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  • Foundries, metalcasting and forging operations

1986

CIS 87-764
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Forging presses. General safety requirements [USSR]
Oborudovanie kuznečno-pressovoe. Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987) applies to the design, construction and modernisation of forging presses, except hand-operated presses. It conforms to CMEA standard ST SEV 4849-84. Contents: general requirements covering the structure, controls, guarding, lubrication, drive systems, installations, noise emission, vibration and lighting of forging presses and auxiliary equipment; electrical systems; verification of compliance. Twenty terms used in the standard are defined explicitly in an appendix, with 13 terms defined by reference to other GOST standards.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 39p. Price: Rbl.0.15.

CIS 87-371
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Foundries [Federal Republic of Germany]
Giessereien (VBG 32) [en alemán]
Directive concerning safety regulations for ferrous and non-ferrous metal foundries. Update of document cited as CIS 79-2019.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1986. 29+21p. Price: DM.3.00.

CIS 87-648 Kaczmarska A., Zdrzalik W.
Methodology of measurement and evaluation of impulse noise in a forging shop
Metodyka pomiaru i ocena hałasu impulsowego w kuźni [en polonés]
Definition of impulse noise according to Polish Standard PN-81/N-01306 and methodology of measurements carried out under the direction of the Chief Sanitary Inspector dated 4 Oct. 1985. Measurement findings were tabulated. Hazard was assessed by comparing (for each work-station) the number of impulses for each work-shift with the permissible number of impulses.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 1986, No.5, p.7-9. 4 ref.

CIS 87-599 Balev A.I., Kul'pa L.S., Jančuk V.F.
Development of a two-zone exhaust system for removing gases from low-capacity arc furnaces
Razrabotka processa dvuhzonnogo gazootbora dugovyh pečej maloj vmestimosti [en ruso]
When one metric ton of steel is refined in an electric arc furnace, 80-90kg of carbon monoxide, approx. 10kg fine dust, as well as sulfur monoxide, nitrogen and other substances are set free. The effectiveness of exhaust hoods rarely exceeds 70%. Description of a two-zone system which enables an effectiveness of 93-95% to be attained by exhausting 16,000-18,000m3/h (t=80°C): In the first zone, the gases are drawn from the charging door, and in the second, through the openings in the roof round the electrodes, from where the gases pass into a telescopic and articulated duct allowing the furnace to be tilted. While the gases are exhausted, air penetrates into the furnace and helps to burn part of the carbon monoxide.
Litejnoe proizvodstvo, July 1986, No.7, p.24.

CIS 87-642 Kramarenko R.A., Timofeev I.R.
Tests with devices that reduce the airflow noise produced by drop forging hammers
Ispytanija ustrojstv, snijajuščih aėrodinamičeskij šum, sozdavaemyj štampovočnym molotom [en ruso]
Results of tests carried out on sound absorbing devices of the "active" and "passive" types. During the experiments, the air pressure and impact noise level were measured at different points inside and outside enclosures made up of reinforced plastic panels lined with antidrumming compound and plastic foam (active absorption) and close to plastic screens arranged and inclined in various ways (passive absorption). According to the shape of the absorption "channel" made up by the active enclosures, the impact noise was reduced by 7 to 15dB, while the screens enabled a reduction of 9 to 14dB to be obtained.
Kuznečno-štampovočnoe proizvodstvo, June 1986, No.6, p.29-30. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 87-197 Javelaud B.
Study of urinary arsenic - Determination method without ashing for the monitoring of workers exposed to arsenic anhydride
Etude de l'arsenic urinaire - Méthode de dosage sans minéralisation préalable pour la surveillance des salariés exposés ŕ l'anhydride arsénieux [en francés]
Historical survey of biological monitoring measures practiced in a foundry producing arsenic anhydride. Discussion of normal arsenic content in urine (total arsenic) and of the influence of nutrition on it. The determination method used (without ashing) permits a better way to distinguish between exposed workers and the general population. The method was tested on mispickel (arsenical pyrites) miners and on workers in arsenic anhydride recovery. The value of this method in epidemiology is discussed.
Centre d'information des services médicaux d'entreprises et interentreprises, 21 rue Médéric, 75832 Paris Cedex 17, France, document No.8/1986. 125p. Illus. 67 réf.

