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CIS 80-22 Conrad D.
Mould coatings with flammable carrier fluids
Formüberzugsstoffe mit brennbarer Trägerflüssigkeit [en alemán]
Foundry and laboratory studies to evaluate the fire and explosion hazards of mould coatings incorporating isopropyl alcohol are reported: determination of flashpoint, measurement of vapour concentrations and evaporation rates, spray tests. There is no explosion risk in large foundry halls with natural ventilation. In storage vats for the coatings, moulding pits and other confined spaces, explosive atmospheres may occur. Given the high fire risk, especially during flaming of the moulds, safety measures are forced ventilation and local exhaust ventilation, elimination of ignition sources, prohibition of smoking, and availability of extinguishers.
Giesserei, Jan. 1979, Vol.66, No.1, p.11-17. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 80-215 Körner H.
New accident prevention regulations for electric furnaces in foundries
Neue Unfallverhütungsvorschriften für Elektroöfen in Giessereien [en alemán]
Review of the measures to be taken to prevent the hazards involved in using induction and electric-arc furnaces, in the light of West German Regulations VDE 0721 (industrial electrical heating installations) and the new Foundry Safety Regulations (VBG 32). Statistics show that the major hazards consist of projection of incandescent particles during and after charging, and of furnace break-out. Other problems considered: power failure affecting a tilting furnace, crushing and falling hazards (barriers, working platforms), protection of operator's desk against heat, flames and projected particles. Instructions for operation and maintenance (including emergency repairs) should be posted up for each furnace.
Giesserei, Mar. 1979, Vol.66, No.6, p.147-150. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 80-214 Körner H.
General provisions of the accident prevention regulations "Foundries" for guarding hazard areas on foundry machines
Allgemeine Anforderungen der Unfallverhütungsvorschrift "Giessereien" zur Sicherung von Gefahrstellen an Giessereimaschinen [en alemán]
Commentary on the general provisions concerning foundry machinery contained in the new West German Foundry Safety Regulations (VBG 32), with description of machine guards. Most of the article is devoted to guarding of hazardous access areas (e.g. on coremaking machines): moving guards, 2-hand controls, electronic guards. Circuits, diagrams and photographs illustrate these guards and show how they work. Danger areas where there should be no human intervention (or only occasionally) once the machine has been started up should be protected by fixed guards which can be opened only after the machine has stopped, and only with special tools provided for the purpose.
Giesserei, Feb. 1979, Vol.66, No.4, p.77-85. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 80-161 Tola S., Koskela R.S., Hernberg S., Järvinen E.
Lung cancer mortality among iron foundry workers.
The subjects were 3,425 workers with at least one year's employment in an iron foundry since 1918. There were statistically significantly more deaths due to lung cancer than expected. Moulders and casters were at the greatest risk. A higher lung cancer risk was associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1979, Vol.21, No.11, p.753-760. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 80-48 Ripanucci G.
Control of fireclay dust in continuous casting of steel
La lotta contro le polveri di refrattari nelle acciaierie con colata continua [en italiano]
Continuous casting of steel requires a large consumption of fireclay bricks because furnaces, ladles and runners have to be frequently relined. Dust levels measured during relining are reproduced, indicating free silica content. Preventive measures recommended are described in detail: replacement of friable fireclays by longer-lasting products; use of working methods involving less exposure to dust (rotation of demolition workers to avoid massive exposure; use of demolition equipment which can be operated from outside the furnace, replacement of pneumatic picks by hydraulic tools); local exhaust ventilation; personal protective equipment.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, May-June 1979, Vol.66, No.3, p.213-226. 12 ref.

CIS 79-1874 Brázdová O., Tačeva J., Vyskočil J., Boleslav A.
Dust levels and lung and bronchial biochemical changes in silicotic foundry workers
Obsah prachu a biochemické změny v plicích a bronšich u silikózy zaměstnanců sléváren [en checo]
Results of pathological examination of the lungs of 3 deceased workers are reported: the quantity of dust deposited in the upper right lobe was, 1,022, 2,431, and 3,073g respectively, or 3.64, 3.76 and 7.4g/100g dust-free dry matter. Total silica accounted for 22.31 and 37.29% of the dust in 2 cases, and 7.53% in the third. Detailed investigation of a lung with complicated silicosis showed a greater concentration of total dust and total silica in pseudotumoral nodules than in the rest of the lung tissue, both in absolute terms and in relation to the dust-free dry matter. The lung hydroxyproline concentration was higher in foundry workers than control cases, and pneumoconiotic miners. The bronchi of the silicotic subjects contained less dust than the lung parenchyma and their biochemical properties were not affected.
Pracovní lékařství, July 1979, Vol.31, No.6-7, p.222-225. 15 ref.

