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  • Foundries, metalcasting and forging operations

1977

CIS 78-1294 Means for heat protection of operators at the controls of an oxyacetylene cutting machine in a continuous casting line
Teplozaščitnye sredstva na rabočem meste operatora gazorezki mašiny nepreryvnogo lit'ja zagotovok [en ruso]
Succinct description, with drawings, of measures adopted to protect the operator of a machine for cutting the incandescent slab obtained in continuous casting: reduction of the surface of the glass panel observation window; installation of a metal mesh screen between the window and the slab; water cooled screens in front of the brick wall in which the window is set; air current along the inside wall of the control post; water cooled screen beside the operator.
Mestnyj proizvodstvennyj opyt v promyšlennosti, Dec. 1977, No.12, p.37. Illus.

CIS 78-1213
Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries, Health and Safety Executive, London.
A study of the causes of molten metal and water explosions.
Fourth report (for the 1st and 2nd reports on prevention, see CIS 72-2042 and 77-220) of the Subcommittee on continuous casting and high-speed melting, summarising the causes and possible prevention of so-called "vapour" explosions which occur when molten metal comes into contact with cooling water of metallurgical plant. This report, which gives special consideration to continuous casting plants, reviews a research project on determination of the mechanism initiating vapour explosions. Tests are done with gram quantities of molten tin, aluminium, bismuth, indium, gallium, thallium, and lead, and kilogram quantities of molten lead, zinc, brass, copper, and magnesium dropped into water. These explosions appear to be due to physical causes and not chemical reactions. Any molten metal dropping into water would in suitable conditions produce a violent explosion. Appendices (Page F.M., Alexander W.O.) contain detailed descriptions of experiments on explosive liquid-liquid interactions and on the effect of moisture condensation onto cold aluminium scrap in a melting furnace.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1977. 43p. Illus. 91 ref. Price: £1.75.

CIS 78-994 Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Lighting conditions for mould and coremaking operations in foundries
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - form- och kärntillverkning [en sueco]
Subjective observations and measurements of lighting were obtained for 5 foundries; detailed studies were made and several arrangements were tested in 2 of them. Visual tasks were difficult because the dark moulding sand allows no contrast; shadowing in mould and core cavities further decreases the light. Workplace lighting is rare even though general lighting is ineffective. Workers frequently have to adopt postures which cause them to shade the working area with their bodies. In some places, illumination levels were sufficient, but quality was unacceptable due to wrong direction and glare. Spot check interviews of 15 core makers produced complaints about the direction of the light for manual work; 13 indicated workplace lighting would be an improvement. Suggestions are made for such lighting.
Ljuskultur, 1977, Vol.49, No.3, p.3-12. Illus.

CIS 78-764 Lilis R., Fischbein A., Diamond S., Anderson H.A., Selikoff I.J., Blumberg W.E., Eisinger J.
Lead effects among secondary lead smelter workers with blood lead levels below 80µg/100ml.
Groups of 158 foundry workers and 24 workers from other plants in the same area were studied; 71% of the foundry workers had less than 80µg/100ml lead in blood and no history of elevated concentrations. In the 71% subgroup, central nervous system symptoms (tiredness, sleeplessness, irritability, headache) were reported by 55% of the group and muscle and joint pain by 39%. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels were elevated in 71% of cases. Low haemoglobin levels (less than 14g/100ml) were found in more than a third of the workers. While blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were mostly in the normal range, there was a correlation between ZPP and both BUN and creatinine. Reduced nerve-conduction velocities were present in 25% of the group; this was not significantly different from findings in a control group. A blood level of 80µg/100ml is an inappropriate biological guide in the prevention of lead disease.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1977, Vol.32, No.6, p.256-266. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 78-696 Redwood R.A., Beale K.P., Wiseman A.S.
Measurement of hand-arm vibration levels caused by chipping hammers of two designs.
Results of these and noise level measurements are given. The chipping hammers (a standard hammer used in foundries and a recoilless type) are described. Standard hammer: vibration levels on the handgrip were such that regular exposure should not exceed ca. 3h/day in conformity with a proposed British standard (1975); those on the chisel, which the operator must hold, were above the maximum suggested in the proposed standard for regular exposure. Recoilless model: vibration levels on the handgrip were lower, permitting up to ca. 6h daily exposure; the chisel has a rubber sleeve held by the operator. In each case noise was radiated by the workpiece rather than the hammer and levels measured were similar for the 2 instruments: both presented a severe hazard for the operator.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1977, Vol.20, No.4, p.369-373. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 78-663 Mürmann H.
Exhaust removal of dusts, gases and fumes, particularly in foundries
Absaugung von Stäuben, Gasen und Dämpfen, besonders in Giessereien [en alemįn]
This article recalls the principles of dust control at source, considers flow rates in exhaust ventilation, and presents examples of exhaust hoods and enclosure of workposts with very high dust levels in foundries. These illustrated examples mainly concern fettling, sand preparation, shakeout, and electric induction furnaces.
Giesserei, 3 Feb. 1977, Vol.64, No.3, p.49-53. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 78-833 Gibson E.S., Martin R.H., Lockington J.N.
Lung cancer mortality in a steel foundry.
A retrospective study in 439 foundry workers and 1,103 controls showed a significant excess in lung cancer deaths in the foundry workers aged 45-64 years against the controls and a standard population. The highest rates were found in crane operators, finishers, moulders, coremakers and electric furnace/open hearth operators. Reasons for the apparent excess of lung cancer are surmised.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1977, Vol.19, No.12, p.807-812. 13 ref.

