Foundries, metalcasting and forging operations - 469 entradas encontradas
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Heating and ventilation of foundries
Chauffage et ventilation dans les fonderies. [en francés]
French translation of: Heating and ventilation of foundries. Foundry Trade Journal, London, United Kingdom, Sep. 1971, Vol.131, No.2858, p.379-380 and 383. Illus. The author examines some of the problems of ensuring a good working environment in foundries. He states the requirements for adequate heating and ventilation, considers the various factors involved (air-renewal in old and new buildings, dust collection, fume and smoke exhaust, air-pressure differential preventing air flowing from dirty areas to cleaner parts of plant, etc.). Brief description of ventilation and heating methods and equipment for obtaining an acceptable microclimate.
Translation INRS 115 A-72, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France 1972, 9p. Illus.
Health and Safety at Work Series, No.12 (3rd edition), Department of Employment, London.
Safety at drop forging hammers.
The worst accidents at drop forging hammers are usually caused by an unexpected fall of the tup during production or die changing. Part I describes various tup supporting devices (props and catches) which will help prevent such accidents. Other accident causes are discussed in Part II and measures for their prevention are suggested (guarding of steel hammer lifting belts and pedal controls; use of correct tools and personal protective equipment). Accidents due to inadvertent tripping of pedals and misuse of tongs are discussed. A new section shows improved working methods.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1972. 27p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: £0.125.
Vibration induced peripheral syncope
La syncope périphérique par vibrations [en francés]
Examination of 11 cases of vibration-induced peripheral syncope (Raynaud's phenomenon, "dead finger") amongst 222 vibration-exposed metalworkers in 2 large machine-tool plants instigated clinical studies (classification, aetiology, symptoms, course) and biophysical and physio-pathological studies. Discussion of the results in relation to the extensive literature lead to conclusions relating to the perturbation of arteriolocapillary vasomotor function - the fundamental physiopathological disorder in vibration-induced peripheral syncope. An original hypothesis is proposed to explain the physiopathology of vibration-induced peripheral syncope.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1972, Vol.33, No.1-2, p.31-44. Illus. 84 ref.
Smoke from the trigger process in the production of nodular iron, and its possible effects on man
Following complaints by foundry workers about the smoke released by the triggering process (the reaction which takes place when molten iron is seeded with a graphite-spheroidising agent - in this case an FeSiMg-misch metal alloy - to produce modular or spheroidal graphite cast iron), smoke and blood samples were analysed and lung function testing was carried out. Blood iron and blood lead determination before and after exposure revealed no significant differences. Laboratory tests and body temperature measurements did not point to metal fume fever. Vital capacity was reduced after exposure but there was no change in forced expiratory volume. Long-term effects of repeated exposure are unknown. Management was advised to install local exhaust ventilation for the seeding process.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 5 June 1972, Vol.29, No.2, p.102-118. Illus. 38 ref.
Foundry sand composition and biological aggressiveness
Složení slévárenských písků a jejich biologická agresivita [en checo]
The higher incidence of silicosis in fettlers from Czech steel foundries than in those from grey-iron foundries led the author to analyse the composition of the sands used and of the airborne dust at the workplace, and to compare the results obtained to the biological action of this dust in animal experiments. The cristobalite content of sand adhering to steel castings was 14.5%; the sand on grey-iron castings contained no critobalite. Airborne dust in steel foundries contained 10% alpha-quartz and 4.3% cristobalite; airborne dust from grey-iron foundries contained 21% alpha-quartz but no cristobalite. Steel foundry airborne dust produced silicotic nodules but grey-iron foundry dust did not. Cristobalite therefore seems to be an aetiological factor in foundry fettlers' silicosis.
Pracovní lékařství, Jan. 1972, Vol.24, No.1, p.7-10. Illus. 15 ref.
Pneumoconiosis hazard and the incidence of chronic bronchitis in foundry workers
Risque pneumoconiosique et incidence de la bronchite chronique dans les fonderies [en francés]
Studies carried out in 4 Romanian foundries covered the 3 following aspects: gravimetric determination of airborne dust; pneumoconiosis screening of over 600 workers; examination for respiratory function changes. It was found that the dust levels were higher than the maximum levels permissible in Romania. The incidence of chronic bronchitis was higher than that in the non-exposed population, especially amongst subjects over 40 years of age. The incidence of radiological pulmonary changes was relate to the duration of exposure. The increase in blood pressure in the lesser circulation was already apparent in the pre-clinical phases of pulmonary fibrosis and this provides a means for the early detection of changes in pulmonary haemodynamics.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1972, Vol.33, No.7-8, p.373-381. Illus. 18 ref.