CIS 79-2022 Guarding of foundry machinery - 7th report.
This 7th report of the Subcommittee on Machinery Safety of the Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries (United Kingdom), profusely illustrated, concerns in particular: sand preparation (sand mixer discharge opening, batch-type sand mill top guards, over-run devices, etc.), core blowing machines (belt delivery core machines, resin core blowers with interlocked distance bar guard, coreshooters, hot-box transfer machines, shell moulding machines), moulding machines and mould roll-over vibratory stripping machines). The last section is devoted to a summary of the subcommittee's conclusions. For the sixth report see CIS 77-1836.
Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1979. 35p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: £1.25.

CIS 79-2019
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Apr. 1979.
Giessereien [en alemán]
These safety regulations which apply to iron, steel and non-ferrous metal foundries, but not to pressure die casting, concern the construction and equipment of machines and installations in general (machine guarding, controls and limiting devices, charging devices), and of some installations in particular (cupola furnaces, electric furnaces, ladles, working platforms, centrifugal casting machines, installations for sand preparation, moulding and core making machines, fettling installations). Other provisions concern plant and machinery operation and maintenance. A supplementary booklet appended gives more detailed rules and commentaries for the application of these regulations.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 26 + 20p. Price: DM.2.80.

CIS 79-1862 Davis J.W.
The use of sand substitution to solve the free silica problem in foundry atmospheres.
A small foundry tested the replacement of moulding sand by olivine, a magnesium iron silicate containing almost no free silica, in certain operations. Comparative chemical and physical characteristics are indicated, and foundry activities are described. Air quality was monitored by personal sampler, cascade impactor, and tape sampler. The concentration of free silica was reduced to acceptable levels, but contamination from processes using silica must be guarded against.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1979, Vol.40, No.7, p.609-618. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 79-1655 Muller J., Hervé-Bazin B., Ferrari P., Pfleger A.
Environmental control in foundries - Chemical hazards
Salubrité dans les ateliers de fonderie - Nuisances d'ordre chimique. [en francés]
The authors describe the principal moulding and core-making processes in French foundries and deal with the toxicological hazards involved in using certain products, especially synthetic binders (polyurethane-phenol, furan and phenol resins, "alkyd-isocyanate" resin). Laboratory tests have led to the identification of the main compounds of the binder resins and the major pollutants likely to be given off during their thermal degradation. In-plant air sampling has also provided quantitative data for most of the moulding processes. Laboratory analysis techniques and on-site air sampling methods are summarised. Some preventive mesures are suggested: avoid stocking large quantities of binders near the moulding and core-making processes; protective gloves; transport of treated sand by airtight piping; avoid skin contact with sand.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1200-96-79, p.415-423. 33 ref.

CIS 79-1227
Joint Standing Committee on Health Safety and Welfare in Foundries, Health and Safety Executive, London.
Molten metal and water explosions.
Sixth report (for the 1st to 5th reports see CIS 72-2042, 77-220, 78-1213, 79-330 and 79-1226) of the Subcommittee on Molten Metal and Water Hazards (formerly the Subcommittee on Continuous Casting and High-Speed Melting), summarising 10 years' work of the subcommittee, involving practical and theoretical matters such as considerations of plant design, maintenance and operation; the construction of a warning and control system for continuous casting plant; and empirical fieldwork on pilot-scale equipment, together with laboratory experiments and scientific considerations. Sections of the report are devoted to: explosive liquid-liquid interactions; liquid metal and water explosions; work of the subcommittee (1967-77); committee reports; areas of uncertainty; conclusions (role of vaporisation of water, presence of damp materials in furnaces, etc.). Appendices: data from pilot-scale experiments (complete to December 1977); future work.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1979. 24p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: £1.00.

