Foundries, metalcasting and forging operations - 469 entradas encontradas
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Sample re-radiation effects in the quantitative analysis of crystalline silica in foundry samples by infrared spectrophotometry
In the quantitative analysis of crystalline silica in samples of respirable dust from foundries, compounds such as graphite and magnetite act as black body radiators and cause attenuation of the absorption bands of interest in the infrared (IR) spectrum. The use of a 9-µm germanium cut on/blocking filter reduces sample re-radiation effects to such a level that the results from inexpensive IR spectrophotometer are within 10% of those obtained by an asynchronously double-chopped instrument or by x-ray diffraction.
Analyst, Nov. 1981, Vol.106, p.1240-1242. Illus. 19 ref.
Wörmann H., Müller F.J.
Determination of phenol in air during hardening of phenol-formaldehyde polymer binders for moulding sand
Phenolbestimmung bei der Aushärtung von Giessereisandbindemitteln auf Phenolharzbasis [en alemán]
A laboratory method is described for comparative study of binders for moulding sand, to develop materials which present less health hazards and pollutants (a serious problem in foundries indequately equipped with exhaust ventilation). Principle of the method, equipment, chemicals used, pyrolysis, analysis, calibration. This standardised method gives reproducible results; uniform heating of the reaction tube is of great importance. The phenols given off are absorbed by caustic soda, coupled with p-nitroaniline and determined by colorimetry.
Giesserei, 1981, Vol.68, No.8, p.223-224. Illus.
American national standard safety requirements for cleaning and finishing castings
This standard (approved as an American National Standard: 11 Mar. 1981) lays down safety requirements for the operation and maintenance of equipment used in the cleaning and finishing of castings. Sections cover: scope, purpose and application; definitions; construction, reconstruction and modification of plant equipment; care of equipment; safeguards (responsibility, guarding with the operator's zone, specific equipment safeguards); operation of cleaning and finishing equipment.
American Foundrymen's Society, Golf and Wolf Roads, Des Plaines, IL 60016, USA, 1981. 34p. Illus.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Foundry work - Safety rules
Raboty litejnye - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 July 1982) applies to the production of ferrous and non-ferrous metal castings. Sections cover: general requirements (cross-reference to standards on harmful agents and factors, noise and vibration, threshold limit values, etc.; requirements to be met by workplaces); preparation of furnace charges and moulding sand; preparation of mould and core mixtures; pattern making; preparing moulds for casting; melting metals in cupola, reverberating and electric furnaces; casting; knocking-out and fettling; special jobs (pressure diecasting, centrifugal casting, etc.); storage of raw materials; worker selection; job knowledge; personal protection; labour inspection.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 21 May 1981. 17p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Heart rate and energy expenditure during certain types of physical work in steel foundries
Verhalten von Herzschlagfrequenz und Energieumsatz bei ausgewählten körperlichen Tätigkeiten in Stahlgiessereien [en alemán]
Report of a study on energuy expenditure at various workplaces (mechanical mouldmaking, manual mouldmaking, fettling, grinding and knocking-out) in 2 steel foundries of very different levels of mechanisation. Description of the level of mechanisation, measurement techniques (method study, heart rate, spirometric findings) and results. Comparison of the results from the 2 foundries highlights the effect of mechanisation and casting size. The highest level of energy expenditure was encountered in the moulding machine operators (1790Akcal), and in the knockers-out (1560Akcal) in the older foundry.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1981, Vol.27, No.1, p.30-34. Illus. 18 ref.
Trials with artificial sand products in steel foundries
Versuche mit künstlichen Sandprodukten in Stahlgiessereien [en alemán]
Report on trials using granular corundum instead of silicogenic quartz for moulding sand. Technical aspects, medical problems, tests and test results. For the first time, it is possible to produce castings weighing up to 13t in moulds made of pure corundum, with satisfactory results. 3 factors affecting the use of corundum are studied: increased wear in the conveying equipment, high cost of the moulding material, problems involved in regenerating carborundum.