Sundqvist S., Westlin A.
Chemical hazards in foundries
Gjuterier - Kemiska risker [en sueco]
Brief review of the hazards of mould and core binders, pattern wood, alloying additives and lubricants: bentonite quartz content; eye and respiratory-tract irritation due to ethyl silicate (maximum allowable concentration, results of animal experiments); core-sand binders (linseed oil products - acrolein - and furane derivatives - formaldehyde, ammonia and furfuryl alcohol vapour); skin lesions due to isocyanate hardeners for linseed oil and to tropical timbers used in pattern-making; respiratory hazards in shell and investment casting; dangerous alcohol vapour emission in mould blacking; ventilation requirements for various casting techniques; health hazards of various alloying substances (selenium, tellurium, vanadium, chromium, cobalt, etc.); polychlorinated diphenyl additives to lubricants for high-temperature machine parts.
Arbetsmiljö, 1972, No.12, p.22-23. Illus.
The use of sulfur hexafluoride in magnesium foundries
Zwavelhexafluoride-toepassing in magnesiumgieterijen [en holandés]
In magnesium and magnesium alloy smelting and refining, use is made of protective atmospheres (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, sulfur dioxide) or of a molten salt flux to prevent furnace fires or oxidation of the liquid metal. The correct choice of atmosphere or molten salt entails an intimate knowledge of possible reactions between molten magnesium and the furnace atmosphere. This article reports on experiments designed to explore the possibility of replacing inert gases by sulfur hexafluoride. The initial results indicate that this gas provides a shigh level of safety and that it can be used economically in view of the low concentration required to produce a protective atmosphere.
De veiligheid, Nov. 1972, Vol.48, No.11, p.351-355. Illus. 4 ref.
The influence of dust characteristics on the choice of foundry dust collection equipment
Wpływ własności pyłów na dobór urządzeń odpylajacych w odlewnictwie [en polonés]
When planning a new dust collection installation, the following dust characteristics must be considered: specific gravity; particle size and porosity; specific surface area; wettability; electrical resistance; electrical charge; and dielectric constant. Allowance should also be made for the gas composition and the production process used. Gas and dust properties affecting dust collection efficiency and running costs are presented and common types of dust collection equipment are classified according to the work conditions for which they are suited.
Ochrona pracy, Aug. 1972, Vol.26, No.8, p.15-18. 4 ref.
Accident prevention in foundries
Unfallverhütung in der Giesserei [en alemán]
La prévention des accidents dans les fonderies [en francés]
This edition replaces the 1963 edition (CIS 63-1885). Foundry workers should use the safety devices and personal protective equipment (such as eye, hearing and head protection, finger guards, gloves and safety footwear) placed at their disposal. Safety will often depend on the correct work procedure, e.g. in the charging of melting furnaces, when tapping slag from cupola furnaces, when working with compressed air vices, when turning moulding boxes and when stacking and transporting castings. The document is profusely illustrated, a code of signals for crane drivers is shown and a check list for personal protective equipment and the movement of loads is given.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Lucerne, Switzerland, 1972. 12p. Illus. Gratis.
Some recent developments in health and safety in foundries
Paper presented at the annual conference of the Institute of British Foundrymen, Eastbourne, June 1972. The author discusses recent work by the Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in foundries and its sub-committees. He briefly considers: work on the safety of continuous casting; the risk and prevention of explosions during the process; the necessity for guarding of foundry machinery and the principles and types of guards; and the control of dust and fume by local exhaust systems.
British Foundryman, Aug. 1972, Vol.65, No.8, p.313-317. 15 ref.
Dust control in the cleaning of castings
Hygienické zajištění čistírenských pochodů [en checo]
Describes dust control measures in the fettling and cleaning of castings; reviews various methods of dust collection and filtration, according to the type of machne used: sandblasting machine, portable and bench grinder, swing-frame grinder.
Slévárenství, May-June 1972, Vol.20, No.5-6, p.237-240. Illus. 4 ref.
Hémon Y., Salaün B.
Safety hydraulic fluids and their use under pressure in foundries
Les fluides de sécurité et leur utilisation en fonderie sous pression [en francés]
The classification of safety hydraulic fluids is reviewed (excluding oil/water and water/oil emulsions). A survey is given of the advantages and disadvantages of aqueous polymer solutions, and of phosphoric esters or oil containing combustion inhibitors. The comparison covers the degree of flammability, upper and lower service - temperature limits, toxicity, pollution characteristics and cost. Precautions are necessary especially in the use of aqueous polymer solutions: special paints for tanks, elimination of air bubbles suspended in the fluids, modification of suction pumps.