CIS 86-1647 Zinc and Zinc Oxide
This data sheet provides information on the safe use of zinc compounds and describes related toxic effects such as skin ulceration and metal fume fever.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 3p. 4 ref.

CIS 86-1422 Leonard R., Lechien P., Vo Chi T., Brogniaux L.
Ergonomic study of protection against flames and molten metal splashes
Etude ergonomique concernant la protection contre les flammes et les projections de métal en fusion [en francés]
A study of burn accidents among blast-furnace workers of a steel plant allows an understanding of the circumstances and location of accidents, and an analysis of the comfort and effectiveness provided by presently used means of protection. Materials used in protective clothing and equipment (aluminised or non-aluminised) were tested in a laboratory and in the field. Prototypes of protective clothing were made and tested objectively and subjectively. A complete set of protective clothing and equipment, providing a good combination of protection and comfort to foundry workers, is described and recommended.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1986, Vol.23, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 86-1421 Blázquez Martínez M.
El riesgo higiénico en las fundiciones - Captación eficaz de sustancias tóxicas contenidas en el aire
Contents: stages in the ironmaking process; elimination of mechanical and health risks; local exhaust ventilation equipment to be used during various stages of operation; general recommendations.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1986, No.95, p.8-16. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 86-1201 Handling materials in the forging industry
Aspects covered in this data sheet: identification of hazards (falling objects, slips, trips and falls, burns from steam and hot metal, flying particles); handling procedures and tools; authorised use of equipment; personal protective equipment; inspection of hoists; slings and chains.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 5p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 86-1132 Gros P.
Explosive projections of molten metal in aluminium foundries - Causes and prevention
Projections explosives de métal liquide dans les fonderies d'aluminium - Causes et prévention [en francés]
Explosive projections, sometimes very violent, can occur when molten metal comes into sudden contact with water. After a summary of the causes of such explosions, this note suggests various preventive measures to be applied during the design, modification or utilisation of charging and pouring stations. The aim of these measures is the prevention of explosive projections and the protection of workers against the projections if they do occur.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1986, No.122, Note No.1567-122-86, p.25-36. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 86-922 Mechanical forging presses
This illustrated data sheet identifies the hazards and describes safety devices, protective equipment and safe operating methods to prevent accidents during the operation of various types of presses.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 5p. Illus. 2 ref.

1985

CIS 87-18
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Press tools for sheet and plate forming - General safety requirements [USSR]
Štampy dlja listovoj štampovki. Obščie trebovanija bezopasnosti [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 July 1987) establishes safety requirements for design and operation of press tools for sheet and plate forming by mechanical and hydraulic presses. Contents: general requirements, safety requirements with regard to machine elements and operation.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 16p. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 86-1525 Baba Y., Iwao S., Kodama Y.
Follow-up study on pulmonary function of dust workers: An epidemiological evaluation of discontinued workers of dust operations
An epidemiologic study on 176 workers exposed to dust in various occupations was initiated in 1978. No workers complained of chronic cough or phlegm. Their chest X-rays belonged to Category I as defined by the Pneumoconiosis Law in Japan. Pulmonary function test was performed on these workers, however, 54 workers discontinued taking part in the study by the end of 1979 ("early-discontinued" group), and 49 workers had discontinued by 1981 ("late-discontinued" group). A total of 73 workers had a 5-year follow-up survey of pulmonary function. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second divided by forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow rate at 25% of FVC divided by height were mainly compared by smoking habit, work years, type of job, size of company, and the time when they discontinued their jobs. Predicted percentage values of lung function were used for the adjustment of the influence of workers' ages. Decrements of these values in the 5-year follow-up group were larger than the 1978 level. The mean values in the early-discontinued group were lower than in the late-discontinued and active working groups. The fact that respiratory function indicators are better for the workers with longer exposure than for the early-discontinued group is a reflection of the "healthy worker effect": only the physically healthiest workers remain in jobs that present health hazards.
Journal of UOEH, Sep. 1985, Vol.7, No.3, p.257-263. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 86-1730 Nonferrous foundry industry safety and health guide
The material in this guide illustrates to everyone involved the types of safety and health hazards commonly encountered in this industry. Charts indicate what the risks are, how they are likely to occur and the means to reduce or eliminate them through engineering controls, work practices, personal protective equipment, administrative controls, and education and training.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1985. 204p. Bibl.