CIS 78-783 Mapp C., Rossi A., Fabbri L., Mastrangelo G., Marcer G., Saia B.
Respiratory function changes in iron foundry workers
Alterazioni della funzionalitą respiratoria in operai al lavoro in fonderia di ghisa [en italiano]
Significant respiratory function changes were found in about 50% of 442 workers. The changes were correlated with exposure. The highest incidence and greatest severity were in furnace workers, who are exposed to both environmental pollution and heat, followed by moulders and fettlers.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1977, Vol.68, No.4, p.263-272. 9 ref.

CIS 78-356 Blome H., Heidermanns G.
Quartz content of moulding sand and moulding compounds
Quarzgehalte in Giesserei-Formstoffen und -Hilfsmitteln [en alemįn]
A review of moulding compounds used in foundries, classified according to their use, is followed by a report on the analysis of 200 substances indicating, in tabular form, the quartz content (percentage) in the original composition and in the respirable dust. The authors conclude that the silicosis hazard may be reduced by using compounds with a low quartz content.
STF report 2-77, Staubforschungsinstitut des Hauptverbandes der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Postfach 5040, 5300 Bonn 5, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 21p. 6 ref.

CIS 78-388 Carlsson L., Knave B., Wibom R.
Workplace lighting in foundries and smelting plants - Manual casting
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - manuell avgjutning [en sueco]
Results of a survey and measurements made in 4 Swedish foundries to determine the optimum parameters for new lighting installations. The visible radiation from furnaces and molten metal raises problems of adaptation of workers' eyes to work environmental lighting conditions. Visual tasks are rendered more difficult by the lack of sharp contrast between casting sand moulds and the cast iron. Visibility is further reduced by insufficient lighting shadows, low contrast, and wearing of protective goggles. Recommendations on ways to improve lighting by using mercury-vapour lamps; cost aspects.
Ljuskultur, 1977, Vol.49, No.3, p.4-11. Illus.

CIS 78-348 Higgins R.I., Dewell P.
Medical and environmental studies in an ironfoundry - with special reference to pneumoconiosis.
The association between the results of a medical and chest X-ray survey conducted in an ironfoundry, and a subsequent dust-sampling survey were studied. The data were used for estimating the average lifetime dust concentrations which ironfoundry workers can tolerate without passing certain radiological scores. The number of employees who had a chest X-ray taken was 267; of these, 256 were interviewed and medically examined. A tabulated summary of occupational history, together with findings from medical and chest X-ray examination, was available for 253 of the original 283 personnel. The survey included estimates of cumulative dust exposure, clinical tests, X-ray abnormality due to dust retention and accumulated respirable quartz-dust exposure. The authors conclude from the above data that ironfoundry workers can tolerate certain dust concentrations (total respirable dust, and respirable quartz) without exceeding - before the end of a 50- or 40-year working lifetime, respectively - a given radiological score (indicated). These parameters are shown in tabular form.
Report 1252, BCIRA, Alvechurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, Jan. 1977. 4p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: £1.00.