Fachinformationszentrum Energie, Physik, Mathematik, 7514 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 2, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 86p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: DM.18.00.
Palmer W.G., Scott W.D.
Lung cancer in ferrous foundry workers: a review
Epidemiologic studies have shown that the risk of mortality from lung cancer in moulders, casters and cleaning room operators is 2-3 times higher than that of standard populations. These studies reflect conditions that existed in foundries several decades ago and the risk today may differ as a result of new foundry practices and the use of new moulding materials. Benzo(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been identified in foundry atmospheres. Other tumour promoters, co-carcinogens and other classes of chemical carcinogens may also be present. The contributions of smoking to the lung cancer risk of ferrous foundry workers are unknown. Current studies are examining the composition and long-term health effects of emissions from moulds composed of modern synthetic chemical moulding materials as well as those from the traditional green sand moulds.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1981, Vol.42, No.5, p.329-340. 65 ref.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Hammer and drop forging - Safety rules
Raboty kuznečno-pressovye - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
This standard (effective: 1 July 1982) lays down requirements for workshop design and layout, equipment design (built-in safety, safety devices) and safe working (cold drop forging, heating blanks, hammer forging, hot drop forging, bending, shearing, tool handling). It also deals with ventilation and lighting of premises, machine installation, layout of workplaces, storage and handling of dies, blanks and finished parts, physical fitness and training of workers, use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 25 Mar. 1981. 13p. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Toffolo D., Lockington J.N.
Direct infrared spectrophotometric analysis of free crystalline silica in respirable dust from a steel foundry
Respirable dust samples were collected on 25mm diameter Gelman VM-1 filters and were analysed directly with infrared radiation without any sample preparation. Field samples analysed using this method, redeposited infrared, and x-ray diffraction methods correlated well in the range 13-194µg. The direct infrared method is quick and simple and crystalline phase variants of free silica (quartz and cristobalite) appear to be distinguishable with infrared spectrophotometry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1981, Vol.42, No.8, p.579-585. Illus. 14 ref.
Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Light loss in foundries
In this study 8 luminaires of different design fitted with a 400W mercury lamp were tested during regular foundry operations with special reference to fouling and maintenance. The design and the material of the luminaire and the reflector and reflector ventilation have great influence on the degree of fouling, shown by the luminous intensity distribution curves of these luminaires. Description of the results of measurements is followed by economic considerations. Luminaires with the lamp and the aluminium reflector protected by glass were found to be most suitable. A maintenance interval of 1 year is proposed for ease of cleaning and lighting efficiency.
International Lighting Review, 1981, Vol.32, No.2, p.38-41. Illus.
Kano T., Taoka Y.
Free silica content of airborne and deposited dust in foundries and its physiological significance
Free silica content of airborne and deposited dust in some foundries was determined in relation to the particle size of dust. The dust particles were divided into 2 groups according to their size (respirable dust of particle size less than 7.07µm and coarse dust). Separation was made by means of a total and respirable dust sampler, and determination of free silica content were made by gravimetric analysis (phosphoric acid method) and x-ray diffraction. It was noted that free silica content was high in the deposited dust as a whole containing large particles, though the free silica content of respirable dust (dust composed of particles smaller than 7.07µm) was fairly equal, both in airborne and deposited dust. Tables and figures in English.
Journal of the College of Occupational Medicine, June 1981, Vol.3, No.2, p.117-126. Illus. 6 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - recommendations for lighting levels in iron foundries
This data sheet provides recommendations on optimum lighting levels in foundries, choice of luminaires and their maintenance.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1980. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - vibration and the terms used
This data sheet provides definitions of the terms related to the effects of vibration on man, to vibration measurement and analysis, and to vibration control.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1980. 6p. Illus. 7 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - basic definitions for measurement of thermal environment
This data sheet provides the definition of terms used in describing the effect of heat on man, terms used in the measurement of heat stress and in heating.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1980. 3p. Illus. 5 ref.