CIS 79-1226
Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries, Health and Safety Executive, London.
Safety during semicontinuous and continuous casting of copper and copper-based alloys.
Fifth report (for the 1st to the 4th reports see CIS 72-2042, 77-220, 78-1213 and 79-330) of the Subcommittee on Molten Metal and Water Hazards (formerly the Subcommittee on Continuous Casting and High-Speed Melting), summarising 12 years' work of the subcommittee investigating the cause and prevention of explosions that result from the inadvertent mixing of molten metal and cooling water, following reports of catastrophic explosions wrecking entire plants in the USA. The reports is divided into sections covering the following aspects: processes and equipment (open-topped moulds and submerged dies); melting and holding procedures; plant preparation; operating procedures; coolant supply and its systems; automatic warning and control; emergency services. Appendices: data and safety criteria from pilot-scale experiments on copper.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1979. 20p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: £0.80.

CIS 79-1453
National Joint Technical Committee for the Metal Trades, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des industries de la métallurgie, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie), Paris, 1 Dec. 1978.
Hazards of continuous steel casting
Risques liés à la coulée continue de l'acier. [en francés]
This recommendation, which applies to the teeming ladle, tundish, ingot mould, adjustment and maintenance work, and personnel training, is aimed principally at preventing overflow and spillage of molten steel (stand-by ladle) or explosions (leakage testing of the permanent mould, checking of cooling circuits, acoustic and luminous signals to warn in case of insufficient metal flow or incorrect temperature) and to protect workers against fumes and gases (ventilation, exhaust ventilation) and against molten metal splashes (special clothing). Commentary.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1979, No.95, Note No.1189-95-79 (Recommendation No.155), p.317-318.

CIS 79-1370 Luckaja V.M., Kotenko V.I.
Analysis of workplace air in a foundry producing alloys containing up to 0.5% beryllium
Sanitarno-gigieničeskaja harakteristika vozdušnoj sredy na učastke polučenija splavov s soderžaniem berillija do 0,5% [en ruso]
Results of monitoring carried out between 1970 and 1976 to determine beryllium concentrations in fumes given off during the following operations: casting from electric crucible furnaces, adding magnesium, pouring the alloy into a holding furnace, modifying the alloy, and manual casting by ladle. According to calculations made, the mean Be concentration was 0.00000064mg/m3 and did not exceed the Soviet TLV. However, it is considered advisable to avoid pouring the alloy from the melting furnace to the holding furnaces, to melt the constituent metals in closed furnaces, to seal hermetically the hoods over the holding furnaces, and to instal local exhaust ventilation for chill casting processes.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1979, No.2, p.42-43. 2 ref.

CIS 79-1271 Klejner A.I., Hižnjakova L.N., Efremova V.A., Sonkin I.S., Kopilovič L.E., Šejnin B.Ja., Timčenko A.N., Smol'nikova L.S.
Prevalence of chronic bronchitis in workers in modern foundries in the machinery industry
Rasprostranennost' hroničeskogo bronhita u rabočih sovremennyh litejnyh cehov mašinostroitel'noj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Results of a medical survey covering 1,018 workers employed in mechanised foundries (with conveyors) and 237 controls, and analysis of absenteeism due to bronchitis over a 3-year period in a population of over 4,000 workers. Statistical evaluation of the data gathered showed a greater incidence of chronic bronchitis in the foundry workers (25.5%) than in the controls (14.7%) and stresses the preponderant role of dust levels in the aetiology of this disease (other aetiological factors are smoking habits and bronchopulmonary infections). The following measures are proposed for the prevention of dust-induced bronchitis: health engineering and new techniques, periodic examination of exposed workers, wearing of dust masks, inhalation of alkaline aerosols, etc.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1979, No.2, p.10-14. 21 ref.


CIS 84-1877
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - terms used in lighting engineering
This data sheet provides definitions and units for the common terms related to lighting such as illumination, radiant and luminous flux, illuminance, luminance, reflectance, contrast and glare.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 84-1650
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - use of detector tubes for determining concentrations of airborne gases
This data sheet describes procedures and equipment for measuring concentrations of airborne gases and vapours using colorimetric direct-reading detector tubes.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 84-1649
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - meaning and use of threshold limit values
This data sheet defines threshold limit values (including time-weighted average exposure limits, short-term exposure limits and ceiling values), their use, and the interpretation of the results of air concentration measurements.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 2p. 3 ref.

CIS 84-1647
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - furane resins
This data sheet provides information on the safe use of furane resins for mould and core making in foundries.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 2p. 4 ref.