CIS 78-336 Die casting machines.
This data sheet covers the following safety aspects: accident and health hazard prevention (department layout, mechanisation, personal protective equipment); metal pig storage; furnaces; overhead hoists for supplying die casting machines with molten metal; metal splash guarding door (diagram); electric wiring; piping; pressure relief valves; fire protection; safety blocks to prevent injury through sudden closing of the dies; setting and removing dies (check list and sequence of operations); die storage; maintenance; ventilation; lighting; operating rules.
Data Sheet 266, Revision A, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 78-37 Safety of die-casting machines - Safety within half a quarter-turn
Machines ą couler sous pression - Sécurité au demi-quart de tour. [en francés]
Description of a device to prevent crushing hazard by untoward closure of the die; 2 capstans each with 4 bars facing one another are centred on one of the 4 guide columns; one capstan is fixed rigidly to the die-holding platen; the other can turn about 45° relative to the axis of the column. In the closed position, the bars are 45° out of alignment. In the open position, their extremities are at the same level and can come opposite one another after rotation of 45° caused by a hydraulic jack actuated automatically by opening a mobile screen.
Travail et sécurité, June 1977, No.6, p.326-327. Illus.

CIS 78-209 Safety and health rules for employees in the drop forging industry.
Contents of this profusely illustrated booklet: safe working methods (protection of eyes, head, hands and feet, hearing protection, personal protective equipment, personal hygiene, manual lifting, ladders, good housekeeping, first aid); forge department (drop hammers, forging presses, upsetting machines, electrical upsetters, cold press work, furnaces, compressed air); grinding and polishing; die room and machine shop (electro discharge machining); material handling (steel yard workers, shearing and sawing of raw materials); mechanical handling (fork lift trucks, etc.); heat treatment department; fire precautions; corrosive substances; dangerous liquids.
National Association of Drop Forgers and Stampers, Grove Hill House, 245 Grove Lane, Hansworth, Birmingham B20 2HB, United Kingdom, 1977. 26p. Illus.

CIS 77-1874 Grabowski R.R., Miller M.H.
Audiometric configurations of drop forge hammermen and helpers.
Results of noise measurements at 2 drop forge plants and audiometric studies in 99 hammermen and helpers working within 10ft (3m) of the hammers. Ambient noise levels were 100dBA, with superimposed peaks of up to 155dBA having rise times of 13-23 msec. Noise-induced audiometric threshold configurations differed from those associated with most types of steady-state noise exposure, especially with regard to the 4kHz notch. Possible explanations for this are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1977, Vol.19, No.5, p.333-336. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 77-1836
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Guarding of foundry machinery - Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries - 6th Report of the sub committee on Machinery Safety: The philosophy of guarding.
Contents of the 6th report of this subcommittee set up to consider safety aspects of foundry machinery and recommend standards of guarding where appropriate: assessment and control of hazard; guards; interlocking systems and methods (mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical: selection of electrical or mechanical interlocking system; over-run devices; trip devices (sensitive probe, photo-electric, capacitance); mechanical restraint; integrated guarding systems. Descriptions and diagrams.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O.Box 569, London SE1 9BH, United Kingdom, 1977. 12p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: £0.50.

CIS 77-1589 Visnapuu A., Jensen J.W.
Control of pneumatic chipping and grinding noise.
Pneumatic chipping and grinding to clean and finish casting can expose the tool operator to noise levels in the range 90-120dbA. In most chipping operations, casting resonance is the primary source of noise, followed by air exhaust, and hammer and chisel resonance. In grinding, the air-exhaust noise predominates. Noise from these operations can be reduced by up to 15dbA. Workpiece resonance was reduced by sand or other damping methods; hammer resonance, by internal damping; and chisel resonance, by constrained-layer treatment. Mufflers reduced air-exhaust noise, and an acoustically treated booth was effective in containing noise around the work area without increasing operator exposure.
Report of Investigations 8223, Bureau of Mines, 4800 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, 1977. 16p. Illus. 5 ref. Gratis.

CIS 77-1430 Conrard R.
Cold-box coremaking - Ashland process
Le noyautage en boīte froide - Procédé Ashland. [en francés]
The Ashland process of bonding sands, which is becoming more widely used, consists in a no-bake method of making a polyurethane by mixing a phenolic resin with a diisocyanate in the presence of a catalyst (triethylamine or dimethylethylamine). This data sheet describes the technology of the process, outlines the advantages offered by this method, examines the hazards involved and considers some safety aspects: risk (which is common to all coremaking techniques) of the operator's hand being caught in the mixer, or fingers being crushed by the press; hazard of sand or catalyst being ejected; fire hazard in storage or handling of dimethylethylamine. Other sections are devoted to occupational health hazards (health impairment due to silica, formaldehyde, triethylamine, dimethylethylamine) and safety rules.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd quarter 1977, No.87, Note No.1058-87-77, p.195-203. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 77-1427 The working environment in ironfoundries.
The papers presented at this conference (22-24 Mar. 1977 at the University of Warwick, United Kingdom) covered: law in the United Kingdom; role of trade unions; regulations in Europe and the USA; design of a dust extraction plant; ventilation; health services for smaller foundries; safety and health advisers; measurement of working conditions; noise control; vibration control and measurement; pneumoconiosis prevention, dust measurement; use of coal dust substitutes; sand binders and additives; emissions from moulds; no-bake binders; thermal and lighting conditions; environmental control and design considerations.
BCIRA, Alvechurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1977. 282p. Illus. 174 ref. Price: £25.75.