CIS 86-1729 Ferrous foundry industry safety and health guide
The material in this guide illustrates to everyone involved the types of safety and health hazards commonly encountered in this industry. Charts indicate what the hazards are, how they are likely to occur and the means to reduce or eliminate them through engineering controls, work practices, personal protective equipment, administrative controls, and education and training.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1985. 193p.

CIS 86-1727 Belov S.V., Brinza V.N., Vekšin B.S., Vlasov A.F., Ivanov B.A., Iškova V.M., Karnauh N.N., Kirikova O.V., Koz'jakov A.F., Kuz'min A.P., Manuev N.V., Morozova L.L., Pavlihin G.P., Perevozčikov I.V., Pyškina Ė.P., Samoldin A.A., Sivkov V.P., Smirnov S.G., Terehin A.S.
Safety of industrial processes
Bezopasnost' proizvodstvennyh processov [en ruso]
This guide intended for engineering staff and labour inspectors of the machine-building industry covers: general provisions concerning safety of industrial processes (main safety regulations and requirements, harmful and hazardous factors, safety training, effectiveness of labour protection); occupational safety in foundries, forging and pressing, heat treatment, electroplating, welding, coating, woodworking, assembly-line work, painting shops; testing of electric power equipment, automation of processes, rating of working conditions. In appendices: MACs of harmful substances, lighting standards, personal protective equipment, guards, warning colours and safety symbols.
Izdatel'stvo Mašinostroenie, Stromynskij per. 4, 107076, Moskva, USSR, 1985. 448p. Illus. 175 ref. Price: Rbl.1.80.

CIS 86-527 Upsetters
Aspects covered in this data sheet: guarding devices; auxiliary equipment; safe operation; setting up and removing dies; inspection and maintenance.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 4p. Illus.

CIS 86-526 Steam drop hammers
This data sheet identifies some of the hazards (burns, body injuries) encountered in setting up, operating, and repairing steam drop hammers and suggests some recommended methods for reducing or eliminating these hazards.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 5p. Illus.

CIS 86-525 Setup and removal of forging hammer dies
This data sheet describes procedures for the safe setup and removal of forge dies.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 5p. Illus.

CIS 86-517 NIOSH recommendations for control of occupational safety and health hazards ... Foundries
Aspects covered in this report which deals specifically with US workplaces: industry and process description; health and safety hazards; engineering controls (ventilation, noise and vibration abatement); work practices; personal protective equipment and clothing; occupational safety and health standards; research needs. The major categories of adverse health effects for foundry workers include malignant and non-maligant respiratory diseases, traumatic and ergonomic injuries due to manual handling and to falling or moving objects, heat-induced illnesses and injuries, vibration-induced disorders, noise-induced hearing loss and eye injuries.
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA. 1985. 189p. Illus. 298 ref. Glossary.