British Cast Iron Research Association
Smoke and smell from coremaking and mould pouring
Data sheet on methods for controlling smoke and smell emissions during foundry operations such as coremaking and shell moulding. Gases emitted are dimethylamine, triethylamine and SO2.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1980. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Harada N., Matsumoto T., Yabuki S.
Subjective symptoms of vibrating tool operators in the working day
The subjective complaints of 49 chipping-hammer operators, recorded by subjective questionnaire 4 times in the period March 1975 to March 1978, were compared with those of 8 operators of air grinders and sand rammers, and of 5 control workers using shovels, in an iron foundry. During the working day the chipping-hammer operators had more complaints than the other workers. Vibration exposure and cold exposure were the two factors influencing subjective symptoms and leading to diurnal variation of complaint rates. Reduction of exposure to vibration and cold resulted in decreased complaints.
Yamaguchi Igaku (Yamaguchi Medical Journal), 20 Dec. 1980, Vol.29, No.4, p.433-441. Illus. 13 ref. Price: 2,500 Yen.
Rovin L.E., Dubinskaja F.E., Pantjuhov N.A., Zakerničnyj V.I.
Mokrye pyleuloviteli [en ruso]
Description of a dust scrubber designed for dedusting and cooling the hot gases from cupola furnaces. The water atomised by a series of nozzles is recycled following addition of 25% fresh water to make up for evaporation losses; it can hold up to 400mg/1 of dust in suspension. In addition to collecting dust, this scrubber also removes up to 30% of the sulfur dioxide in the cupola gases. It lowers dust concentration from 2-10g/Nm3 to 0.4-0.7 g/Nm3 and the gas temperature from 500-1100°C to 100-150°C.
Mašinostroitel', June 1980, No.6, P.37-38. Illus.
Brambilla C., Brambilla E., Rigaud D., Perdrix A., Paramelle A., Forucy A.
Pneumoconiosis due to amorphous silica fume - Mineralogical and ultrastructural study of 6 cases
Pneumoconiose aux fumées de silice amorphe - Etude minéralogique et ultrastructurale de 6 cas [en francés]
Discussion of the toxicity of amorphous silica, reputed to be non-toxic, based on clinical, radiological, mineralogical and ultrastructural studies with 6 cases of pneumoconiosis in patients working in silicon foundries, with an exposure time of 5-35 years. In all but one case, symptoms were minimal or absent, with an interstitial syndrome and a restrictive syndrome. Histological findings showed an accumulation of alveolar and interstitial macrophages and the existence of fibrous interstitial micronodules. Amorphous silica fume is responsible for the occurrence of this pneumoconiosis.
Revue française des maladies respiratoires, 1980, Vol.8, No.5, p.383-391. 9 ref.
Occupational asthma in foundries
L'asthme professionnel dans les ateliers de fonderie [en francés]
M.D. thesis. Following a history of the foundry and a review of sand-curing processes (cold or thermal curing) that may cause asthma, hazardous substances (organic isocyanates, formaldehyde, furfural and dimethylethylamine) and workplaces are considered. Part 2 deals with the pathology of asthma (causative factors, mode of action of substances used in foundries), and Part 3 considers diagnostic aspects (clinical examinations, respiratory tests at the workplace, lung function tests with stimulation tests). Three case studies illustrate the thesis. Safety measures (atmospheric monitoring and pre-employment and periodic medical examinations) and compensation problems are dealt with in Part 4.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisière - Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1980. 81p. 61 ref.
Environmental improvements in forging shops
Miljöförbättringar inom smidesindustrin [en sueco]
Description of a project carried out in a Swedish plant to identify harmful factors at work and to devising measures to control them: acoustic enclosure of billet shears; noise reduction in large gearwheels; sound absorption on reheating-furnace burners; water cooling of furnace walls; aluminium screen against radiant heat; local exhaust of furnace gases; materials handling aids; automatic lubricating and air-jet cleaning system for drop-forging hammer; air curtain against oil vapours and mist; vibration damping and noise reduction on drop-hammer tup; insulation of floor vibration; improvements in deburring shops.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Sveavägen 166, 113 46 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 30p. Illus.
