Mining and quarrying - 1,961 entradas encontradas
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Pira E., Pelucchi C., Piolatto P.G., Negri E., Bilei T., La Vecchia C.
Mortality from cancer and other causes in the Balangero cohort of chrysotile asbestos miners
The objective of this study was to provide further information on mortality from cancer and other causes among chrysotile asbestos miners several years after exposure ceased, updating the analyses from the Balangero mine worker cohort with follow-up to the end of 2003. The cohort included 1056 men, for a total of 34,432 man-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from personnel records, the vital status and causes of death were obtained through population registers and death certificates from municipal registration offices. Expected numbers of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for relevant causes using the province of Turin and national death rates, for each 5-year calendar period and age group. Significant excess mortality was found from pleural cancer only (4 deaths, SMR 4.67) and pleural and peritoneal cancers combined (5 deaths, SMR 3.16). All pleural and peritoneal cancer deaths occurred 30 or more years after first exposure. The SMRs were 1.27 for lung cancer (45 deaths), 1.82 for laryngeal cancer (8 deaths) and 1.12 for all cancers (142 deaths). Cumulative dust exposure and the various time factors considered did not show a clear pattern of risk associated with mortality from lung cancer. There were 57 deaths from cirrhosis (SMR 2.94) and 54 from accidents and violence (SMR 1.88). Overall, 590 deaths were observed as compared to 412.9 expected (SMR 1.43).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.66, No.12, p.805-809. 33 ref.
Solis H.L., Wagner G.D.
Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 2008
This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 2008. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, and occupation. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in the report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of the report.
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), 1100 Wilson Boulevard, 21st Floor Arlington, VA 22209-3939, 2009. iii, 284p. Illus.
IR_1342.pdf [en inglés]
Simon R., Deng D.
Developing an approach for estimating the hardness of boulder-size hard rock
Développement d'une approche pour estimer la résistance des roches dures à l'échelle du bloc unitaire [en francés]
Despite the improvement in knowledge about rock mechanics and ground control, the mining of ore bodies continues to present significant risks. Depletion of mineral resources near the surface is leading to mining at greater depth, which poses increased risks for the stability of excavations and, as a result, for workers. The use of technological tools to evaluate these risks must be followed by a comparison of the results with a failure criterion suitably representing the rock mass. To evaluate the uniaxial compressive strength of a rock mass, this study involved diamond drilling of distinct diameters on three sites of different depths at an experimental mine. The results showed a reduction in the average strength and average deformation modulus based on sample size. Two approaches were then used to estimate the unit block strength, the first based on a statistical approach, and the second, on the rock large scale deformation modulus by means of in-situ dilatometer measurements. This report describes the evaluations of the strength of hard rocks resulting from each of these approaches.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. v, 57p. Illus. 54 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-594.pdf [en francés]
Solis H.L., Wagner G.R.
Injury experience in stone mining, 2008
This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 2008. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury and occupation. Related information on employment, worktime and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and non-metallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) | 1100 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington VA 22209-3939, USA, 2009. iii, 532p. Illus.
Injury_experience_in_stone_mining.pdf [en inglés]
Solis H.L., Wagner G.R.
Injury experience in sand and gravel mining, 2008
This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of sand and gravel mining in the United States for 2008. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury and occupation. Related information on employment, worktime and operating activity is also presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in the report. For ease of comparison with other metal and non-metallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), 1100 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington VA 22209-3939, USA, 2009. ii, 109p. Illus.
Injury_experience_in_sand_and_gravel_mining.pdf [en inglés]
National harmonisation of OHS law: The challenge for NSW
The various issues raised by the need to harmonize OSH legislation across Australia including state-to-state differences in the responsibilities of employers and employees, the interpretation of "reasonable practicability" and the application of the presumption of guilt are discussed, in light of the specific case of a coal mine disaster in New South Wales.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2009. Vol.25, No.4, p.319-327. Illus. 11 ref.
Los convenios de la OIT sobre seguridad y salud en el trabajo: una oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones y el medio ambiente de trabajo
The purpose of this publication is to explain and promote ILO international labour standards for occupational safety and health in Latin America. It examines various ILO conventions on different subjects of interest. The history of each convention is reviewed, its contents discussed, and the situation concerning its application in various Latin American countries is examined. A CD-ROM which contains the publication in PDF format, as well as the texts of the conventions and of all the documents cited, is included.
Publications of the International Training Centre of the ILO, Viale Maestri del Lavoro, 10, 10127 Torino, Italy, 2009. 337p. + CD-ROM .