CIS 86-511 Palmer W.G., James R.H., Moorman W.J.
Analysis of emissions collected from four types of iron casting molds
The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related compounds, phenol and particulates were determined in emissions from 4 types of binders: furan, urethane, green sand with sea coal and phenol-formaldehyde resins in shell molds. The shell sample contained 50% particulates, green sand 25%, furan 10% and urethane 2%. The portion of particulate fraction soluble in cyclohexane varied from 16 to 36% between mold types. Emissions from urethane and furan molds contained the lowest quantities of cyclohexane-soluble components and of PAH and related compounds. Phenol which was fond in all 4 foundry samples, was present in the highest concentration in emissions from urethane molds. Shell mold emissions contained the highest levels of 2- and 4-nitrophenol.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1985, Vol.46, No.12, p.724-730. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 86-90 Hansén L., Sollenberg J., Uggla C.
Determination of dimethylethylamine in air samples from iron foundries by isotachophoresis
Static gas standards of the amine in air were used to evaluate different sampling techniques. The collection device of choice was a midget impinger containing 10cm3 of HCl (50mmole/L). The dimethylethylamine concentration in the air of 3 different iron foundries ranged from 0.5 to 155mg/m3. No pretreatment of the samples was necessary and no interfering substances from the air in the foundries affected the analysis by isotachophoresis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1985, Vol.11, No.4, p.307-310. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1344 Low I., Mitchell C.
Respiratory disease in foundry workers
A survey of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function among 46 Australian steel foundry workers exposed to moulding fumes and vapours, and of 17 after-cast workers not exposed to these substances. 11 of the exposed workers developed a wheeze while working at the foundry. Wheeze and other respiratory symptoms were attributed by the workers to substances at work, particularly phenol formaldehyde resin and hexamethylenetetramine. The evidence of ventilatory function changes was not consistent. Both irritant and hypersensitivity mechanisms seemed to be present.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.42, No.2, p.101-105. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1343 Johnson A., Chan-Yeung M., Maclean L., Atkins E., Dybuncio A., Cheng F., Enarson D.
Respiratory abnormalities among workers in an iron and steel foundry
A study of the health of 78 workers in an iron and steel foundry in British Columbia (Canada), and of 372 controls (workers in a railway repair yard). The foundry workers were exposed to the chemical binding system PepSet, consisting of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), phenol formaldehyde, and a catalyst containing a pyridine derivative. They were also exposed to silica particulates. The study included a questionnaire survey, chest radiography, allergy skin tests, pulmonary function tests, methacholine inhalation tests, and measurements of dust and MDI levels. The foundry workers had significantly more respiratory symptoms and significantly lower respiratory function indicators than did the controls. 3 of the workers had radiographic signs of pneumoconiosis and 12 had asthma, probably caused by sensitisation to MDI.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.42, No.2, p.94-100. 31 ref.

CIS 85-943 Oswald H.
Proper treatment of fumes produced by die-casting machines
Dämpfe an Druckgussmaschinen richtig behandeln [en alemán]
Air contaminated by fumes, which are produced when die-castings are ejected and dies are lubricated, is eliminated by exhaust hoods placed above the die-casting machines and is then cleaned by filters of various kinds. The problems of condensation and of filter cleaning or changing are emphasised. A supplementary air cleaning system, based on a water curtain that retains harmful substances, is described. This system eliminates the need for long periods of maintenance and reduces fire risks. Experience with the installation and its operation is discussed.
Technische Rundschau, 1985, Vol.77, No.9, p.22-23. Illus.

1984

CIS 89-430
USSR Commission for UNEP
Nickel and its compounds
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC (nickel carbonyl) = 0.0005mg/m3; MAC (nickel salts as hydroaerosols) = 0.005mg Ni/m3; MAC (nickel metal, oxides, sulphides, ore concentrates) = 0.05mg Ni/m3. Toxicity: the water-soluble salts and nickel carbonyl are the most toxic (irritation of mucous membranes and skin, dermatitis, skin absorption; pulmonary oedema from exposure to nickel carbonyl); dust from nickel ore production is carcinogenic in man.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 36p. 82 ref.