CIS 77-1409 Du Val C.E.
Reducing eye injuries in foundry grinding operations - How it was accomplished.
Particles from grinders caused minor eye injuries during removal of personal protection (hard hats, glasses, goggles, face shields) at the end of work shifts. Ventilation systems were operating properly. When a supplied air hood was worn over safety glasses, there were no further eye injuries. A vortex tube was added to air condition the hoods.
Professional Safety, Apr. 1977, Vol.22, No.4, p.44-45.

1976

CIS 91-417 Bertinuson J., Weinstein S.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational health and safety - A manual for foundry workers
Topics treated in this training manual: foundry hazards in general; chemical, physical and safety hazards in foundries; hazard identification; medical screening; first aid; OSH legislation in the US. In the appendices: workplace standards; glossary; workers' compensation.
Labour Occupational Health Program, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California at Berkeley, 2521 Channing Way, Berkeley CA 94720, USA, 1976. 105p. Illus.

CIS 84-1648
British Cast Iron Research Association
Carbon monoxide hazards in the foundry
This data sheet describes the hazards from carbon monoxide (CO) in foundries, methods for measuring CO concentration, and measures to be taken to prevent exposure.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1976. 3p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 84-1643
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - acid catalysts for use with cold-setting binders
This data sheet describes the hazards from exposure to acid catalysts (p-toluenesulfonic acid and xylene-sulfonic acid) used for the hardening or curing of most cold-setting resin-binder sand systems, and the procedures for the prevention of accidents.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1976. 2p. 1 ref.

CIS 84-1642
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - phenolic binders
This data sheet describes hazards related to the use of phenolic resins as binders in the preparation of moulds and cores and first-aid procedures in case of accidental exposure.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1976. 2p. 1 ref.

CIS 79-330
Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries, Health and Safety Executive, London.
A warning and control system for continuous casting (as applied to copper alloys).
Third report (for the 1st, 2nd and 4th reports on prevention, see CIS 72-2042, 77-220, and 78-1213 of the Sub-committee on continuous casting and high-speed melting, describing a device which has been designed and used to provide a warning of the possibility of a runout of molten metal and of the subsequent risk of serious explosion and damage which occur when the molten metal contacts water of the cooling system. The warning and control system consists of a sensitive temperature measuring system in the die connected with visible and audible alarms actuated in the event of any rise or fall in the die wall temperature indicating failure of the cooling system or fracture of the solid shell of the casting in the mould. Details of the system and its operation are given. Better solidification and surface quality are additional advantages of the system.
H.M Stationery Office, P.O Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1976. 5p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: £0.35.

CIS 78-515 Shakeout, cleaning, grinding, and inspection departments - Health hazards in a foundry
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims at providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe work practices. Hazards and sources are listed: dusts (silica, metal, asbestos and nuisance dust; sources: shakeout, chipping, grinding, sandblasting, etc.); metal fumes from castings and from oxyacetylene, powder-arc cutting and burning, etc.; noise (shakeout, chipping, grinding, torch cutting, blast cleaning, etc.); gases and vapours (CO, formaldehyde, phenol, ammonia, ozone, tolylene diisocyanate; sources; thermal decomposition products of sand binders); X-ray inspection hazards; UV hazards (penetrant inspection). Preventive action. Personal protection. Hearing protection; permissible noise exposure levels. First aid.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-104, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1976. 31p. Illus.

CIS 78-514 Melting and pouring department - Health hazards in a foundry
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims at providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe work practices. Health hazards in this section of foundries are discussed: metal dusts and fumes, mineral dusts (silica, asbestos), organic dusts, gases (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine vapours, phosgene, hydrogen fluoride), noise and vibration, radiant energy, vapours. Separate hazards in aluminium, brass, bronze, iron and magnesium foundries. Silica dust hazard in chipping old furnaces or cupola refractories. Importance of ventilation. Nuisance dusts. Local exhaust ventilation and use of respirators. Precautions and preventive action against the above hazards. Personal protective equipment; personal hygiene; medical supervision; first aid. List of safe work rules.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-103, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1976. 40p. Illus.