USSR States Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Foundry equipment - Safety rules
Oborudovanie dlja litejnogo proizvodstva - Trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
Contents of this standard (effective 1 July 1981): general rules (conditions for safety, interlocking and signalling devices, control elements, hydraulic and pneumatic control and pressure systems, electrical installations, local lighting); specific safety rules for sand processing machines, moulding and core making machines, knocking-out screens, moulding and knocking-out lines, fettling and cleaning machines and lines, moulding machines (shell moulding, lost-wax), die-casting machines, chill casting machines, centrifugal casting machines, cupolas; monitoring of application of safety rules.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 31 Mar. 1980. 36p. Price: Rbl.0.15.
Attia M., Engel P.
A field study of thermal stress and recovery using thermoregulatory behavioral and physiological indicators.
This study, supported by the European Coal and Steel Community, was undertaken to optimise the work/rest schedules of foundry welders performing a light to medium work load (repairing foundry defects on red-hot castings). Pulse frequency and core temperature were measured, and thermal alliesthesial reactions were used as a thermoregulatory behavioural indicator by a subjective pleasure/displeasure rating. The results confirmed previous studies that thermoregulatory behavioural indicators are more sensitive than physiological indicators in revealing the thermal comfort state of man. A 2h-work/2h-rest-schedule was the most satisfactory and was associated with full recovery after the 2h break. The morning shift was more advantageous than the afternoon and night shifts with respect to cardiovascular load and thermal strain during work, but recovery was achieved by the 2h resting break in all 3 shifts. Improvement of resting place ambient conditions are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1980, Vol.47, No.1, p.21-33. Illus. 27 ref.
Bau F., Sifflet P., Ulmer G.
Heat recovery and improvement of the working environment in steel foundries - Application of dust control measures in a fettling shop
Récupération de chaleur et amélioration des ambiances de travail en fonderie d'acier - Application à la lutte contre les poussières dans un atelier d'ébarbage. [en francés]
The fettling shop was equipped with a heating system consisting of 2 hot air distribution circuits obtained by recovery of energy from the cooling water from a battery of induction melting furnaces and the heat of workpieces leaving a heat treatment furnace. Measurement of airborne dust concentrations showed renewal of the air to be sufficient to reduce pollution to below exposure limits. The energy savings permit the capital invested in the installation to be amortised within 3-4 years.
Fonderie, Feb. 1980, Vol.35, No.396, p.57-64. Illus.
Health aspects of the foundry industry - Bibliography.
This bibliography covers the period from 1970 to 1980; it is based on CIS, Excerpta Medica and other computerised documentations. The 260 references (without abstracts) to literature different countries are given in alphabetical order.
Industrial Health Foundation, Inc., 5231 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15232, USA, 1980. 25p. Price: US-$10,00.
Costa G., Apostoli P.
Dynamic electrocardiographic study of apron-conveyor stripping in an iron foundry
Studio mediante elettrocardiografia dinamica di una situazione di lavoro (distaffatura-apron) in fonderia di ghisa [en italiano]
The workplace is described. Several aspects of physical workload in 6 workers were studied, attention being paid to the effects of muscular effort, heat stress, noise, and carbon monoxide pollution. The problem of the spare man in situations requiring considerable physical effort in hot conditions is stressed. Suggestions to improve the working environment and for medical supervision of workers are made.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1980, Vol.71, No.3, p.204-215. 16 ref.
Orth H., Nisi D.
Dust measurement in an iron foundry
Staubmessungen in einer Eisengiesserei [en alemán]
The principles and conditions for measuring dust levels, and interpretation of the results, are discussed: permissible limits of respirable quartz-containing dust, personal and area measuring equipment, time of day and duration, statistical evaluation of results, filter tape samplers and impact samplers. Results are given of measurements in a partially mechanised flaskless moulding shop. Sampling was done continuously throughout an 8h shift with a filter tape collector and β-ray absorption. Dust levels were consistently below permissible limits, especially in the automatic plant. Dust samples mainly contained bentonite, and had a low quartz content.