CIS 86-644 Wischmann G.
Noise emission of forging presses and possibilities of noise reduction
Geräuschemission von Schmiedepressen und Möglichkeiten der Lärmminderung [en alemán]
Report on investigations of noise production on 42 forging presses in the field and in the laboratory: established knowledge, principles of noise measurement, types of forging presses, definition of practical operating conditions, noise measurements on eccentric presses, noise measurements on spindle presses, noise level at the workplace, possibilities of noise abatement. The sound power levels are shown as a function of the rated force of the machines, separately for blow-and operating-noise. There were measured sound power levels of 120-133dB for eccentric presses and of 122-134dB for spindle presses.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 190p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: DM.26.00.

CIS 85-1944 Freeman K., Warin A.P.
Contact dermatitis due to Bisphenol A in semi-synthetic waxes
A worker engaged in producing moulds for turbine blades developed a severe rash in response to certain pattern waxes. Patch testing showed that Bisphenol A, which makes up 15-30% of the given waxes, was the agent responsible. Although sensitisation to Bisphenol A has been reported in the epoxy resin industry, this is the first reported case associated with semi-synthetic waxes.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1984, Vol.11, No.4, p.259-260. 6 ref.

CIS 85-1231
(Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Die casting machines
Pressgjutmaskiner [en sueco]
This directive (effective 1 Jan. 1988) covers machines for die casting of metal and their furnaces. Contents: definitions; construction and safety; operation (controls); guards; switches and circuit breakers; marking; workplace layout; operating and maintenance instructions; safe operation; conformity testing and periodic checks. Detailed commentary and practical guidelines.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 13 Dec. 1984. 22p. Illus.

CIS 85-1413 An integrated programme to improve working conditions in France
Le FACT lourd (Fonds d'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail) [en francés]
Evaluation of an integrated approach to the improvement of working conditions in a foundry. General studies covered improvements in working conditions in the fettling shop; the ergonomic analysis of manual grinding; and the noise problem. Also included was research into work enrichment.
Lettre d'information de l'ANACT, Mar. 1984, No.84, p.1-6. Illus.

CIS 85-1281 Grinberg A.A., Topol'skaja I.M.
Increasing the effectiveness of exhaust hoods
Povyšenie ėffektivnosti vytjažnyh zontov [en ruso]
The effectiveness of hoods for local exhaust around large and/or hot pieces of industrial equipment can be increased by placing conical or pyramidal inserts in the hoods. Contaminated air is thus exhausted through ring-shaped slots, and air speeds in the vicinity of the modified hoods are increased. Installation of modified hoods over carburettor-casting machines reduced workplace air pollution by 4-6 fold.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1984, No.1, p.46-48. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 85-946 Karsten H., Peter S.
Personal and area dust determination in foundries
Stationäre und personengebundene Staubmessung in Giessereibetrieben [en alemán]
Report on the results of dust measurement in a highly mechanised modern steel foundry and in 2 steel foundries with machinery more than 25 years old. Description of production methods and techniques, ventilation, gravimetric and konimetric dust measurements, mean annual dust concentrations and silica content of dust at various workplaces. On the whole, personal dust measurements produced results 50% higher than area measurements. Dust concentrations were slightly higher in the old foundries, but the health hazard was higher in the modern foundry because of the higher silica concentration and the higher dust evaluation index. Analysis of the causes of the bad conditions in the mechanised foundry.
Atemschutzinformationen, 1984, Vol.23, p.19-23. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 85-369 Behrens V., Taylor W., Wilcox T., Miday R., Spaeth S., Burg J., Wasserman D., Reynolds D., Doyle T., Carlson W., Smith R., Samueloff S., Howie G., Rappeport M.
Vibration syndrome in chipping and grinding workers
The effects of vibration on workers at 2 foundries and a shipyard (USA) were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Aspects covered: review of the problem; design of the study; epidemiology (use of questionnaires and medical data); measurement of the vibrations produced by chipping hammers and grinders; physiologic testing (aesthesiometry, photocell plethysmography, radiography). Foundry workers were more affected by vibration than shipyard workers. In all cases, excessive vibration levels were measured on chipping and grinding tools. Recommendations for improving work procedures to reduce vibration problems are given.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1984, Vol.26, No.10. p.765-788. 66 ref. Illus.