Los_convenios_de_la_OIT.pdf [en español]
Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining
Exposures of German hard coal miners to nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in a cohort of 1369 miners from two German coal mines, and the data were used to estimate long-term exposures. For all three components, time weighted 8h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company estimated major potential long-term changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were diesel engines, while blasting fumes contributed to a lesser degree. The findings concerning CO are discussed in a separate publication. Among diesel engine drivers, current 8h average exposures were 1.35ppm for NO and 0.21ppm for NO2. For blasting workers, the corresponding values were 0.84ppm and 0.014ppm. By applying these data and the estimates of experts concerning retrospectives, cumulative exposures for NO and NO2 were determined from 1974 until 1998. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.92, No.10, p.1267-1279. Illus. 44 ref.
Grayson R.L., Kinilakodi H., Kecojevic V.
Pilot sample risk analysis for underground coal mine fires and explosions using MSHA citation data
This article presents an approach for analyzing the risks for fires and explosions based on the United States Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) database. Using 2006 citation data and focusing on subsystem failures, the methodology is applied to a database for a pilot sample of underground coal mines stratified by mine size and state.
Safety Science, Dec. 2009, Vol.47, No.10, p.1371-1378. Illus. 10 ref.
Development of an integrated method for analyzing the stability of backfilled stope
Développement d'une méthode intégrée d'analyse de stabilité des chantiers miniers remblayés [en francés]
When mining operations require the use of cemented paste backfill (CPB), a system must be planned that provides the desired structural stability and safe space. Generally, the confined block model combined with a high safety factor is used to estimate the strength of the CPB required, and then formulations of mixtures of paste backfill are optimized in order to choose the best, according to the case. However, since the confined block was planned for a backfill with an internal friction angle of zero, limiting oneself to this single model shows a lack of knowledge about the subject, even while admitting that the friction angle would tend towards zero over the long term. However, the short and medium terms should also be taken into account. This study consisted of numerous experimental tests for the purpose of developing models for predicting and evaluating the distribution of stresses in backfilled sites. These models show the existence and variation in arching, which has direct impacts on costs. This report proposes a method for analyzing the stability of backfilled mining sites that integrates all the components of CPB. The method mainly allows the theoretical value of the required strength to be estimated, which helps meet the objectives due to the targeted optimization of mixture formulations.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. x, 49p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-622.pdf [en francés]
La seguridad y la salud en las minas de carbón subterráneas
Safety and health in underground coalmines [en inglés]
Sécurité et santé dans les mines de charbon souterraines [en francés]
This code of practice on safety and health in underground coalmines reflects the many changes in the industry and its workforce, as well as new developments in occupational safety and health policies and ILO instruments on occupational safety and health. A leaner, multi-skilled workforce, new technology and less prescriptive, more systems-oriented approach to addressing safety and health are also reflected in this code. The code sets out a national framework that specifies the roles of the competent authorities, employers, workers and their organizations. It also comprises a methodology for identifying hazards, preventing and minimizing risks, as well as specific provisions for safe underground coalmining operations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. xxvii, 353p. 45 ref. Index. Price: CHF 40.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/meshcm-9.pdf [en español]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/meshcm06/code.pdf [en inglés]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/meshcm-9.pdf [en francés]
Friesen M.C., Fritschi L., Del Monaco A., Benke G., Dennekamp M., de Klerk N., Hoving J.L., MacFarlane E., Sim M.R.
Relationships between alumina and bauxite dust exposure and cancer, respiratory and circulatory disease
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between alumina and bauxite dust exposure, and cancer incidence and circulatory and respiratory disease mortality among bauxite miners and alumina refinery workers. It involved 5770 male workers in Australia linked to national mortality and cancer incidence registries, for which cumulative exposures were estimated using job histories and historical air monitoring data. Findings suggest that cumulative bauxite exposure may be associated with an excess risk of death from non-malignant respiratory diseases, while cumulative alumina dust exposure may be associated with an excess risk of death from cerebrovascular disease. Neither exposure appears to increase the risk of incident cancers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.615-618. 17 ref.
Taeger D., Johnen G., Wiethege T., Tapio S., Möhner M., Wesch H., Tannapfel A., Müller K.M., Brüning T., Pesch B.
Major histopathological patterns of lung cancer related to arsenic exposure in German uranium miners
A comprehensive histopathological database and a detailed job-exposure matrix developed for former German uranium miners with exposure to arsenic, radon, and quartz were analyzed to quantitatively assess the effect of arsenic regarding cell type of lung cancer. An arsenic-related increase of the proportion of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was observed, but was restricted to miners without silicosis. The increase was found at all levels of co-exposure to radon and quartz dust. In miners with silicosis, the proportion of adenocarcinoma increased with rising arsenic exposure. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.867-875. Illus. 45 ref.