CIS 84-1646
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - coating materials for improving surface finish
This data sheet describes the hazards from water-based, flammable and non-flammable solvent coatings used in foundries for improving the surface finish of castings and the measures to prevent exposure to these materials.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 3p. 8 ref.

CIS 84-1645
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - materials for isocyanate-based processes
This data sheet describes the hazard from isocyanate-based processes for mould and core making in foundries and recommends measures to prevent accidental exposure.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 3p. 7 ref.

CIS 80-1736 An evaluation of occupational health hazard control technology for the foundry industry.
This study was performed through an in-plant review of functioning control methods in 24 ferrous and non-ferrous foundries and a survey of the literature. The processes selected provide a representative coverage of the industry. The report provides a ready reference to control methods of the 26 processes studied. Hazards are identified, and advantages and limitations of control methods are summarised. Deleterious effects of the individual hazards and the principles behind each category of control are described. Conclusions on the existence and effectiveness of control measures, and recommendations for further research and development, are presented.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-114, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978. 428p. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 80-1418 Decoufle P., Wood D.J.
Mortality patterns among workers in a gray iron foundry
Long-term mortality of 2861 men was studied. There were no deaths from pneumoconiosis nor excess deaths from other chronic respiratory diseases. Men with 5 or more years employment before 1938 showed a twofold increase in mortality from digestive and respiratory cancer.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Oct. 1978, Vol.109, No.6, p.667-675. 27 ref.

CIS 80-706 Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Lighting of workplaces in foundries and the iron and steel industry - Finish cleaning and inspection/reception
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - finrensning och kontroll-avsyning [en sueco]
Workplaces in 3 foundries were studied. Finish cleaning and inspection of castings require great visual effort and may be classified as precision tasks. The work is made difficult by poor contrast between the surfaces of the piece, grains of sand adhering to the surface, and shadows cast into the cavities. The improvements made at the workplaces are described: local lighting with antiglare screens, arrangement of local lighting luminaires on 2 or 3 sides, increased illuminance levels, adjustable luminaires, use of light tables with the light under an opaque surface or a movable light source using optic fibres.
Ljuskultur, 1978, Vol.50, No.6, p.16-25. Illus.

CIS 80-217 Granati A., Lenzi R., Monaco E.
Environmental hygiene in a foundry for recovery of precious metals
Aspetti di igiene ambientale in una fonderia per il recupero di metalli preziosi [en italiano]
The heat, noise, dust, vapours, and gas parameters in a plant with rotary furnaces are described before and after ergonomic improvements (enclosure of furnaces, remote control from insulated cab, semi-automation of charging process) were undertaken. Levels of noise and atmospheric concentrations of metals and gases were reduced to safe levels. Exposure to high temperatures in the casting phase and inhalation of silica-containing dust in the slag-cleaning phase persisted.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Oct.-Dec. 1978, Vol.2, p.333-347. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 80-51 Häberlin H.P.
Developments of blast cleaning equipment towards full automation.
Zur Entwicklung des Strahlputzens bis zur Vollautomatisierung [en alemán]
A review of methods of cleaning castings (manual, sand blasting) is followed by a description of blasting equipment (barrel, monorail, multi-table, blast room, rotary cage) designed to control dust and limit the silicosis hazard. A further development is automatic cleaning by shot blasting. A continuous blast cleaning machine built into the conveying and cooling system for the castings is described. The system is served by an apron conveyor and is completely enclosed as a dust and noise protective measure. Technical data are given.
Giesserei, 1978, Vol.65, No.20, p.549-561. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 79-1448 An evaluation of occupational health hazard control technology for the foundry industry.
This study involved 24 ferrous and non-ferrous foundries (26 processes) plus a literature review. The processes represent the industry relative to the number of exposed workers, hazard severity, different control techniques, and common operations. Sections of the report cover: introduction (study objectives and priority, foundry operations, categories of exposure control and effectiveness); conclusions, recommendations, and discussion of hazards and controls (air contaminants, heat stress, ionising radiation, noise, exposure limits); principles of control (substitution, isolation, ventilation); sampling and analysis; list of processes, hazards and controls (examples of worksheets for cleaning and finishing of castings, green sand systems, melting and casting, moulding and coremaking, others); 36 case histories; glossary.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-114, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Oct. 1978, 428p. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 79-1262 Coupeau L., Guillerm J.
Silicosis in a foundry: evaluation of the situation after 25 years of occupational medicine - Problems of diagnosis
La silicose dans une usine sidérurgique: bilan après 25 ans de médecine du travail - Problèmes diagnostiques. [en francés]
Report of an investigation covering some 580 foundry workers exposed to silicosis hazard. Various workplaces involving exposure to dust containing silica are examined, and silicosis cases registered since 1950 are shown in tabular form: 25 cases, 2 of mixed aetiology and 3 contracted outside the foundry. This paper reviews methods used in screening examinations and difficulties of diagnosis, the chest X-ray being the basic tool for diagnosis of this disease. Health engineering techniques to reduce exposure in various workplaces are considered.
Archives médicales de Normandie, Oct. 1978, Vol.9, No.8, p.457-475.