Fonderie, Mar. 1972, No.310, p.91-94.
Report of a Committee under the chairmanship of Sir Brian Windeyer appointed to enquire into lead poisonings at the RTZ smelter at Avonmouth
In 1968, a new lead and zinc smelting plant was brought into operation at Avonmouth, using a blast-furnace process which had been widely used since 1950. Levels of lead in air at particular points in the plant were frequently and even consistently above the TLV of 0.2mg/m3 recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Readings within this TLV were obtained at no more than 43% of the places in the sinter plant; individual readings were as high as 45mg/m3. Individual sections of this report on the situation at the smelter cover: the process and the plant; the hazard to workers; the labour force; health precautions; medical supervision; conditions outside the plant; events which led to the inquiry; conditions in the working environment; recommendations. Measures taken to improve hygiene conditions are described.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, July 1972. 18p.
Miljaev M.N., Čerepanov G.I.
Water-cooled jackets for teeming pits
Primenenie vodoohlaždaemyh kessonov v razlivočnyh kanavah staleplavil'nyh cehov [en ruso]
To reduce thermal radiation and avoid risk of burns by accidental contact, the cast-iron lining plates of teeming pits in an older steel works were replaced by water-cooled jackets. The cooling water circulates under a pressure of 1.5-2kg/cm2; outlet water temperature is 30-40°C.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Aug. 1972, No.8, p.25-26. Illus.
A.T. Kearney and Company, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA, Feb. 1971. 260p. Illus. 18 ref.
Air pollution aspects of the iron foundry industry.
A study of the iron foundry industry carried out for the Environmental Protection Agency, with particular emphasis on the melting area. Detailed information is given on the following topics: statistical survey of the iron foundry industry in the USA; iron foundry processes (cast iron production, raw material storage, furnace charge preparation, iron melting, moulding, pouring, shaking out, cleaning, heat treatment, finishing, sand conditioning, coremaking, pattern making); emissions generated in the various departments and their control; recommended practice for testing particulate emissions from cupolas.
Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. Accession No. PB 204 712.
Lloyd Davies T.A.
Respiratory disease in foundrymen - Report of a survey.
A survey of 1,997 foundrymen aged 35-64 years employed in 66 foundries selected at random and a control population of 1,777 men of the same age group, carried out by a team of Medical Inspectors of Factories. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly higher among foundrymen (10.5% among foundry floor men and 10.9% among fettlers, as against 7.2% among controls). X-ray films were read using the National Coal Board elaboration of the ILO (Geneva 1958) Classification. The statistical treatment of the results is described and an arithmetical score assigned to each film. The percentage of foundrymen with simple pneumoconiosis was higher among fettlers than among foundry floor men (Category 1: 25 and 12%; Category 2: 7 and 2%; Category 3 and above: 2 and 0.1% respectively). The main data collected in the survey are presented in 42 tables and 16 figures. Chapters are devoted to: selection of sample; methods; population examined; differences in age, anthropometry and smoking habits; respiratory symptoms; obstructive airway disease; collection of sputum; chest radiographs; multiple regression analysis of respiratory function tests, sputum volume, and pneumoconiosis (discrete opacities); socio-economic and other factors; discussion and conclusion.
Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1971. 73p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: £0.50.
Lightening workload and improving working environment in a steel foundry fettling shop
Možnosti snížení pracnosti a zlepšení pracovního prostředí v čistírnách ocelovích odlitků [en checo]
Fettling techniques are reviewed: medical procedures are arduous, imperfect and give off dust containing free silica. Chemical fettling using sodium hydroxide has been tested and was found to be safe and extremely effective, to reduce physical workload and to improve the work environment. It is recommended for castings under 4t.
Slévárenství, 1971, Vol.19, No.10, p.394-398. 12 ref.
Lightening workload and improving working environment in a steel foundry fettling shop
Možnosti snížení pracnosti a zlepšení pracovního prostředí v čistírnach ocelových odlitků [en checo]
Fettling techniques are reviewed: mechanical procedures are arduous, imperfect and give off dust containing free silica. Chemical fettling using sodium hydroxyde has been tested and was safe and extremely effective, to reduce physical workload and to improve the work environment. It is recommended for castings under 4t.
Slévárenství, 1971, Vol.19, No.10, p.394-398. 12 ref.
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