spirit duplicators): health hazards (ozone; selenium and calcium; toner materials; physical factors; solvents; dermatitis); prevention and control measues; checklist for the safe use of office copying machines.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. 16p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: AUD 3.95.

CIS 90-168 What to observe when setting up and operating photocopying machines
Fotokopierer. Was beim Aufstellen und Betrieb zu beachten ist [en alemán]
Measures for the prevention of health hazards due to work with photocopiers include: (1) installation of photocopiers apart from other offices in a well ventilated room; (2) use of an ozone filter and/or exhaust system when there is frequent use of the photocopier in a closed room; (3) wearing of protective gloves when handling pulverised toner, in order to avoid skin contact; (4) prevention of inhalation of toner by keeping it sealed and avoiding spillage; (5) proper maintenance of photocopiers.
Tag für Tag, 1989, No.5, p.20-21. Illus.

CIS 89-1941 Nise G., Attewell R., Skerfving S., Řrbaek P.
Elimination of toluene from venus blood and adipose tissue after occupational exposure
In a group of 37 rotogravure printers a close correlation was found between the time weighted toluene exposure during a five day working week (range 8-416mg/m3, median 75) and the concentration of toluene in subcutaneous adipose tissue (range 1.1-20.7mg/kg, median 3.8). After exposure ceased, the elimination of toluene was followed up in 11 subjects. The toluene concentration in venous blood decreased non-linearly and the elimination curves contained at least three exponential components. The first two had median estimated half times of nine minutes and two hours respectively. The third component, with a median half time of 90 hours, reflected the decline in adipose tissue, which had a median half time of 79 hours. The study showed protracted endogenous toluene exposure from adipose tissue depots long after the end of exogenous exposure. The observations also suggest that the blood toluene concentrations on Monday mornings might be used as an index of exposure during the previous week.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1989, Vol.46, No.6, p.407-411. 18 ref. Illus.


CIS 91-84
Health and Safety Commission, Printing Industry Advisory Committee
Safe handling of materials in the printing industry
This document describes a strategy to reduce injuries caused by incorrect manual handling operations in the printing industry. Details are also given of an employee training programme. The hazards involved in the handling and storage of pallets and reels are explained and recommendations given on safe working practices. Advice is also given on the safe operation of lift and clamp trucks, powered conveyors, various types of lifting equipment including vehicle tail lifts, scissor lifts, slings, ropes and chains, and reel conveyor systems. An outline is given of the legislation relevant to health and safety in printing works.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 24p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 91-317
Printing Industry Advisory Committee, Health and Safety Commission
Safety at power operated paper cutting guillotines
Topics covered in this booklet: potential hazards; safety considerations of machine design; design and location of controls; safeguarding measures including types of guard, electrosensitive and photoelectric safety systems, required performance standards for new and existing machines, electrical control equipment, necessary precautions during gauging and safety of the rear table; routine maintenance, testing and operational checks; training and safe working practices; information to be made available to users; electrical safety and integrity of electrical control systems.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 45p. Illus. Price: GBP 2.25.

CIS 90-1699 Noise reduction at web-fed presses
This booklet provides details of available noise control options and their implementation in web-fed presses used for newspaper and general printing. All new press installations should incorporate adequate noise control measures such as improved press design to reduce noise generation, quiet areas for remote control of operations, and reduction of reverberant noise levels in machine rooms. Noise control measures for existing presses include total press enclosure, a partial enclosure by acoustic screens, quiet corridors and havens to protect working positions, and enclosure of the folder, usually the noisiest part of the press. Ear protectors should be worn and employees trained in their maintenance and use. Legal requirements for noise control are outlined and case studies illustrate how noise reduction methods have been used in practice.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 27p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 4.90.