CIS 79-1134 Mürmann H.
Exhaust and collection of fumes from die-casting machines
Absaugung und Abscheidung der Dämpfe an Druckgiessmaschinen [en alemán]
Parting agents used in die-casting machines are the main source of air pollution in these foundries, and it must be controlled at the source by exhaust ventilation. The operation and construction of these installations is described: suction effect, volume of exhaust air, example of an exhaust system serving several machines. Fume collection as close as posssible to the source is decisive for efficiency. Attention is drawn to the high fire risk associated with condensation of grease in the pipework. Filtration of the fumes is also dealt with, with illustrated descriptions of the various mechanisms and types of filter.
Giesserei, 14 Sep. 1978, Vol.65, No.19, p.510-515. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 79-506 Scherrer M., Imhof K., Weickhardt U., Lebek G.
An outbreak of humidifier fever in a foundry
Befeuchterfieber in einer Giesserei [en alemán]
Description of lung tissue impairment observed in the bronchioli and interstitial tissue. These tissue changes are due to the action of microorganisms (mycetes, bacteria, protozoa) which contaminate the vaporised water from the cooling systems. Lung tissue impairment due to humidifier fever does not usually disappear until several months after exposure ceases.
Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin - Revue suisse de médecine - Praxis, 12 Dec. 1978, Vol.67, No.50, p.1855-1861. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 79-410 Suzuki H.
Vibration syndrome in vibrating tool users at a steel foundry factory - 1. Symptoms. 2. Sensory and blood flow disturbances of fingers.
These studies comprised 71 men working with pneumatic tools (chipping hammer, air grinder, sand rammer, and combinations of these). Raynaud's phenomenon was more frequent in those who had used vibrating tools for more than 6 months; prevalence rates of Raynaud's phenomenon were 23-25%, except in sand rammer users, where it did not occur. There were correlations between work with vibrating tools, with or without Raynaud's phenomenon, and pain threshold, vibratory sense threshold, skin temperature and blood flow recovery time in the nail press test. Detailed summary in English.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Sep. 1978, Vol.20, No.5, p.261-275. 43 ref.

CIS 79-533
National Joint Technical Committee for the Metal Trades, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des industries de la métallurgie, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie), Paris, 23 June 1978.
Use of organic chemicals in foundries
Utilisation des produits chimiques organiques dans les fonderies [en francés]
This recommendation concerns the storage and handling of chemicals, workplace air monitoring, precautions in view of fire and explosion hazards (regulation electrical equipment, fire extinguishing systems), worker training, information and medical supervision, personal protective equipment, personal hygiene, etc. Appended: 2 tables giving technical data, properties, etc. of the chemicals most commonly encountered in foundries, their use or how they occur, and the hazards they constitute for workers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1978, No.93, Note No.1150-93-78 (Recommendation No.140), p.609-612.