CIS 85-512 Baumgärtel I., Körner H., Korsten D., Laubrecht K.H., Leisser H., Maruna H., Rabitsch G., Sonnenschein G., Wolf D.
Dangerous working substances in foundries - Mold materials
Matičres dangereuses en fonderie - Matičres de moulage [en francés]
Booklet produced by an ad-hoc working group. Contents: changes in process engineering; mould materials, binders and coating materials in current use, and their characteristics; working processes in foundries and their dangers (supply, storage and distribution of mould materials and binders; mixing of sands, manufacture and secondary treatment of moulds and cores; pouring, cooling and removal of castings from moulds; finishing of castings); concept of defence against dangers; analytical methods for demonstrating the presence of harmful substances in foundries; medical and toxicological assessment of foundry work.
International Section for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases in the Iron and Metal Manufacturing Industry of the International Social Security Association, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, no date. 44p. 16 ref.

CIS 85-137 Fletcher A.C., Ades A.
Lung cancer mortality in a cohort of English foundry workers
A cohort of 10,250 males who began work between 1946 and 1965 in 9 English steel foundries and who worked in these foundries ≥1 year was followed prospectivley until 1978 when 1,858 deaths had occurred. Mortality from lung cancer was significantly raised among workers employed in the foundry and fettling shop areas, where standardised mortality ratios (SMR) of 142 and 173, respectively, were calculated. Most occupational categories in these 2 areas had more lung cancer deaths than expected but the SMR were greatest for the furnace bricklayers, fettlers and heat treatment furnacemen. There was some evidence of risk increasing with length of employment. Marked differences in SMR for lung cancer were found between the different foundries studied. The lung cancer risk was fairly constant by year of entry, in contrast to the improvement in mortality from diseases of the respiratory system over the same period.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1984, Vol.10, No.1, p.7-16. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 84-1535 Peltier A., Demange M., Boulet A., Elcabache J.M., Guillemin C.
Prevention of siderosis. A survey of controls in enterprises, 1971-1982
Prévention de la sidérose. Bilan des contrôles en entreprises de 1971 ŕ 1982 [en francés]
More than 2000 samples were taken between 1971 and 1982 in 514 French enterprises where there was a risk of siderosis. The results of the analyses are presented by year and activity, and are related to the TLV (5mg/m3 for respirable dust and for ferric oxide). The TLV was exceeded in 29% of the cases, and in 42% of the samples connected with welding. Conclusions: prevention of siderosis must be pursued with determination; iron might constitute - in most metalworking activities - an initial "tracer" of pollution, permitting a quick evaluation of pollution in the workplace.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd quarter 1984, No.115, Note No.1477-115-84, p.193-196. 3 ref.

CIS 84-356 Bitsch J., Roure L., Jacques J., Poirot R.
Pneumatic rammers with an "extension handle" - Study of vibration and noise reduction
Fouloirs pneumatiques ŕ "manche allongé" - Etude de la réduction des vibrations et du bruit [en francés]
A pneumatic rammer with acceptable vibration and noise levels was developed. This rammer would reduce the osteoarticular problems and hearing discomfort associated with such machines generally, without reducing its flexibility and compacting power. The prototype functioned with vibration levels of less than 15m/s2 and noise levels below 85dB(A).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1984, No.114, Note No.1465-114-84, p.35-45. Illus. 16 ref.