CIS 90-474 Nakayama H., Kobayashi M., Takahashi M., Ageishi Y., Takano T.
Generalized eruption with severe liver dysfunction associated with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene
Generalised dermatitis due to trichloroethylene is rare. A 21-year old printer developed exfoliative dermatitis with mucous membrane involvement, fever and liver dysfunction after a 2-week occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. Positive patch-test reactions to trichloroethylene and to one of its metabolites, trichloroethanol, were observed. This dermatitis is considered to be mediated by a delayed-type hypersensitivity mechanism.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.48-51. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-667 Harima M., Horiguchi S., Matsumura S., Takise S.
Excessive accommodation of the eye in desk workers
In ophthalmological examinations in printing companies, the subjective symptoms of the eye were significantly greater in subjects who wore over-correcting glasses or who were hyperopic. Of 240 wearers of glasses, 64 (26.7%) displayed a drop in near visual acuity when they wore glasses for desk work, but this was not found for the groups of older workers. One group, the A group, could see an object 40cm away with difficulty, while another group, B, could easily see the object. Subjective symptoms among group A were more frequent than among group B for persons in their 20's, 30's (p<0.05) and 40's (p<0.1). The near visual acuity of group A was significantly lower than that of group B for persons in their 20's and 30's (p<0.05) and their teens (p<0.1).
Osaka City Medical Journal, Dec. 1988, Vol.33, No.2, p.169-174. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 89-1739 Rump G.C.
Printing without frustration
Drucken ohne Frust [en alemán]
Outlined ergonomic design features of office printers include: ease of changing ribbons or ink cartridges and paper, noise levels below 55dB(A), legibly labelled function keys, menu driven configurability and more than one paper tray.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1988, Vol.10, No.2, p.52-54. Illus.

CIS 89-1169 Precautions against humidifier fever in the print industry
Training booklet.
Health and Safety Executive, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside, L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p.

CIS 89-1286 McLaughlin J.K., Malker H.S.R., Blot W.J., Weiner J.A., Ericsson J.L.E., Fraumeni J.F.
Occupational risks for male breast cancer in Sweden
The relation of occupation to the risk of male breast cancer was investigated in an epidemiological study using data from the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden. From 1961-1979, 333 cases of breast cancer occurred among Swedish men employed in 1960 (97% classified as adenocarcinomas). The highest risk was observed for men employed making soap and perfume, and a significant risk for men engaged in newspaper printing. Although it is unclear whether the findings point to actual occupational hazards for male breast cancer, systematically obtained data may be useful for future investigation into the causes of male breast cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1988, Vol.45, No.4, p.275-276. 8 ref.

CIS 89-1332
Printing Advisory Committee
Control of health hazards in screen printing
This publication gives practical guidance to users and suppliers of equipment and materials found in screen printing on the measures needed to control exposure to chemicals. The principles in this guidance apply to all screen printing undertakings, whether large or small. Content: necessity of control measures; action by user firms (general, screen preparation, printing and drying, screen cleaning and reclamation); action by suppliers (general; dryers, ovens and other equipment; chemical products; substitution of certain chemicals); checklist (users, suppliers). In the appendices: relevant legal requirements and other information; health effects of glycol ether and ester derivatives; control limits for exposure to glycol ethers; attachment of mesh to the screen frame.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 18p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 2.50.

CIS 89-963 Mahieu J.C.
Fact sheet: Photographic laboratories
Aide-mémoire - Les laboratoires de photographie [en francés]
This fact sheet sets out a summary of basic information whose major aim is to provide all personnel involved in photographic laboratory work with a common knowledge and a common language in matters of occupational safety and health. The fact sheet is in 4 parts, the second of which is the most important: brief outline of the activity concerned and the techniques used; hazards and principal preventive measures; specific regulations; associated techniques.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th Quarter 1988, No.133, Note No.1706-133-88, p.673-679.

CIS 89-488 McLaughlin J.K., Malker H.S.R., Blot W.J., Ericsson J.L.E., Gemne G., Fraumeni J.F.
Malignant melanoma in the printing industry - Brief report
To evaluate a recent report of malignant malanoma among printers, use was made of the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links national cancer incidence and employment data. Employees in the newspaper printing industry had almost twice the incidence of melanoma than expected. Elevated risks were found not only among typographers and machine repairers, but also among journalists, editors, and business executives in the printing industry. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship and to identify specific exposures that may be responsible.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.2, p.301-304. 6 ref.