CIS 78-513 Pattern shop, core room, molding shop, and sandhandling department - Health hazards in a foundry
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims at providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe work practices. Hazards and sources are listed: noise (source: sand slinging, woodworking machinery, automatic core moulding, ventilation systems, vibrators on bins, etc.); solvent vapours (spray painting); epoxy vapours (gluing operations); wood dust; mineral dusts (automatic core moulding, bin tending, foundry sand mulling, unloading rail trucks, etc.); silica dust (core sand mulling, core finishing); gases and vapours (core moulding and curing); non-ionising microwave radiation (core curing); metal fumes; CO; aldehydes (vapours), etc. Preventive action. Medical examinations. Table of permissible noise exposure levels; hearing and other personal protection.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-102, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1976. 35p. Illus.

CIS 78-461 Caudarella R., Gennari P., Tabaroni G., Cascella D., Raffi G.B.
Respiratory disease in foundry workers - Epidemiological study in three foundries
Patologia respiratoria dei fonditori - Indagine epidemiologica in tre fonderie [en italiano]
Results of air monitoring for free silica and of medical studies in 185 workers are given. There was a high prevalence of pneumoconiosis, with different radiological and clinical features from those of silicotic pneumoconiosis. Prevelance of chronic bronchitis, with or without pneumoconiosis, and of squamous metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium, was very high. Fumes, gases and vapours from the burning resins are considered to play a part in addition to dust. The onset of changes is favoured by smoking.
Lavoro umano, Sep. 1976, p.129-141. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 77-1399 Pintar K., Funahashi A., Siegesmund K.A.
A diffuse form of pulmonary silicosis in foundry workers.
Pulmonary silicosis is usually characterised by hyalinised concentric nodules under the microscope and radiographically. Here 3 foundry workers are described whose lung biopsy specimens did not present nodules and whose chest X-rays were not suggestive of silicosis. The biopsy tissues contained significant amounts of silicon to permit the diagnosis of silicosis. All had severe functional impairment.
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 1976, Vol.100, No.10, p.535-538. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 77-1428 Chemical binders in foundries.
Papers presented at the conference 30 Mar.-1 Apr. 1976, University of Warwick, United Kingdom. Safety and health subjects included disposal of waste materials, influence of organic binders on the atmosphere (airborne contaminants, threshold limit values, personal sampling and analysis, phosphine, hydrogen cyanide), alternatives to silica sand, and magnetic process (clean working conditions).
BCIRA, Alvechurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1976. 380p. Illus. 171 ref. Price: £20.75.