CIS 79-375 Mur J.M., Mereau P., Cavelier C., Pham Q.T., Castet P., Toamain J.P., Henquel J.C.
Foundries and respiratory function - An epidemiological survey in a traditional foundry
Ateliers de fonderie et fonction respiratoire - Enquête épidémiologique dans une fonderie de type traditionnel. [en francés]
An epidemiological study was carried out in a cast-iron foundry with a view to evaluating pulmonary function in a group of workers employed at various jobs for an average of 15-20 years (processes such as Ashland no-bake process have been in use in this foundry for only the last 7-8 years). On account of the great diversity of atmospheric pollutants no analysis of the workplace air was carried out. The report describes processes used and their related hazards, explains the methodological approach used for the study, and describes the clinical examinations and function tests carried out. Results are given in tabular form. The results did not show any significantly higher incidence of lung function anomalies in the foundry workers than in workers in workplaces considered as healthy. The exposed population did, however, show an overall abnormally high rate of clinical and/or functional lung disorders, 55% of which were lung ventilation disorders, isolated or associated with other abnormal conditions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1978, No.93, Note No.1141-93-78, p.517-525. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 79-371 Ohman K.H.G.
Prevention of silica exposure and elimination of silicosis.
In this Yant Memorial Lecture 1978 the author describes the situation in a foundry, and the improvements obtained with technical measures in cleaning of castings and the furnace repair shop. Discussion centres on calculation of the individual inhaled life dose of respirable silica dust (dust exposure factor, DEF, calculated from the time factor, the silica factor (silica exposure expressed as a fraction of the TLV), and lung ventilation), and its relations with the present TLV and the ideal situation, in which each individual worker needs his own silica factor or TLV, depending on how large a silica dose he has inhaled in his life, his work load, and the number of years left to retirement.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1978, Vol.39, No.11, p.847-859. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 79-215 Respiratory disease among workers in iron and steel foundries.
This health survey over the period 1959-1976 was conducted with the financial support of the European Coal and Steel Community. Its purpose was to make an inventory of the kinds and amount of dust to which the workers were exposed. The report covers: task distribution and factors influencing the course of the study; dust in the workplace (dust components, air sampling, sampling equipment, reports with findings and other publications, statistical analysis of the data); workers health (airways and lungs screening procedures, absenteeism, working history, statistical analysis of the medical data, medical findings: significance of the tests and prevalence of silicosis); relation between dust exposure, smoking and lung function data (spirometry, helium and carbon dioxide curves, comparison of data with present standards, afterthoughts on design and course of the study); references. Interim reports are appended.
TNO Research Institute for Environmental Hygiene, P.O. Box 214, Delft, Netherlands, 1978. 103p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: Glds.17.50.

CIS 79-214 Health and safety in the foundry industry.
This special supplement, issued jointly by the Foundry Trade Journal and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA), and devoted entirely to occupational safety and health in foundries, contains the following articles: the safety onus on management (leader); improving the foundry environment (floors and gangways, housekeeping, machine guarding, dust, fumes, noise, etc.) (May J.); guarding foundry machinery (pressure diecasting machines; limit-switch failure; mechanical restraint; ease of access; shell-moulding machines, etc.) (Webster C.A.); electrical safety in the foundry (Eales L.C.); safety's new status (more effective legislation, new attitudes, better training) (McKinnon R.); appointment of trade union safety representatives (Prince W.); fewer accidents mean higher profits (Douglas R.). The supplement, which is free to subscribers to Foundry Trade Journal and Occupational Safety and Health (RoSPA), also contains an alphabetical list of U.K. suppliers of health and safety products for foundries and a comprehensive classified buyers' guide to these products.
Foundry Trade Journal, 8 June 1978, Vol.144, No.3139. Special supplement. Price: £2.00.

CIS 79-211 Fonchain F.
Work in foundries and occupational diseases
Travail et pathologie professionnelle en fonderie. [en francés]
MD thesis. Introductory considerations of a general nature on foundry work, descriptions of jobs in foundries and a brief review of the working conditions are followed by the results of analysis of occupational accident statistics (type of accident, site of injury, accident agency), with data concerning aetiology and physical agencies (dust, radiation, noise and vibration) and chemicals (metals, hydrocarbons, amines, alcohols and ketones, aldehydes, acids and anhydrides, phenols, amides, plastics, vapours and gases) causing occupational diseases. New hazards are emerging due to the use of new chemicals, particularly in coremaking, where they are used as binders and curing agents. Medical prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, safety and health engineering, legal aspects of compensation.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1978. 84p. 44 ref.