CIS 88-2051 McMahon K.J., McManus P.E.
Occupational noise exposure in the printing industry
The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York City area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to significantly greater mean 8-hr TWAs than sheetfed press workers. In general, a greater percentage of the workers in the bindery departments were exposed to potentially harmful noise than workers in the press departments. Results of this study indicate that many workers in the printing industry may be at risk of occupational hearing loss. Further research is needed to determine the extent of hearing impairment in this group of workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1988, Vol.49, No.1, p.34-37. 8 ref.

CIS 88-1635 Guide for ventilating practice. 11. Screen printing
Guide pratique de ventilation - 11. Sérigraphie [en francés]
The subjects covered include: screen printing technique, materials, hazards, general preventive measures (principles of ventilation, noise control, implementation of ventilation measures, selection of ventilation techniques). Examples of practical solutions based on real industrial situations are provided.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.130, Note No.1659-130-88, p.1-20. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 90-1539 Izmerov N.F.
Guide to occupational hygiene
Rukovodstvo po gigiene truda [en ruso]
Second of 2 volumes addressed to industrial physicians, specialists in occupational medicine, plant physicians and other medical personnel. Vol.2 is arranged in 16 chapters devoted to occupational hygiene problems in the following industries: mining; coal-mining (opencast and underground); iron and steel (sintering and iron-ore pellet plants, cakes and by-products, blast-furnace processes, steelmaking, ferroalloy smelting processes etc.); non-ferrous metals (manufacturing of alumina, aluminium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc etc.); machinery (foundry, press forging, heat-treating, machine shops etc.); electronics; chemicals; oil and gas extraction and refining; microbiology; synthetic polymers (plastics, man-made fibers, synthetic rubber, rubber products); construction and building materials; asbestos processing; textiles and light industry (textile, clothing, leather goods, shoe making); wood, pulp and paper, woodworking; printing; work with ionising radiation (nuclear power plants, radioactive sources, x-ray equipment, particle accelerators, etc.).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, 101000 Moskva, USSR, 1987. Vol.2, 446p. 58 ref. Price: SUR 1.90.

CIS 90-775 Rešetov E.T.
Occupational safety and health in the printing industry
Ohrana truda v poligrafii [en ruso]
This manual is intended to be used for teaching general safety-and-health principles and relevant regulations to all persons connected with the printing industry, regardless of their particular tasks or job categories. A course outline and schedule is followed by a question-and-answer section. Tables of relevant standards, books, films and teaching aids, safety equipment and harmful agents complete the manual.
Izdatel'stvo "Kniga", ul. Gor'kogo 50, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 2d ed., 1987. 240p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SUR 1.10.

CIS 89-929 Andrianov A.P.
Impact of orthonaphthoquinone diazide photolysis products on copyists' health
Vlijanie produktov fotoliza ortonaftohinondiazida na sostojanie zdorov'ja rabočih-kopirovščikov [en ruso]
Medical examinations of 26 copyists exposed to products of photolysis of orthonaphthoquinone diazide and 14 workers of a control group were carried out. The results showed deviation from the standard prothrombin time in copyists. Correlation of blood coagulation disorders with exposure to photolysis products was experimentally confirmed in laboratory animals. Photolysis products did not cause skin allergies and had no effect on worker's immunologic reactivity or peripheral blood indices. Examination of the state of the copyists' coagulation system during periodic medical examinations is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1987, No.9, p.38-40. 2 ref.

CIS 89-1015 Machines for the printing branch. Printing presses. Safety [Finland]
Graafisen alan koneet. Painokoneet. Työturvallisuus [en finlandés]
This standard specifies technical safety requirements for nip protection, starting alarm, access ways and railings, control elements and manuals. Detailed requirements for sheet printing and cylinder printing machines are included.
Finnish Standards Association, Bulevardi 5, 00120 Helsinki 12, Finland, Apr. 1987. 11p. Illus. 21 ref.

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