Björ B., Burström L., Jonsson H., Nathanaelsson L., Damber L., Nilsson T.
Fifty-year follow-up of mortality among a cohort of iron-ore miners in Sweden, with specific reference to myocardial infarction mortality
This cohort study investigated both general mortality and mortality from myocardial infarction among men employed in two iron-ore mines in Sweden. The cohort was comprised of men who had been employed for at least one year between 1923 and 1996. The causes of death were obtained from the national cause of death register from 1952 to 2001. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for four main causes, including myocardial infarction. SMR for total mortality was 1.05. Mortality was significantly higher for lung cancer, injuries, poisonings and respiratory diseases. The SMR for myocardial infarction was 1.12. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2009, Vol.66, No.4, p.264-268. 28 ref.
Liu H., Tang Z., Weng D., Yang Y., Tian L., Duan Z., Chen J.
Prevalence characteristics and prediction of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in the Tiefa colliery in China
To explore the current prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) in China and future trends, this study investigated 16,154 coal miners exposed to dust for at least one year in a colliery in China. Four sub-cohorts (before 1958, from 1958, from 1968 and from 1978) were created according to years of first exposure. The cumulative incidence rates of CWP in the four cohorts were 26.65%, 18.94%, 1.15%, and 0.06%, respectively. It is predicted that future CWP patients would mainly occur among coal miners with first dust exposure in 1958-1967 and those working at tunneling. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.369-375. Illus. 29 ref.
Danila E., Šileikienė V., Nargė la R., Žurauskas E., Loskutovienė G.
Different course of silicosis in four brothers of one family
Silicosis remains a common occupational respiratory disease. Four cases of silicosis which developed after a relatively short occupational exposure to respirable silica among the members of one family are described. Four young Lithuanian brothers worked illegally abroad in mining in one of European countries. All of them were employed together in the same working conditions but for different work durations. One of the brothers died due to the acute form of the disease (lipoproteinosis). Two of the brothers suffered from simple nodular silicosis, and the fourth brother developed very early nodular silicosis and small airway dust disease. A one year follow-up revealed moderate/severe worsening of the disease in all surviving brothers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2009, Vol.22, No.1, p.51-57. Illus. 32 ref.
Halvani G.H., Zare M., Hobobati H.
The fatigue of workers of Iran Central Iron Ore Company in Yazd
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between fatigue and job satisfaction. Subjects were workers of an iron ore mine in Iran. Fatigue was measured using Iranian version of Piper Fatigue Scale questionnaire, while job satisfaction was estimated with the job satisfaction scale. The overall incidence of severe fatigue was high and there was a significant relationship between total fatigue and its sub-dimensions, and the job satisfaction of workers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2009, Vol.22, No.1, p.19-26. Illus. 32 ref.
Jalali S.E., Noroozi M.
Determination of the optimal escape routes of underground mine networks in emergency cases
This article presents a mathematical method based on Floyd-Warshall and TT algorithms for determining the shortest escape time from a given point to alternative points of an underground mine network. It also aims to find the shortest routes between each pair of the given points. The first point refers to the location of the accident where some miners may be present, while the alternative points show the safe places to which they can escape. The method was implemented in an underground coal mine in Iran. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1077-1082. Illus. 11 ref.
Maiti J., Khanzode V.V.
Development of a relative risk model for roof and side fall fatal accidents in underground coal mines in India
A relative risk model for underground coal mine roof and side fall fatal accidents was developed using loglinear analyses of two-way contingency tables. Data such as potential fatalities, the relative risk of fatalities and safety measure effectiveness can be used as key safety performance indicators. The model was applied to data concerning these fatal accidents during six years in underground coal mines in India. It showed that the effectiveness of safety measures across different locations in underground mines was variable, with the focus being mainly concentrated on highly populated workplaces such as the face. The model is generic and can be applied to various industrial settings.
Safety Science, Oct. 2009, Vol.47, No.8, p.1068-1076. Illus. 6 ref.
Maiti J., Khanzode V.V., Ray P.K.
Severity analysis of Indian coal mine accidents - A retrospective study for 100 years
A retrospective study on severity analysis of Indian coal mines accidents for 100 years was done considering fatal and serious accidents and the resulting causalities. The impact of recommendations based on safety conferences and committees over the years was studied. An event evaluation algorithm was developed for this purpose. The hazard rate functions and cumulative risk functions for major hazards in Indian coal mines were defined. The study enabled the evaluation of the current safety level of Indian coal mines, as well as the scope of safety improvements.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.1033-1042. Illus. 26 ref.