1983

CIS 86-229 Šimordová M.
Bacterial and mycotic flora in the work environment of a foundry
Bakteriální a mykotická flóra v pracovním prostředí slévárny [en checo]
In grey iron and steel foundries, an average of 93,950 microorganisms was found in 1m3 of air. Mesophilic bacteria predominated over micromycetes and actinomycetes. Microbial contamination ranged from 23,480 organisms/m3 on casting floors to 361,130 per m3 in cellars where moulding mixtures were prepared. 11 species of mesophilic bacteria and 40 species of fungi and yeasts were identified. Microbial contamination came from foundry raw materials and water, and was aggravated by insufficient ventilation. Dust (containing free Si02) that had settled on metal structures at breathing zone level contained the most varied species (8 types of mesophilic bacteria and 61 types of micromycetes). The microorganisms included saprophytic, facultatively pathogenic and toxigenic species.
Československá hygiena, 1983, Vol.28, No.2, p.83-98. 35 ref.

CIS 85-2019 The foundry manager's guide to health and safety
This guide contains suggestions and recommendations aimed at the manager of a small to medium sized foundry. Aspects covered: the involvement of top management; the hiring process; pre-employment medical examination; employee records and orientation; general safety indoctrination; evaluation of new employees; transfers; safety programme (organisation, responsibilities, communication, accident investigation, safety rules and incentives, job hazard analysis); health and safety committees; health programmes; workers' compensation; industrial hygiene; training programmes; contractor responsibilities.
Canadian Foundry Association, 151 Slater St., Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5H3, Canada, 1983. 55p. Bibl.

CIS 85-643 Hahne H., Quellmalz E., van den Brulle P.
Survey of environmental factors in the workplace - Lighting, microclimate, noise and dangerous industrial substances in a foundry
Kataster von Arbeitsplatzumgebungsfaktoren - Beleuchtung, Klima, Lärm, gefährliche Arbeitsstoffe am Beispiel einer Giesserei [en alemán]
This report illustrates the problems and methods of an industrial hygiene survey of the physical and chemical environment of a foundry. The possibilities and limitations of representing several factors graphically on a map of the workplace are discussed. Microclimate, artificial lighting, dangerous substances and noise at various sampling points are mapped on floor plans of different parts of the foundry.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 266p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: DM.34.00.

CIS 85-515 Podgajko G.A.
Preventing the contamination of the work environment with carcinogenic hydrocarbons during the preparation of ingot moulds
O profilaktike zagrjaznenija proizvodstvennoj sredy kancerogennymi uglevodorodami pri podgotovke stalerazlivočnyh izložnic [en ruso]
The current technique of coating ingot moulds with a solution of pitch in benzene was replaced by a new process of spraying a refractory mineral dust (milled processed quartz, corundum, zirconium) in solution with colloidal silica onto the surface of the ingot moulds. The old technique gave rise to high concentrations of pitch sublimates, including benz(a)pyrene. The administration of the coating solution and resinous sublimate condensates to mice produced malignant skin tumours. The new process did not extensively contaminate the work environment. The aerosols were fibrogenic in inhalation experiments. A maximum allowable concentration of 1mg/m3 for aerosols of the colloidal silica alone and 2mg/m3 for mixtures with mineral powders of low fibrogenicity was recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1983, No.4, p.26-30. 9 ref.