Giesserei, 4 Feb. 1980, Vol.67, No.3, p.62-67. Illus. 3 ref.
Schütz A., Wolf D.
Gases and vapours in foundry workplaces
Gase und Dämpfe an Giessereiarbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
Review of modern foundry techniques involving the use of many inorganic and organic substances, recognised as harmful under West German regulations, used as resins and hardeners in the composition of sand mixes used for hot-box and cold-box moulding. These substances are given off and decompose during casting. Description of methods for monitoring harmful substances in the air in 8 foundries: technical data on monitoring methods, results for various moulding techniques and workplaces. Detailed considerations on the concept of a statistical evaluation of the results based on the toxicity of substances used in different techniques and workplaces. Recommended measures for monitoring and reduction of harmful substances (isolation of casting area, exhaust ventilation of gases and vapours, programmed ventilation, optimum regeneration of sand, strict observance of rules concerning additives, workplace air monitoring).
Giesserei, 4 Feb. 1980, Vol.67, No.3, p.68-73. 15 ref.
Lehmann F.A., Lob M., Droz P.O., Guillemin M.
Investigation of working conditions of shotblasters
Enquête sur les conditions de travail des sableurs. [en francés]
Investigation of noise conditions and workplace air in 7 plants using shotblasting methods: noise levels varied between 90 and 103dB(A); of 17 shotblasters examined 15 had an abnormal audiogram, hearing loss being proportionate to length of exposure; oil mist, dust and CO concentrations were below the corresponding TLVs; results of respiratory function tests and spirometric indices (VC, FEV1, mean mid-expiratory flow rate) did not differ from those of the control group.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1980, Vol.41, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 10 ref.
Cochrane A.L., Moore F.
A 20-year follow-up of men (aged 55-64 and 25-34) including coal miners and foundry workers in Staveley, Derbyshire.
Four groups of men, in non-dusty, pure coal-mining, pure foundry, and other occupations, were followed up since a study in 1957. The age groups 55-64 (386 men) and 25-34 years (369 men) are dealt with separately. In the older age group, mortality from all causes was similar in all occupations. There was a slight suggestion of a dust problem in the foundry workers. The study does not support the existence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema induced by coal dust. In the younger age group, the mortality rates were similar except for the "other and mixed" group of occupations, which had a surprisingly high mortality rate. It is suggested that there is a small group of uncooperative men, overweight for their height and heavy smokers, who self-select themselves into jobs that are classified as other and mixed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.37, No.3, p.226-233. 7 ref.
Sorption and ion exchange properties of respirable dust particles in foundries
Sorptions- und Ionenaustausch-Eigenschaften lungengängiger Staubanteile von Giesserei-Arbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
Surface activity of respirable dust deposited in the lungs can have an influence on the pathogenesis of cancer. The morphology and results of potentiometric analysis of cast iron and steel foundry dust are reported. In contrast to results of other studies, the dust had no selectivity for ion exchange. Organic foundry sand additives can affect the results.
Staub, Feb. 1980, Vol.40, No.2, p.58-61. Illus. 6 ref.
Gases and vapours in workplaces in foundries
Gase und Dämpfe an Arbeitsplätzen in Giessereien [en alemán]
Review of sources of toxic gases and vapours set free during coremaking, moulding and casting. A table lists typical harmful gases which arise at each process or production stage, with corresponding TLVs. Recommended measures to control harmful emanations: separation of workplaces, local exhaust ventilation, isolation of critical area by suitable ventilation, regeneration of sand, observance of supplier's recommendations as regards quantity of binders to be added, monitoring of concentrations of harmful gases in workplace air.
BIA-Information Nr.2/80, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit, Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Langwartwag 103, 5300 Bonn 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1980. 2p.
Lagunov L.F., Osipov G.L.
Noise control in the engineering industry
Bor'ba s šumom v mašinostroenii [en ruso]
Contents: standardisation of noise and ultrasound damage risk criteria; noise measurement (noise levels of machine tools and compressors; measuring instruments); noise control measures (at the source or by sound absorption, sound shielding, silencers, vibration isolation); soundproofing for ventilation systems, compressors, and machine tools; hearing protection.