CIS 79-65 McNulty G.J., Charman J.C.
An investigation into steam hammer noise using scale models and on-line computer facilities.
The 1/12 scaled engineering working model used and the test instrumentation are described and the advantages of this approach are set out. Results correlated accurately with the noise-producing characteristics of a full-scale machine. There was a logarithmic relation between the peak noise level (dB) and the peak acceleration (g). The softer the forging specimen, the louder the peak noise generated. Geometrically scaled engineering models can provide meaningful data for research.
Noise Control - Vibration and Insulation, Aug.-Sep. 1978, Vol.9, No.7, p.285-291. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-1866 Mendes R.
Epidemiology of silicosis in South-East Brazil
Epidemiologia da silicose na região sudeste do Brasil [en portugués]
MD thesis. The study comprised 3,440 patients at 27 sanatoria in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. The work history indicated 327 "probable" cases (9.5%) of silicotuberculosis, and chest X-ray confirmed pneumoconiosis in 119 patients (3.5%). The total number of silicotics in South-East Brazil is estimated on this basis to be some 20,000. Data on the 119 confirmed cases: age, birthplace, place of exposure to silica dust, work history (metal-ore (especially gold) mines in 23.6%, quarries 20.2%, foundries 19.3%, non-metal mines 16.8%, ceramics 6.7%, etc.), duration of exposure.
Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de saúde pública, São Paulo, Brazil, 1978. 105p. 111 ref.

CIS 78-2060 Dogniaux A.
Quantitative and qualitative approach to an occupational safety problem
Approche quantitative et qualitative d'un problème de sécurité industrielle. [en francés]
This article deals with the safety situation at a Belgian foundry where paradoxically the department with the greatest number of theoretical risks had the smallest number of accidents. The quantitative approach involved development of safety parameters (frequency and severity rates of accidents) and study of effects related to season, time of day, day of the week, production volume and productivity). The qualitative or psychosociological study brought out the important role played by the workplace in worker dissatisfaction and the importance of fatigue at work. The negative effects of a lack of safety mindedness and sense of responsibility for safety is stressed.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Apr. 1978, Vol.1, No.4, p.311-330. 16 ref.

CIS 78-1926 Emory M.B., Goodman P.A., James R.H., Scott W.D.
Nitrogen-containing compounds in foundry mold emissions.
Nitrogen compounds have been identified in the decomposition products from several commonly used foundry sand binders. They include nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, simple aromatic amines and isocyanates. Concentrations do not appear to be directly related to the N2 content of the binders. Measurable concentrations were observed in some cases, and periodic monitoring in the foundry is necessary. Adequate ventilation or substitution by nitrogen-free binders is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1978, Vol.39, No.7, p.527-533. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 78-1715 Hazards in foundries using the cold-box (Ashland) core-making process
Risques présentés en fonderie par le procédé de noyautage "boîte froide" (procédé Ashland). [en francés]
Report presented by the Regional Workers' Sickness Fund of the Ile-de-France to the Regional Joint Technical Committee for the Metal Trades. A fatal accident in a foundry using the cold-box or Ashland process evidenced the hazards of this modern technique. In the accident report, the Prevention Department of the Fund analyses this process: raw materials, coremaking (sand coating, core blowing, core hardening, core blowing machines, destruction of gases, casting; chief hazards and their prevention: those associated with the raw materials (mainly chemicals), machinery, casting, prevention measures at the various stages of moulding and core-making; problems associated with the amine used as catalyser; safety measures at the casting point; miscellaneous measures (maintenance and inspection of equipment, fire protection, eye fountains, gloves, lighting). Table of raw materials and hazards.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1978, No.3, p.168-175. Illus.

CIS 78-1429 Cavelier C., Mur J.M., Mereau P., Pham Q.T., Jannot P., Henquel J.C., Toamain J.P.
Foundry workshops and respiratory function - Coremaking by the Ashland process
Ateliers de fonderie et fonction respiratoire - Le poste de noyautage par procédé Ashland. [en francés]
Occupational health study in a foundry employing 2,300 workers. Description of the Ashland process and its specific hazards; methods of the study; clinical examination and functional examinations performed; results. Only signs of chronic bronchitis were more frequent in the exposed group (24%) than controls (4%). Apart from the raw results of FEV1/VC measurements, there were no significant pulmonary function changes. No specific or non-specific injury can be ascribed to the Ashland process, but special periodic surveillance is necessary.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1978, No.91, Note No.1114-91-78, p.243-251. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 78-1249 Nelson H.M., Rajhans G.S., Morton S., Brown J.R.
Silica flour exposures in Ontario.
Little has been published on silica flour as a separate entity, and the literature is briefly reviewed. Silica flour is produced by crushing and milling of quartz or quartzite rock and is used, for example, in abrasive cleansers, autoclaved concrete blocks, and foundries using the lost wax or Shaw process. 98% of particles are <5µm in size. Dust counts (in mppcf) are given for 4 plants over 37 years. Experiments are reported which permitted conversion of the counts to respirable mass concentrations. Silica flour is more toxic than other silica dusts, and a TLV of 0.05mg/m3 is proposed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1978, Vol.39, No.4, p.261-269. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 78-962 Schumacher J.S.
A new dust control system for foundries.
In this new process, dust conditions are prevented from developing in a foundry moulding system, and the sand cooled by absorption and convection. Part of the moist sand from the preparation plant is diverted to the casting shakeout, where it is poured over the used sand to cool it. The advantages of the new system are: elimination of most dust collection hoods (only one at the shakeout is required); low capital and maintenance costs; elimination of sand coolers; less need for makeup air, and reduced gas requirements for its heating in winter. In a final discussion, it is shown that there is a steep fall in dust generation in relation to the compactibility of the sand, i.e. to its moisture content.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1978, Vol.39, No.1, p.73-78. Illus.