CIS 77-1296 Ruth W., Carlsson L., Wibom R., Knave B.
Workplace lighting in foundries and smelting plants - General analysis of work process and lighting conditions
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - översikt och analys av olika arbetsmoment [en sueco]
A 1975 Swedish government study showed that 51% of iron and steel workers believed the workplace illumination to be unacceptable. The following problems exist: luminous radiation from furnaces and molten metal; low contrast of moulds and cast iron; shadowing of light by workers' bodies; repetitive visual tasks and short viewing distances; smoke and dust; breaking of lamps owing to vibration; glare; limited colour rendering. This study showed only partial improvement achieved by illuminating engineering. Improved shielding of light sources is required, but changes in work processes are more necessary.
Industribelysning V, Ljuskultur, Box 5512, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, 1976, Vol.48, No.4-5, p.28-36. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 77-1143 Health and safety guide for foundries.
Illustrated by humorous and instructive drawings, this booklet aims to help in providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe practices and helping to correct some of the more frequent violations of standards. Contents: health and safety guidelines (health and safety programme; employee training; machine guarding; housekeeping; general information for foundries; sand preparation; coremaking; patternmaking; moulding; melting and pouring; shakeout and core knockout; cleaning; safety rules for operating power tools); walking and working surfaces; exits and markings; occupational health and environmental control (metal fumes and dust, noise, air contaminants); hazardous materials; personal protective equipment; medical and first aid; fire protection; compressed air equipment; materials handling and storage; machinery and machine guarding; hand and portable powered tools; welding, cutting, and brazing; the National Electrical Code (NEC); record keeping; check lists; information sources.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-124, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 88p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 77-1196 Caruso A., Chiantaretto A., Paisio B., Perucca R.
From the homogenous group to occupational safety - A system of worker surveillance of workplace environmental hazards and health
Dal gruppo omogeneo alla prevenzione - Strumenti di controllo operaio sulla nocivitą ambientale e sulla salute [en italiano]
This report describes the authors' experience in campaigning for safety-mindedness in management and employees; both parties should become increasingly aware of the necessity for a common and overall approach to positive occupational safety and health attitudes, or at least a united effort to reduce health hazards at the workplace - in this particular instance a coremaking shop in the foundry of an Italian motor vehicle plant: background - trade union action; investigation of health hazards by group question sheets and seminar on occupational medicine; description of a coremaking shop and production cycle; analysis of the experiment: from question sheet to health hazard card; considerations on health hazard factors; conclusions: from worker surveillance of health hazards to health supervision. Model question sheets, texts of collective agreements concluded or proposed, results of medical examinations, etc. are appended.
Assessorato Sicurezza Sociale e Sanitą, Regione Piemonte, Torino. Industria Grafica Sifea, Via Susa 7, Torino, Italy, 1976. 299p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 77-1139 Baumgärtel I.
Safety measures during moulding and coremaking by the cold-setting resin technique
Sicherheitsmassnahmen bei der Herstellung von Formen und Kernen im Kaltharzverfahren [en alemįn]
Improper use of chemicals during mouldmaking with cold-setting resins may be a cause of accidents, physical injury, or disease. Description of the substances used and the associated hazards: moulding sand (silicosis); furane and phenol resins (skin irritation, toxic gases, exothermic reactions); hardeners (acid burns, exothermic reactions). Safety measures to be taken for storage of resins and hardeners and their distribution at the workplace, especially for preparation of the sand and moulding: protective clothing and equipment for handling and use of the hardener and resin, separate tapping equipment for hardener and resin, ventilation and exhaust of polluted air, air sampling, use of resins with a minimum content of free formaldehyde. Example of a safety data sheet indicating the hazards and corresponding safety measures.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, June 1976, Vol.28, No.6, p.213-219. Illus.

CIS 77-976 Christ E.
Noise reduction on coreshooting machines
Lärmminderung bei Kernschiessmaschinen [en alemįn]
Noise level recorded during the operation of a coreshooting machine reached peaks of 110-120dB(A); the calculated mean level was 100dB(A). Description of noise control measures to reduce airflow noise in general (principle of airflow throttling or absorption silencers) and in the coremaking shop. Description of modified types ensuring noise reduction by 30dB(A). Fitting of these silencers on coreshooting machines reduced the sound level to 85dB(A), when wearing of hearing protection is no longer mandatory (but is recommended).
Giesserei, 1976, Vol.63, No.12, p.345-348. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 77-930 Forging machines and presses - General safety provisions
Oborudovanie kuznečno-pressovoe - Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
This standard (entry into force: 1 July 1978) sets out the safety requirements for these machines: built-in safety of the basic elements and control system (2-hand controls, interlock protection for one-hand or pedal controls, ergonomic design of control elements, emergency stop, colour coding of push-buttons and signal lamps, etc.); rules for greasing, cooling and hydraulic systems, pressure vessels, safety devices, work platforms and access stairs, noise and vibration reduction, electric lighting and electrical safety (maximum voltage of control circuits, electric interlocks, etc.).
GOST 12.2.017-76, State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet standartov), Moskva, 12 Feb. 1976. Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, Moskva D-557, USSR, 1976. 16p. Price: Rbl.0.16.

CIS 77-653 Boone C.W., Van Houten R.W.
Comparison of foundry dust evaluation by various methods.
The techniques compared were personal and area sampling, each of total and respirable dust. Total dust was 2-16 (mean 5.5) times the respirable dust concentration, and the average silica content was 50% greater. Measurement of total dust is thus unsuitable for assessing exposure to respirable dust. There was a correlation between personal and area respirable samples. Area sampling for respirable dust may thus be employed. For analysis for very small quantities of silica, it is desirable to use both area and personal samples, particularly for routine monitoring. The use of a general control standard, rather than analysis of each sample for silica, is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1976, Vol.37, No.9, p.537-540. 2 ref.