Cox-Ganser J.M., Burchfiel C.M., Fekedulegn D., Andrew M.E., Ducatman B.S.
Silicosis in lymph nodes: The canary in the miner?
The objective of this study was to investigate evidence that lymph node silicosis can precede parenchymal silicosis. The study population was comprised of 264 deceased male uranium miners in former East Germany for whom pathologists agreed on the presence or absence of silicosis in lymph nodes and lung parenchyma, and for who work histories and silica exposure estimates were available. Twenty percent of the miners had lymph node silicosis only, 4% had parenchymal silicosis only and 39% had both. Silica exposure was lower for miners with lymph node silicosis only than for those with both lymph node and parenchymal silicosis. Lymph node silicosis was associated with parenchymal silicosis after adjustment for silica exposure. Findings are consistent with silicosis potentially occurring in lymph nodes before the parenchyma. Lymph node damage could impair silica clearance and increase the risk for parenchymal silicosis.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.164-169. Illus. 11 ref.
Halvani G.H., Zare M., Mirmohammadi S.J.
The relation between shift work, sleepiness, fatigue and accidents in Iranian industrial mining group workers
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the rate of fatigue and sleepiness among shift and non-shift workers and its relation to occupational accidents. The study included 137 shift workers of Iranian Industrial Mining Group and 130 non-shift workers as controls. A multi-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, Piper Fatigue Scale and Epworth Sleepiness Scale were applied. The mean of PFS scores in the two groups was significantly different, but the difference in the mean of ESS scores was not significant. Shift workers who reported accidents had a higher score on fatigue than shift workers reporting no accidents whereas the difference in the number of accidents in the two groups was not significantly related to the rate of sleepiness. The rate of fatigue and the number of the work accidents were higher in shift workers. Fatigue was also more strongly associated with occupational accidents than with sleepiness. Results seem to indicate that the evaluation of fatigue as compared to sleepiness is a more accurate factor for preventing occupational accidents.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.134-138. Illus. 24 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/47/2/134/_pdf/-char/ja/ [en inglés]
Onder M., Onder S.
Evaluation of occupational exposures to respirable dust in underground coal mines
This study aimed to evaluate the dust concentration conditions in underground coal mines in Turkey, together with the occupational health risks associated with exposures to respirable dust. Data were obtained from the dust measurement studies conducted in various underground coal mines between 1978 and 2006. In the statistical analyses, the comparison of dustiness between mines and their mining regions were made by using the average dust concentration values. In addition, the numbers of workers with doubtful pneumoconiosis diagnosis were evaluated according to their occupational job category. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.47, No.1, p.43-49. 26 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_47_1_43.pdf [en inglés]
Cole G.P., Spencer E.R., Bauer E.R.
DOSES - Software manual and implementation guide
The Determination of Sound Exposures (DOSES) software was developed by NIOSH specifically for use in the mining sector. DOSES simplifies the record-keeping and analysis, making it easier to identify and solve noise problems. The software uses profiles of workers' daily activities. At the same time, noise measurements are collected with a dosimeter. Observations concerning the worker's location and tasks or other activities are recorded along with times and durations so they can later be matched up with the noise data. The information is entered into DOSES, which then displays information about the worker's accumulated noise dose over time.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, May 2009. iv, 25p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2009-135.pdf [en inglés]
Quarrying is one of the most dangerous industries in which to work. An initiative launched in 2000 in the United Kingdom has succeeded in greatly reducing the number of accidents in this sector. This article highlights some of the key points of the initiative based on cooperation, workers' involvement and training, and discusses how they could be possibly applied to other sectors.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Mar. 2009, Vol.27, No.3, p.46-48. Illus. 3 ref.
Chashchin V., Solonin Y., Pancheva G., Bojko E., Vaktskjold A., Talykova L., Nieboer E., Syurin S., Burakova O., Skandfer M., Gudkov A., Øvrum A., Nikanov A., Junttila S., Vorne J., Rönkkö A.
Mining and metallurgy
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in mining and metallurgy of relevance to Nordic countries and Russia. Topics addressed: impact of the economic downturn on occupational health in the mining and metallurgic sectors in a region of Russia; work environment and health hazards in the coal industry in a region of Russia; studies in Russia of occupational nickel exposure and pregnancy outcome; risk factors and prevalence of bronchopulmonary disorders in mining and metallurgical workers in a region of Russia; psychological aspects of shift rotation in the oil and gas sector in Northern Russia; prevalence of vibration disease among miners exposed to hand-arm vibration in Northwest Russia; occupational safety in vocational mining education.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2009, Vol.12, No.1, p.1-31 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/5EF2CFED-AA6E-47F1-B361-66383B6ED930/0/Barents12009_net.pdf [en inglés]
Asbestos - The hidden killer stalks quarries too
Contents of this collection of articles on safety and health in the quarrying sector in the United Kingdom: safety and health statement by the Quarries National Joint Advisory Committee; face work quarrying experience by a cement manufacturer; brief reports on several conferences on quarrying; asbestos-related risks in the quarrying sector.