CIS 78-699 Noise in foundries - Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries - First report of the subcommittee on foundry noise.
This is the first report of a subcommittee set up in 1973. Contents: noise levels (standards, measurement of noise, instruments, measuring techniques, estimation of a noise hazard); general surveys of foundry noise reporting that 907 of 1,636 workers at 14 foundries were exposed to noise above 90 dB(A), many from processes with which they were not concerned; investigations in one foundry where noise control measures had been taken; report on investigation of new machines; reports from the industry; review of control methods (control of noise at source, control of the transmission path, control of noise at the location of the hearer); control by design. Appendices: equations for equivalent continuous sound level (Leq); survey of 12 foundries, indicating the noisiest machines and processes; investigations of new machines; information from individual firms (fans, sand-drying equipment, vibrators, air compressors, fettling); construction of acoustic enclosures.
Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 31p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: £1.00.


CIS 84-1705
British Cast Iron Research Association
Protective wear for foundry workers - foot protection
This data sheet provides information on approved footwear for foundry workers. A list of British suppliers is appended.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1977. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 84-1644
British Cast Iron Research Association
Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials in the foundry - binder materials for sodium silicate processes
This data sheet describes hazards from the use of sodium silicate and CO2 in mould and core making and recommends measures to prevent accidental exposure.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1977. 3p. 3 ref.

CIS 79-2021 Guarding of foundry machinery - 5th report: guarding of automatic foundries.
This report of the Subcommittee on Machinery Safety of the Joint Standing Committee on Safety and Health in Foundries contains sections devoted to: identification of danger; methods of guarding; application of guarding system (total enclosure, localised enclosure, interlocking, key exchange system, drawbacks of the plug and socket system, trip and sensing devices, automatic conveyor safety control); emergency systems; training. For the third and fourth reports, see CIS 76-934 and 76-933.
Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1977. 10p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: £0.50.

CIS 79-387
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Some aspects of pneumoconiosis in a group of mechanised iron foundries.
This 3rd report of the subcommittee on dust and fume of the Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries relates the progression of pneumoconiosis to information on individual workplaces and the environmental and personal protective measures in use. The use of dust levels as a criterion was impracticable as personal sampling devices had not been available during the period of the study. Radiographic and clinical results and technical data are presented. Among the conclusions: it appears that the pneumoconiosis risk can be brought under control by application of existing knowledge; periodic checks of the effectiveness of dust control systems are necessary; wearing of respirators gives virtually complete protection, but should not be treated as an alternative to local exhaust ventilation; medical examination, dust determination, engineering estimations and metallurgical techniques should all be considered for complete evaluation of the situation.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1977. 72p. 26 ref. Price: £2.50.

CIS 78-1294 Means for heat protection of operators at the controls of an oxyacetylene cutting machine in a continuous casting line
Teplozaščitnye sredstva na rabočem meste operatora gazorezki mašiny nepreryvnogo lit'ja zagotovok [en ruso]
Succinct description, with drawings, of measures adopted to protect the operator of a machine for cutting the incandescent slab obtained in continuous casting: reduction of the surface of the glass panel observation window; installation of a metal mesh screen between the window and the slab; water cooled screens in front of the brick wall in which the window is set; air current along the inside wall of the control post; water cooled screen beside the operator.
Mestnyj proizvodstvennyj opyt v promyšlennosti, Dec. 1977, No.12, p.37. Illus.

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