CIS 77-835 Skiba R., Kröger U.
Resultados de un anįlisis de accidentes de trabajo en un taller de forja por estampación
Ergebnisse aus der Untersuchung des Unfallgeschehens in einer Gesenkschmiede, July 1976, Vol.96, No.15, p.717-723. Illus. 8 ref. [en alemįn]
This analysis of 354 accidents occurring over 2 years was intended to pinpoint the accident black spots in a medium-sized undertaking. The commonest type of accident (27%) was being struck or crushed by forgings during handling, followed by burns from incandescent particles, slips and falls, being struck by manipulating tongs and by machine parts (each 10%). Prevention measures: automation, protective clothing, training. More detailed analysis brought out the role of inappropriate human behaviour and of design not adapted to man. Influence of temperature, overtime and age on the accident rate.
July 1976, Vol.96, No.15, p.717-723. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 77-830 Scott W.D., James R.H., Bates C.E.
Foundry air contaminants from green sand molds.
Brief description of sand casting process. 2 experiments were performed employing (1) a mould cavity in a flask which was sealed immediately after casting and (2) a setup simulating conditions in a ventilated foundry (after casting and during shakeout); gaseous effluents were analysed by gas chromatography. Results are given in detail. Experiment 1: hydrogen concentration 50%, CO 22%; total hydrocarbons 9% (above all methane); cyanide 125ppm; ammonia 3ppm. Experiment 2: CO increased to 1,800ppm after 5min and then gradually decreased; during shakeout, it reached 1,350ppm; hydrocarbons were approx. 1,200ppm after 6min and 1,500ppm during shakeout. Effect of casting weight, sand-to-metal ratio, percentage of additives in sand, etc., on total gas effluent, CO concentration, etc. Conclusions for occupational hygiene: adequate ventilation and fresh make-up air, CO alarms and other warning devices and the use of permanent reusable moulds (e.g. steel) are advocated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1976, Vol.37, No.6, p.335-344. 7 ref.

CIS 77-220
Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries. Health and Safety Executive, London, Apr. 1975.
Causes and prevention of break-out during vertical semi-continuous and continuous casting of aluminium alloys.
This the 2nd report of the Sub-committee on continuous casting and high speed melting is concerned with the causes and methods of preventing break-out of molten metal from the mould or ingot, which can give rise to a violent explosion. It should be read together with the 1st report, "Operational safety during vertical semi-continuous and continuous casting of aluminium" (CIS 2042-1972, Hput Led Xnr Cafa). Aspects considered are: failure in the mould; the cooling system; lubrication; casting procedures; metallurgical considerations.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1976. 6p. Price: £0.35.

CIS 76-1722 Koskela R., Luoma K., Hernberg S.
Turnover and health selection among foundry workers.
The quantity, reasons and health selection aspects involved in labour turnover were studied by using questionnaires and employers' records in 20 typical foundries. The turnover in 1950-1972 was estimated from a sample of 588 workers. Turnover was rapid; short periods of employment predominated. The major reasons for leaving were poor work conditions, physically demanding work, low pay and poor health. The turnover rate was highest in dusty occupations. Relatively more ex-foundrymen, both 5-year-plus and 1-year-minus, than current employees felt their health and/or work capacity to be poor. More of the older men in the 5-year-plus group than men of the same age in the current group had chronic bronchitis and diagnosed lung disorders. Both the 5-year-plus and the 1-year-minus ex-foundrymen had relatively more diagnosed heart disorders than did the current employees. Early health selection prior to pensionable disability and/or death is indicated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.90-105. 18 ref.

CIS 76-1721 Koskela R., Hernberg S., Kärävä R., Järvinen E., Nurminen M.
A mortality study of foundry workers.
A sample of 3,876, from a total of 15,401 workers with at least 3 months exposure over the period 1950-1972 in 20 foundries, was studied; the actual person-years of follow-up was 47,160. Total mortality and cause-specific mortality were studied in different categories based on exposure length and occupation. The data were compared to the general male Finnish population and to each other. From 1950 to 1973 there were 224 deaths; the mortality approached the standardised mortality ratio. There was a slight shift of age of death towards younger age groups among casters, fettlers and furnace tenders. No significant differences in any occupations occurred in coronary heart disease mortality. Lung cancer mortality was higher than expected in moulders in iron foundries, especially after 5 years' exposure. Slightly elevated overall mortality is indicated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.73-89. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 76-1720 Kärävä R., Hernberg S., Koskela R., Luoma K.
Prevalence of pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis in foundry workers.
The prevalence of pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis and impaired lung function was studied in 1,000 foundry workers with the longest exposure time, taken from a sample of 20 foundries. Pneumoconiosis was diagnosed from radiographs, bronchitis was studied by questionnaire, forced vital capacity was measured and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) was calculated. The subjects were grouped according to smoking habits and dust exposure. The overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis was 3.8%; most cases were mild. Chronic bronchitis occurred more frequently among those in dusty jobs; smoking increased the prevalence. Smoking produced impaired lung function; dust exposure did not produce the effect. Since this was a prevalence study, the selective removal of workers from dusty jobs probably led to underestimates of all the health effects studied.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.64-72. 27 ref.