Quarry Fact File, Jan. 2009, No.40, p.1-8 (whole issue). Illus.
Saha R., Dey N.C., Samanta A., Biswas R.
A comparison of physiological strain of carriers in underground manual coal mines in India
Thirty-nine healthy carriers (23-57 years of age) were investigated in underground manual coal mines in West Bengal, India during two different work spells of a single work shift. The physiological strain of workers <40 and > or =40 years of age were compared. For both groups, mean heart rate was 124-133 beats/min, with a mean corresponding relative cardiac cost of 50-66%. Maximum aerobic capacities were estimated indirectly, following a standard step test protocol. Average oxygen consumption was 1.07-1.1 L/min, with an energy expenditure of 5.35-5.5 kcal/min among both age groups. Acceptable levels of physiological strain were well encroached, and older workers faced the maximum burden. The tasks studied were heavy to very heavy in nature. There is extreme need of ergonomic interventions in reducing the postural load and musculoskeletal discomforts in this population.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.210-217. Illus. 37 ref.
Donroe J.A., Maurtua-Neumann P.J., Gilman R.H., Acosta A.T., Cain G., Parker J.E., Carhuaricra J.C., Retimozo Padilla J.J., Mendoza D., Zimic M., Moore D.A.
Surveillance for early silicosis in high altitude miners using pulse oximetry
Two cross-sectional studies in a high altitude region of Peru evaluated the role of pulse oximetry for detection of silicosis in high-altitude miners. In the first study, exercise pulse oximetry and chest radiographs were used to evaluate 343 silica-exposed miners and 141 unexposed subjects for evidence of silicosis. The second study investigated the association between exercise oxygen saturation and silicosis in 32 non-silicotic and 65 silicotic miners. Age, resting oxygen saturation and years of mining employment were found to be associated with silicosis. Pulse oximetry should be further investigated as a screening tool for silicosis at high altitudes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.187-192. Illus. 27 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Marble industry - Reference Manual - Recommendations for occupational safety and health
Marmorarias - Manual de referência - Recomendações de segurança e saúde no trabalho [en portugués]
This booklet presents technical recommendations for the prevention and control of hazards in the marble industry. Main topics covered: control of exposure to dust; control of exposure to noise; control of exposure to other risk factors; exposure monitoring; medical surveillance; workers' training.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brésil, 2008. 38p. Illus. 23 réf.
Marmorarias.pdf [en portugués]
Evaluating methods of training of mineworkers for hot inspired air when wearing self-rescuers
This project was carried in response to a need for an improved training methodology for escape respiratory protective devices, namely to provide a realistic experience of the hot air breathing effects of a device operating in a high carbon monoxide content mine atmosphere. A second objective was to collect data on the tolerability and endurance limits associated with the extended wearing of an escape respiratory protective device producing a significant heat burden. The research work was addressed in two phases. The first phase involved thermo-chemical modelling of filter self-rescuers and the development of a hot air simulation device, suitable for both research and training purposes, while the second phase consisted of a range of physiological trials which identified significant thermal physiological benefits from adopting a staged evacuation process in conjunction with safe havens.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. xii, 113p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr603.pdf [en inglés]
Vacquier B., Caer S., Rogel A., Feurprier M., Tirmarche M., Luccioni C., Quesne B., Acker A., Laurier D.
Mortality risk in the French cohort of uranium miners: Extended follow-up 1946-1999
This study examined the mortality of the French cohort of uranium miners through 1999, and association with radon exposure. The cohort consisted of 5086 men employed as uranium miners for at least one year between 1946 and 1990. For each miner, vital status and cause of death were obtained from the national registry, and radon exposure was reconstructed for each year. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed with national mortality rates as references. The overall mortality did not differ significantly from the general male population. There was an excess risk of lung cancer death (SMR 1.43), which increased significantly with cumulative radon exposure. The excess risk of death from renal cancer (SMR 2.00) was however not associated with cumulative radon exposure. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.65, No.9, p.597-604. Illus. 42 ref.
Pahwa P., McDuffie H.H.