Izdatel'stvo "Masinostroenie", 1-j Basmannyj per.3, 107885 Moskva GSP-6, USSR, 1980. 150p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.50.
Brooke J.D., Toogood S., Green L.F.
Diet, physiological work and accident incidence of forge workers
The metabolic load of daily work, dietary intake, and effect of supplementing the diet with glucose syrup on the accident rate were studied in 57 workers over 18 weeks. The mean energy output was 9.7MJ (2300kcal); mean energy intake (supplemented) was 15MJ (3600kcal). Ingestion of glucose to reverse increased consumption of metabolic fat in the morning significantly reduced accidents in a double-blind trial. The effect may be due to altered levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.66-72. 23 ref.
Precision foundry hazards.
The 9 stages involved in making aircraft engine turbine blades are described, with a list of hazards due to molten wax, metal and steam, refractory material, molten metal and water explosions, dust and flying ceramic silicate chips, cutting blades, electric arc cutting, hydrofluoric acid, caustic solution, ionising radiation, and environmental factors. Precautions taken are: pre-employment examination, safety footwear, machinery guarding, restricted entry to high hazard areas, protective clothing, dust extraction systems, lip extraction on chemical process tanks, barrier creams, face and nose masks, antidotes for dangerous chemicals, eye wash bottles, ventilation, fluids with added salt, hygiene audits, automation of dangerous processes, specialist health and safety training of personnel.
Occupational Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.32, No.3, p.123-127. Illus.
Exposure to carbon monoxide in foundries
Exposition for koloxid i gjuterier [en sueco]
Investigation following complaints of headache and excessive fatigue in foundry workers. 103 workers in 7 foundries were interviewed; their carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were determined before and after their shift. Results: no complaints in workplaces where exposed workers had <5% COHb levels; complaints, mainly of headache, in workplaces where non-smoking workers sometimes had COHb levels in excess of 5% COHb. Frequency of complaints increased in proportion to COHb levels.
Undersökningsrapport 1980:4, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 18p. 15 ref.
Tratamiento eficaz del aire en fundiciones
The most highly polluting foundry operations are: melting, pouring, precooling of the mould, removal from the mould and knockout, cooling of castings, fettling, sand preparation. Details are given of ventilation systems using local exhaust at the source, and of air filter systems, dust collectors (wet, Bahco multicyclones) and heat exchangers that can be used in foundries.
Prevención, Jan-Mar. 1980, No.71, p.32-40. Illus.
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - how to combine sound levels from more than one source
This data sheet describes, with examples, how to add or substract sound level measurements in order to calculate the overall noise exposure in dB(A) for a given work area.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1979. 4p. 2 ref.
Brandt F., Reumschüssel S.
Layout of workplaces in foundries
Die Gestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen in Giessereien [en alemán]
The information provided can serve for the design of new installations or the improvement of existing foundries from the points of view of technology and ergonomics. Aspects dealt with: principles of work organisation; elaboration of rules and data for workplace design according to labour science criteria; rules and specific data for layout of workplaces for moulding, introduction of the cores into the moulds, poluring, knocking out, removal of runners and risers, and trimming; creation of a workplace data card showing existing working conditions and those to be attained through introduction of scientific organisational measures.
VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Karl-Heine-Strasse 27, DDR-7031 Leipzig, 1979. 181p. Illus. 327 ref. Price: M.20.00.
Dust and non-specific respiratory disorders in foundry workers and coal miners in the Rhine-Ruhr area.
Research carried out with the financial assistance of the Commission of the European Communities. Roundup of epidemiological and pathological studies in coal miners and foundry workers in the Rhine-Ruhr area on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The study confirms the fact that there is a higher incidence of these disorders among workers exposed to dust than among the rest of the population.
Revue de l'Institut d'hygiène des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1979, Vol.34, No.2, p.70-76. Illus. 23 ref.