CIS 76-1719 Hernberg S., Kärävä R., Koskela R., Luoma K.
Angina pectoris, ECG findings and blood pressure of foundry workers in relation to carbon monoxide exposure.
An occupational health study was carried out by questionnaire and measurements on 1,000 workers with exposure time exceeding 4.2 years. The workers were divided into groups with definite carbon monoxide exposure, with slight or occasional exposure and without exposure. Smoking habits were considered. Angina showed a dose-response relation with regard to CO exposure from occupation, smoking or both, but no such trend was found with ECG suggestive of coronary heart disease. Blood pressures of the exposed workers were higher than those of other workers. Angina and ECG findings suggestive of coronary disease were more prevalent in the exposed workers than in the general population or in other non-exposed industrial workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.54-63. 26 ref.

CIS 76-1671 Virtamo M., Tossavainen A.
Gases formed from furan binding agents.
Furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde concentrations in the air of coremaking areas of 10 iron and steel foundries were measured. The mean concentration of furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde was 4.3cm3/m3 and 2.7cm3/m3 respectively. Furfuryl alcohol exceeded its threshold limit value (TLV) of 5cm3/m3 in 22% of the determinations; and formaldehyde (TLV = 2cm3/m3) in 38%. In addition phenol concentration was determined in one foundry; and phosphoric acid concentration in two foundries. The concentrations of phenol and phosphoric acid were far lower than their TLVs.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.50-53. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 76-1670 Tossavainen A.
Metal fumes in foundries.
The metal content of melting and casting fumes was analysed by X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption and mass spectrometric methods. The composition of the fumes varied with the kind of alloy, the quality of scrap and the type of melting process. 5-10% of the workers were exposed to lead over the threshold limit value (TLV) (150µg/m3) in steel and iron melting with electric furnaces and 25% in copper alloy melting and casting. 53% of the workers were overexposed to copper (TLV 100µg/m3) and 5% to zinc (TLV 4,000µg/m3) in copper alloy foundries.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.42-49. 21 ref.

CIS 76-1669 Virtamo M., Tossavainen A.
Carbon monoxide in foundry air.
The concentration of carbon monoxide in the air of 67 iron, steel, or copper alloy foundries using sand moulding was measured. About 1,100 carbon monoxide determinations were made. High concentrations of carbon monoxide were found in the area around the cupolas and the casting sites in iron foundries. The blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels of 145 workers from iron foundries were measured. The carboxyhaemoglobin level of 6% was exceeded in 26% of the non-smokers and in 71% of the smokers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.37-41. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 76-1572 Koponen M., Siltanen E., Kokko A., Engström B., Reponen J.
Effect of foundry size on the dust concentration of different work phases.
The total dust concentration was measured during the 8 main work phases of 51 Finnish foundries. The foundries were classified into 4 groups according to the number of workers. The total dust concentration increased in sand making and melting as the size of the foundry increased. The concentration decreased in moulding, coremaking, knock-out and cleaning as the number of workers increased. No significant difference occurred during casting. The factors affecting the concentration differences are discussed; in the older facilities, there is very little dust control. It appeared that the exposure of workers in many small foundries did not exceed that of workers in larger foundries.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.32-36. 11 ref.

CIS 76-1571 Siltanen E., Koponen M., Kokko A., Engström B., Reponen J.
Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.
Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 non-ferrous foundries, employing 4,316 foundrymen. The sampling lasted at least 2 entire shifts or work days continuously during various operation in each foundry, the samples being collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. A total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and moulding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.19-31. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 76-1570 Tossavainen A., Kokko A.
Precision and accuracy of foundry dust exposure estimates from air sampling data.
The errors associated with measurements of exposure to respirable quartz in a 1972-1975 Finnish foundry survey are evaluated and discussed. Considerations on the precision of the flow rate in the samplers, of weighing, of quartz analysis and of total dust sampling and analysis, on the temporal variation of dust concentration, and on the interpretation of air sampling data in terms of exposure. The logarithmic standard deviations of dust concentrations at fixed sites and jobs are calculated. The term "exposure dose" is introduced and defined as the amount of contamination inhaled over a given period of time.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.13-18. 10 ref.

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