Cancer among potash workers in Saskatchewan
The objective of this study was to investigate factors contributing to the increased risk of developing cancer among potash mine workers. Data on 1434 male potash workers based on a nested case-control study design were analyzed. An occupational history of farming (risk ratio RR 1.79), presence of pleurisy at baseline (RR 1.90), previous hard rock mining experience (RR 1.74) and age significantly elevated the risk of cancer, as did the interaction between respiratory diseases and smoking status.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1035-1041. Illus. 26 ref.
Harper M., Lee E.G., Doorn S.S., Hammond O.
Differentiating non-asbestiform amphibole and amphibole asbestos by size characteristics
Coarsely crystalline amphibole minerals are more common than asbestos in many geological environments. Mining or construction work can result in the release of single crystals or cleavage fragments resembling asbestos fibres or fibre bundles but that are not currently regulated as asbestos. Samples of six coarsely-crystalline amphiboles and their asbestos analogs were processed to maximize the number of particles meeting the criterion for counting and also within the respirable width range. The length distributions of the particles produced showed substantial overlap between cleavage fragments and asbestos fibres. Based on these findings, recommendations are made concerning improvements in the counting and classification of asbestiform fibres.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2008, Vol.5, No.12, p.761-770. Illus. 38 ref.
Perkins R.A., Hargesheimer J., Vaara L.
Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project
During a road repair project in a remote region of Alaska, it was discovered that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 fibre/cc by phase contrast microscopy. Further analysis of 36 samples by transmission electron microscopy indicated that about 40% of the fibres were asbestos. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2008, Vol.5, No.9, p.609-616. 20 ref.
Mirabelli D., Calisti R., Barone-Adesi F., Fornero E., Merletti F., Magnani C.
Excess of mesotheliomas after exposure to chrysotile in Balangero, Italy
Chrysotile from the mine in Balangero, Italy, is considered to be free of tremolite. In an earlier cohort study of miners and millers working on this site, only two pleural cancers were reported, suggesting that chrysotile has a low potency for inducing mesothelioma. However, follow-up ended in 1987. To complete the assessment, this study searched the regional cancer registry for cases of pleural mesothelioma among employees of the mine, employees of subcontractors and individuals exposed to mine tailings. Four new cases of pleural mesothelioma were identified among blue-collar workers in the mine, in addition to the two reported in the earlier cohort study. Thus, six mesotheliomas occurred, compared to the 1.5 expected. A further 14 mesothelioma cases occurred among other site workers and 13 among other persons exposed to chrysotile, providing further evidence that even tremolite-free chrysotile is carcinogenic.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.65, No.12, p.815-819. 21 ref.
Whitehouse A.C., Black C.B., Heppe M.S., Ruckdeschel J., Levin S.M.
Environmental exposure to Libby asbestos and mesotheliomas
This article describes cases of mesothelioma resulting from exposure to asbestos in Libby, Montana, USA, location of the world's largest vermiculite mine which ceased operations in 1998. These cases are in non-occupationally exposed persons, appearing to have resulted from contamination of the community, the surrounding forested area and areas in proximity to the river and railroad tracks used to haul vermiculite. These exposures are considered to be of a low degree of magnitude, but are similar to those reported in a vermiculite mining region of Australia. An epidemic of mesothelioma can likely be expected from this type of asbestos contamination over the next 20 plus years.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, vol.51, No.11, p.877-880. 13 ref.
Wu F., Xia Z., Qu Y., Tang Y., Cao D., Sun P., Christiani D.C.
Genetic polymorphisms of IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-1RN, NFKB1, FAS, and FASL, and risk of silicosis in a Chinese occupational population
To test whether polymorphisms in IL-1, NF-KB, FAS and FASL genes are associated with risk of silicosis, a case-control study was conducted with 183 silicosis patients and 111 silica-exposed miners who were frequency-matched by age, dust exposure duration, work location, and type of work. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA, using a PCR-RFLP assay. Findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.843-851. 26 ref.
Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms pro-inflammatory (TNFA, IL1A, IL1B, and IL6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RN and TGFB1) related to coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). An additional goal was to observe whether these cytokine gene polymorphisms influence the development risk and severity of CWP. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Findings suggest that the TNFA (-238) variant may be a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant seems to be important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on the development and disease severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.
Stewart I.B., McDonald M.D., Hunt A.P., Parker T.W.