Rohbeck R., Schmidt K.P., Schröder P.J., Strassen W.
Reduction of noise of a forging press
Lärmminderung an einer Schmiedepresse [en alemán]
Information is given for manufacturers on the design of less noisy forging presses (noise sources, secondary measures such as hoods and enclosures, primary measures at the design stage). Results of studies on a double-column eccentric forging press are presented. Research methods and noise measurement techniques are described. Design modifications in presses and incorporated secondary measures come close to attaining a sound level of 90dB(AI) at 1m.
Forschungsbericht Nr.170, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 190p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: DM 25.50.
Mahon R.D., Morrison J.H., Weller L.A.
Survey of personal protective equipment in foundries.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) for hot environments, silica dust, metal fumes, and noise were studied. Questionnaires were sent to 769 establishments (response 57%) and the results were validated by site visits. Metal founding operations in different types of foundry are described. Among the results were: PPE may not adequately protect the wearer from workplace exposures; PPE may not be worn for a variety of subjective and objective reasons; there is a great need for education and training of foundry personnel responsible for the selection, acquisition, wearing, and maintenance of PPE.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.80-100, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Nov. 1979. 89p. 15 ref.
Bobriščev-Puškin D.M., Kučerskij P.A., Zelenkin A.N., Samodurova I.V.
Better working conditions in continuous casting of steel
Gigieničeskie aspekty optimizacii uslovij truda pri nepreryvnoj razlivke stali [en ruso]
Hygiene studies in a curved strand casting line are reported. The main hazards were radiant heat and dust from the fluorine-containing flux forming a protective slag layer. Exposure was effectively reduced by means of special heat-reflective glass screens and by charging the tundish with a powder flux packed in bags in preference to flux in bulk.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.5-8. 4 ref.
New accident prevention regulations for foundry moulding machines
Neue Unfallverhütungsvorschriften für Formmaschinen in Giessereien [en alemán]
Results of studies of 400 accidents to determine the machine elements and operations responsible, and the accident incidence, are reported, with a description of typical accidents. The new safety regulations (VBG 32) became effective in the Federal Republic of Germany in Apr. 1979. Safety measures are protection of control elements against accidental contact and activation, hand protection, guard against the risk of crushing by the swiveling ramming head, pressure-relief devices for compressed airlines.
Giesserei, 1979, Vol.66, No.21, p.787-792. Illus. 2 ref.
Steelworks environment - Stripping and relining of ladles
Stålverkens arbetsmiljö - Rivning och infodring av skänkar [en sueco]
Methods and equipment used at 10 Scandinavian steelworks are reported: refractory products (silica content and silicosis hazard, recovery); stripping and relining (manual labour, mechanisation, spray application, ramming, slinging); improvement of workplace and working equipment (dust control measures, noise and weather control at stripping posts; height-adjustable work platforms for relining; laying of bricks helically to prevent exposure to dust from cutting); layout of relining shops; special case of torpedo ladles.
TRITA-AML-SA 15, Arbetsmiljölaboratoriet, KTH, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Sep. 1979. 106p. Illus. Gratis.
Noise control - Foundry industry
Bullerbekämpning - Gjuteriindustrin [en sueco]
Description, with illustrations, of methods for soundproofing foundry equipment: vibratory screen; deburring press; swing grinder; automatic stop device on vibratory screen when there is no sand supply; jolt rammer; hot-air blower in core drying oven; hydraulic system of die-casting machines; scouring barrel; air outlet silencer on core shooter; low-noise blowing nozzles; rubber baffles for castings dropped into trays; sound-absorption treated vibrating hopper; acoustic enclosure of various equipment; soundproofing of workshops for cleaning castings; sound-absorbing ceiling panels; soundproofed exhaust ventilation fans. Results and cost of these measures.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 42p. Illus. 10 ref.