CIS 84-1872 Starck J., Färkkilä M., Aatola S., Pyykkö I., Korhonen O.
Vibration syndrome and vibration in pedestal grinding
After the introduction of a new type of pedestal grinding machine in a Finnish foundry, all 12 operators developed vibration-induced white finger (VWF) symptoms with an average latency period of 10.3 months. The vibration levels of the new wheels, rotating at the same speed as the old wheels, were up to 12dB higher than those of the old wheels. The vibration levels of light (0.5kg) castings were up to 25dB higher than those of heavy (5kg) castings. It is suggested that the differences in vibration levels were not sufficient in explaining the outbreak of VWF, and some other feature (such as the impulse character of the vibration) also contributed to the VWF symptoms.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1983, Vol.40, No.4, p.426-433. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 84-2024
(Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda)
Safety and health in hammer forging, drop forging and pressing shops
Bezopasnost' truda v kuznečno-pressovom proizvodstve [en ruso]
Literature survey of work conditions in forging shops, of associated accidents and their causes, of forging machinery and procedures, of appropriate preventive measures. Main hazards are: fumes and dust released by reheating furnaces, red-hot workpieces and drop-forging emulsions that decompose on contact with hot objects; radiant heat; impact noise; heavy monotonous work. OSH improvement strategy is outlined, and concrete solutions are described (fixed and moving guards, interlocking systems, two-hand controls).
VCNIIOT, VCSPS, Obolenskij per. 10, 119 021 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 52p. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 84-1833 Pérez Olozaga C., Velasco J., Ruiz Iturregui J.M.
Determinación de la sílice libre en el ambiente de las fundiciones
A study of the over-estimate of silica concentration in the workplace air of foundries, due to the presence of other substances detected by infrared spectrophotometry. Significant interference was produced by the following substances (percentages refer to the minimum concentrations of these substances relative to silica that would produce such interference): iron oxide (300%); aluminium oxide (100%); graphite (100%); kaolin (50%); bentonite (100%).
Prevención, Oct.-Nov. 1983, No.86, p.14-22. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 84-1546
British Cast Iron Research Association
Foundry dust collectors for processes other than melting
This data sheet provides information on the installation and maintenance of wet, dry (cyclones), fabric filter dust collectors and electrostatic precipitators in foundry operations.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1983. 4p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 84-1726
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Automated equipment for foundries - General safety requirements
Avtomatizirovannye kompleksy oborudovanija dlja litejnogo proizvodstva [en ruso]
This standard (effective: 1 July 1985) covers automated installations which are being planned for, or being built or updated in, foundries in a defined climatic zone. Contents: general safety requirements (industrial hygiene, control systems and panels, repair and mainentance, cleaning); specific safety requirements for certain types of equipment (mixers, melting equipment, casting equipment, moulding and coremaking lines, trimming and cleaning lines, pressure and gravity die-casting equipment); verification of compliance with the requirements. Most requirements are given by citation of other USSR (GOST) standards.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva GSP, USSR, 1983. 12p. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 84-1567
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - noise and the acoustical terms used
This data sheet provides definitions for the most common terms related to noise measurement and noise control.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1983. 3p. 5 ref.

CIS 84-1706
British Cast Iron Research Association
Protective wear for foundry workers - eye protection
This data sheet provides information on safety glasses, face shields and goggles approved in the United Kingdom for use in foundry work. Addresses of British suppliers are appended.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1983. 3p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 84-1772 Workstation designed for preparing tundishes
Arbetsplats för gjutlĺdeberedning [en sueco]
Illustrated description of this workplace in a continuous-casting steelworks, before and after reorganisation according to ergonomic principles. The new design, with handling equipment and local exhaust, frees the worker from the necessity to get down into the tundishes, rationalises materials transport, gives a more orderly workplace, eliminates dust and enables the worker himself to organise his work.
Arbetarskyddsfonden, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1983. 4p. Illus.

CIS 84-1095 Que Hee S.S., Lawrence P., Shane S.
Inhalation exposure of lead in brass foundry workers: the evaluation of the effectiveness of powered air-purifying respirator and engineering controls
Determination of the protection factor provided by a Racal "Airstream AH3 High Efficiency Air-purifying System" (NIOSH/MSHA approved TC-21C-212) to brass foundry workers exposed to Pb, Cu and Zn fumes. Effective protection factors, based on measurement of lead concentrations outside and inside the respirator, ranged from 1.05 to 67. Ergonomic factors and engineering controls are also discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1983, Vol.44, No.10, p.746-751. Illus. 22 ref.

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