Physical capacity of rescue personnel in the mining industry
The mining industry has one of the highest occupational rates of serious injury and fatality. Staff involved with rescue operations are often required to respond to physically challenging situations. In this study, 91 Australian mine rescue personnel completed a series of health-related and rescue-related fitness tests, including measurements of aerobic capacity, abdominal endurance, abdominal strength, flexibility, lower back strength, leg strength, elbow flexion strength, shoulder strength, lower back endurance, and leg endurance. Rescue-related tasks comprised carrying a load, shoveling coal and dragging hose. Findings are discussed. Overall, physical fitness was judged insufficient. It is recommended that standards of required physical fitness be developed and that rescue personnel undergo regular training and testing to maintain these standards.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Oct. 2008, Vol.3, No.22, 6p. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.occup-med.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-3-22.pdf [en inglés]
To understand the present, study the past
Wenn du die Gegenwart verstehen willst, studiere die Vergangenheit [en alemán]
Based on archeological documents, this article presents a feasibility study for the construction of a pyramid similar to that of Cheops. It discusses statics, solidity and scaffolding, the number of cranes and their positioning to replace the ramps used in ancient times for loading the stones, construction costs, required manpower and construction time. The mystery surrounding the construction of the Egyptian pyramids remains nonetheless total.
Tiefbau, Dec. 2008, Vol.120, No.12, p.722-730. Illus. 9 ref.
Syurin S.A., Nikanov A.N., Chashchin V.P., Shilov V.V., Frolova N.M., Tarnovskaja E.V.
Assessment of risk factors for chronic bronchitis: Case study of nickel industry workers in the Barents region
Ocenka faktorov riska hroničeskogo bronhita u rabočih nikelevoj promyšlennosti Barenc Regiona [en ruso]
The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchitis (CB) among workers of a nickel plant in an Arctic region of Russia. It involved 810 workers exposed to potential risk factors and 202 unexposed controls. The investigation included a questionnaire, examination by a physician, spirometry and chest radiography. The main risk factors were smoking (odds ratio (OR) 8.9), followed by exposure to sulfur dioxide (OR 6.35) and nickel aerosols (OR 4.92) and nickel dust (OR 5.30). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2008, Vol.11, No.3, p.80-81 (English); p.82-83 (Russian). Illus. 7 ref.
Navia R., Bezama A.
Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: An overview
The new Chilean Hazardous Waste Management Regulation came into force on 12 June 2004. During the next 180 days (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was required to present a Hazardous Waste Management Plan if the facility generated more than 12 tons/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. This article describes three case studies on the hazardous waste management plans carried out in facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood products facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified, minimization measures were implemented, and reuses and recycling options were evaluated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Oct. 2008, Vol.158, No.1. p.177-184. Illus. 8 ref.
Komljenovic D., Groves W.A., Kecojevic V.J.
Injuries in U.S. mining operations - A preliminary risk analysis
Despite significant reductions in mining injuries, incidence rates remain high compared to other industries. A systematic risk analysis was undertaken to thoroughly characterize injuries for the 10-year period from 1995 to 2004. Data were obtained from United States Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) reports. The categories - fatalities, non-fatal days-lost (NFDL) injuries and no-days-lost (NDL) injuries - were analyzed, and a preliminary risk matrix produced. Results show decreasing injury frequency for all categories over the period examined. However, there still exists a serious level of risk for fatal and NFDL injuries, and a moderate level of risk for NDL injuries. These findings emphasize the need for continued efforts to reduce mining injuries and should be helpful in prioritizing control strategies. The results of this study represent a preliminary global risk analysis, and will therefore form the basis of subsequent more detailed studies.
Safety Science, June 2008, Vol.46, No.5, , p.792-801. Illus. 20 ref.
Poplin G.S., Miller H.B., Ranger-Moore J., Bofinger C.M., Kurzius-Spencer M., Harris R.B., Burgess J.L.
International evaluation of injury rates in coal mining: A comparison of risk and compliance-based regulatory approaches
This study analyzed annual lost-time injury (LTI) rates for bituminous coal mines in the United States (US) with respect to Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW), Australia, from 1996 to 2003 to examine if the changes in the Australian regulatory structure from compliance-based to a risk-based regulatory system may be associated with substantive improvement in employee safety. Generalized estimating equations were constructed to analyze rates of change in incident rate ratios (IRR) of LTIs among coal mines. From 1996 to 2003, LTIs per 100,000 miners declined 20% in the US as compared with 78% and 52% in QLD and NSW, and the adjusted IRR for each region decreased by 11%, 72% and 44%, respectively. The application of risk-based health and safety regulations in Australia provides one explanation for the differential decline in LTIs among Australian states when compared to the US.
Safety Science, Oct. 2008, Vol.46, No.8, p.1196-1204. Illus. 25 ref.
Ates I., Suzen H.S., Yucesoy B., Tekin I.O., Karakaya A.
Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms in CWP and its severity in Turkish coal workers
Cytokines are believed to play a key role in inflammatory mechanisms that result in several diseases such as coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). To determine the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal miners, a genotyping analysis was performed to investigate the polymorphisms of CWP-related pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Genotyping was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction technique, coupled with fragment length polymorphism restriction. It was found that the TNFA (-238) variant was a risk factor in both the development and severity of CWP, while the TNFA (-308) variant was important only in disease severity. On the other hand, IL6 variant may have a protective effect on both development and severity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2008, Vol.51, No.10, p.741-747. 49 ref.
Girdler-Brown B.V., White N.W., Ehrlich R.I., Churchyard G.J.
The burden of silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and COPD among former Basotho goldminers
The burden of silicosis, pulmonary tuberculosis and COPD is described in 624 South African gold miners 18 months after cessation of work. Questionnaires were administered, and spirometry, chest radiography, tuberculosis investigations and urine HIV antibody assays were performed. The mean age of subjects was 49.4 years and their mean employment duration 25.6 years. Most subjects had had jobs with medium (26.5%) or high (65.4%) dust exposure. Current smoking rate was 35%, with ever smoking 61%. HIV antibodies were detected in the urine in 22.3%. Prevalences were: silicosis 24.6%, past tuberculosis 26%, current tuberculosis 6.2%, airflow obstruction 13.4% and chronic productive cough 17.7%. Almost 50% of these miners had at least one of these respiratory conditions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2008, Vol.51, No.9, p.640-647. Illus. 25 ref.
Verma D.K., Ritchie A.C., Muir D.C.F.
Dust content of lungs and its relationships to pathology, radiology and occupational exposure in Ontario hardrock miners
Autopsied lungs from 29 hard rock miners were investigated to determine possible relationships between pathology and radiology findings, and occupational exposure. There was a good agreement between radiological and pathological findings. Positive correlations were seen between hydroxyproline (as an index of fibrosis), silica dust, non-silica inorganic dust, radiographic category of pneumoconiosis and pathologic grade of silicosis. Smokers lost on average seven years of life compared to non-smokers. Silica appeared to be concentrated in lungs and lymph nodes. Silica in the lymph nodes was on average 2.4-fold higher than in the lungs. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2008, Vol.51, No.7, p.524-531. Illus. 20 ref.
Frictional ignition of methane-air in the presence of liquid hydrocarbons
Methane ignitions in underground coal mining are often caused by the impact of mining machine cutter bits on sandstone during the coal-cutting process. Most ignitions are small and limited to the cutter head location. However, under certain conditions, these ignitions can lead to larger methane explosions and/or fires with the potential for causing serious injury or death to the mining machine operator and other nearby miners. A series ignition tests were conducted in a test chamber, with various methane-air mixtures with and without the presence of liquid hydrocarbons on the sandstone. It was found that hydrocarbon vapours can ignite at significantly lower temperatures than the methane. Extra precautions to prevent fires and explosions must be taken when heavier molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons are present in addition to methane in an underground coal mine.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2008-124.pdf [en inglés]
Explosion hazards from methane emissions related to geologic features in coal mines
Explosions in coal mines are caused when buildups of explosive gas and/or dust are ignited by a flame or spark. Methane is normally contained in coal and is liberated during mining. Because this gas is explosive in the range of 5%-15% by volume in air, fresh air is constantly supplied to the working face to prevent the methane/air mixture from reaching this explosive range. The required amount of ventilation air is based on estimates of methane release under normal conditions. Occasionally, unanticipated and unusually high emissions are encountered, which, despite normal ventilation controls, result in an explosive mixture that a spark from a cutting bit or electrical equipment can easily ignite. Investigations have shown that such emissions are often associated with anomalous geologic features or conditions. This report provides operators with specific information on recognizing and alleviating potential hazards from methane emissions related to these geologic features.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2008. 18p. Illus. 35 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2008-123.pdf [en inglés]
Hadjigeorgiou J., Lessard J.F.
Dimensioning of ore passes - Guide to the design of ore passes
Dimensionnement des chutes à minerai - Guide de conception des chutes à minerai [en francés]
Underground mines use a system of passes to transfer by gravity the ore from the upper levels of the mine to the crushing and hoisting site. In a majority of cases, passes control ore flow in these openings. Often subject to blockage, these passes involve safety risks to workers during clearing operations. This study evaluated the effectiveness of various types of ore passes most commonly found in the Quebec mining industry, together with the dimensioning rules proposed in literature. This report describes these evaluations. It is accompanied by an ore pass design guide aimed at mining engineers, to help them develop and implement safer systems adapted to the particular needs of each mine.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. iii, 49p. Illus. 21 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 8.40 (report); i, 36p. Illus. 11 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 7.35 (guide). Downloadable versions (PDF format) free of charge
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-549.pdf [en francés]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-549.pdf [en francés]
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