Workplace environment improvement during cleaning of castings by tool-mounted exhaust ventilation
Förbättrad arbetsmiljö vid gjutgodsrensning genom punktavsug på handverktyg [en sueco]
Description of devices developed and used with success in Sweden: power-driven hand tools with built-in exhaust ventilation (chipping hammer, cut-off grinder, straight grinder, angle grinder, suspension of tools); exhaust ventilation nozzles and their correct use; radial suspension arms with built-in valve; workplace design and layout for cleaning castings (booth, ventilation, work bench, lighting).
Rapport 790426, Svenska Gjuteriföreningen, Box 2132, 550 02 Jönköping, Sweden, no date. 29p. Illus. Price: Swe-cr.21.00.
Woitowitz H.J., Harland U., Krieger H.G., Rödelsperger K.
Long-term study of heart rate and ECG in fettlers
Langzeituntersuchungen von Herzschlagfrequenz und EKG bei Gussputzern [en alemán]
29 fettlers in 3 foundries were studied clinically and by telemetry over several weeks. Factors considered were: physiological work load (heat rate, pulse count, ECG), work plan, environmental factors (noise conditions, fine quartz dust levels, effective temperature, radiant heat, lighting). Workplaces in the following categories are desribed and evaluated: (1) shakeout, cooling, cutting of gates and risers; (2) cleaning of castings; (3) deburring and trimming. Work load and environmental factors varied widely, even within a single category, according to the level of automation. Measures are proposed to improve working conditions.
Forschungsbericht Nr.220, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 137p. Illus. 101 ref. Price: DM.19.50.
Determination of quartz on membrane filters by X-ray diffraction.
The method was developed with particular reference to the foundry industry, where determination of quartz in small dust samples is often required. Analysis is done directly on a collecting cellulose ester membrane filter. Quantitation is achieved by measurement of the quartz line intensities with a digital integrator and comparison of these values with calibration standards. Overall precision is 8%. Accuracy of quartz analysis of foundry dusts was within 10% at the 1-10mg level of total loading. Detection limit for quartz was <0.1mg.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1979, Vol.5, No.4, p.379-385. 21 ref.
Kalliomäki P.L., Korhonen O., Mattsson T., Sortti V., Vaaranen V., Kalliomäki K., Koponen M.
Lung contamination among foundry workers.
The amount of lung contamination in 10 iron foundry workers was estimated by magnetising the workers' thoracic area and measuring the remanent magnetic field. The estimated amount of lung contaminants varied between 30 and 600mg. Fettlers represented the most seriously affected groups. The correlation between radiological findings and the measured average permanent magnetic field was good (r=0.60). The magnetic measuring method can be used to evaluate the amount of metallic contaminants retained by foundry workers' lungs.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1979, Vol.43, No.2, p.85-91. 16 ref.
Mur J.M., Méreau P., Cavelier C., Pham Q.T., Castet P.
Foundry workshops and respiratory function
Ateliers de fonderie et fonction respiratoire. [en francés]
A questionnaire survey, spirographic studies before and after sensitisation with acetylchloline, and CO transfer tests in a group of 57 foundry workers (average length of service 20 years) and 32 controls showed no significant difference in respect of chronic bronchitis and the frequency or severity of lung function changes. The generally high level of such changes suggested the presence of a general factor (local atmospheric pollution, climatic conditions).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, May 1979, Vol40, No.5, p.587-595. 8 ref.
Mould coatings with flammable carrier fluids
Formüberzugsstoffe mit brennbarer Trägerflüssigkeit [en alemán]
Foundry and laboratory studies to evaluate the fire and explosion hazards of mould coatings incorporating isopropyl alcohol are reported: determination of flashpoint, measurement of vapour concentrations and evaporation rates, spray tests. There is no explosion risk in large foundry halls with natural ventilation. In storage vats for the coatings, moulding pits and other confined spaces, explosive atmospheres may occur. Given the high fire risk, especially during flaming of the moulds, safety measures are forced ventilation and local exhaust ventilation, elimination of ignition sources, prohibition of smoking, and availability of extinguishers.
Giesserei, Jan. 1979, Vol.66, No.1, p.11-17. Illus. 8 ref.
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