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Hardrock miner, common core training for area mines
The Hardrock Miner Common Core Training Program at Citadel Gold Mines Inc. in Wawa (Ontario, Canada) is described. Training modules on inspection, scaling, staging, drilling, rock bolting, blasting, and mucking are outlined, as well as the certification process, costs, and benefits of the programme.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1989. 5p.
The safety system underground
Components of a safety programme for underground mining. Contents: sources of accidents; statistical analysis of the causes of non-fatal and fatal injuries; job hazard analysis and accident classification; responsibilities.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1989. 12p.
Daily safety procedures for supervisors
Procedures for identifying and preventing potential hazards in the workplace.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1989. 8p.
Amandus H.E., Petersen M.R., Richards T.B.
Health status of anthracite surface coal miners
In 1984-1985, chest radiography, spirometry tests, and questionnaires on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in an anthracite coal region of the US. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of ILO category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper. Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnoea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for other factors. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs was not related to significant health effects. The excess prevalence of small, rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.44, No.2, p.75-81. 20 ref.
Roscoe R.J., Steenland K., Halperin W.E., Beaumont J.J., Waxweiler R.J.
Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters
In a follow-up study (1950-1984) of 516 nonsmoking uranium miners, 14 deaths from lung cancer were observed compared with 1.1 expected in a reference group of nonsmoking nonminers, yielding an overall standardised mortality ratio of 12.7. Working level months (WLM) of exposure to radon daughters were estimated and it was concluded that there is a 12-fold mortality risk of lung cancer for nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters at a median level of 296 WLM, when compared with nonsmoking nonminers. Results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent cancer-causing factor that should be strictly controlled.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 4 Aug. 1989, Vol.262, No.5, p.629-633. 23 ref.
The application of the principles for limiting releases of radioactive effluents in the case of the mining and milling of radioactive ores
The purpose of this report is to provide methods for calculating the upper bound for annual releases of radioactive effluents for uranium and thorium mines and mills. Contents: basic concepts; sources of radionuclide releases from uranium mining and milling facilities (description of facilities, radioactive waste management, radionuclide releases into the atmosphere, surface waters and groundwater, uranium and thorium decay series); methodology for calculating doses to individuals resulting from releases; optimisation of release control cost-benefit analysis, multicriteria methods, assessment of collective doses); guidance for application.
International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 1989. 78p. Illus. 42 ref.
Franzinelli A., Gori R., Levante G., Belli S., Comba P., Sartorelli E.
Respiratory disorders and lung function impairment in pyrite miners
Report on a research study carried out at a pyrite mine in Tuscany (Italy), during 1980-1983. Among the most exposed underground miners (n=128), the following median exposure levels were found: inhalable dust - 1.04mg/m3; respirable dust - 0.6mg/m3 (quartz content <1.5% for both types of dust); carbon monoxide - 6.0ppm; nitrogen dioxide - 0.22ppm; sulfur dioxide - 0.09ppm. Among health effects, a significant prevalence of simple chronic bronchitis was found among underground miners when compared with controls. Chest X-rays revealed 14 cases of pneumoconiosis.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.80, No.6, p.479-488. 35 ref.
Belli S., Comba P., Germani D., Grignoli M., Lagorio S., Paganoni R., Ronchin M.
Mortality study among lead-zinc miners of Val Seriana (Italy)
Studio di mortalità dei minatori di piombo-zinco della Val Seriana [en italiano]
The mortality experience of 1,392 lead-zinc-silver miners (Gorno, Northern Italy) employed during the period 1950-1980 and followed up to the end of 1986 was examined. Two separate estimates of the radon exposure level are available: 0.60 and 0.36WL (working levels) respectively. The silica exposure level was not assessed. Vital status was ascertained for 95.6% of the cohort members and their mortality was compared with expected deaths based on national rates. Significant excess mortality from oesophageal cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, respiratory tuberculosis, respiratory diseases and deaths from external causes was found among underground miners. Surface workers show significantly increased mortality from liver and bile duct cancer, hepatic cirrhosis, respiratory tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. Based on the 16.4 excess lung cancer cases among underground miners and their cumulative radon exposure, an attributable risk estimate ranging from 9.78 and 16.31 cases per million person-years and WLM (Working Level Month) was calculated.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1989, Vol.80, No.6, p.467-478. Illus. 17 ref.
Suhanov V.V., Bolonova L.N., Donec I.K., Muhina K.Š.
High temperatures and dust exposure in mines
Povyšennaja temperatura i pylevaja nagruzka v šahte [en ruso]
Groups of miners working in the Donetsk mines were examined to determine the impact of hot microclimate on the pathogenic effect of mine dust. The workers were selected with regard to the following factors: length of service, length of time that dust was present in their lungs, working conditions (ambient dust levels, composition of the dust, liberation of volatile substances by the coal, depth of mining, air temperature and atmospheric pressure at workplaces in the mines). The physiological indices were: lung levels of dust, collagen, lipids, mineral impurities and free SiO2. There was a correlation between the factors characterising the pathogenic effect of the dust and the air temperature: an increase by one degree in the range 25-35°C was accompanied by an increase in lung tissue levels of dust by 9.9%, of SiO2 by 15.4% and of mineral impurities by 10.7%. The probability of the occurrence of pneumoconiosis increased by 10% for each degree above 26°C. MACs for different kinds of dusts should be reduced for hot workplaces in deep mines.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Feb. 1989, No.2, p.57-58.
Health and Safety Commission
The use of electricity in mines - Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 - Approved Code of Practice
This Code of Practice gives practical guidance on how the Electricity at Work Regulations (SI 1989 No.635, see CIS 89-1439) might be satisfied at mines. Following general provisions applying to all industries, additional provisions apply to mines only: introduction of electrical equipment; restriction of equipment in certain zones below ground; cutting off electricity or making safe where firedamp is found; approval of certain equipment for use in safety-lamp mines; means of cutting electricity to circuits below ground; oil-filled equipment; records and information; electric shock notices; battery-powered locomotives and vehicles in safety-lamp mines; storage, charging and transfer of electrical storage batteries.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. iv, 50p. Price: GBP 5.00.
Health and Safety Commission
The use of electricity at quarries - Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 - Approved Code of Practice
This Code of Practice gives practical guidance on how the Electricity at Work Regulations (SI 1989 No.635, see CIS 89-1439) might be satisfied at quarries. Contents: definitions; responsibilities for compliance; systems, work activities and protective equipment; strength and capability of electrical equipment; adverse or hazardous environments; insulation, protection and placing of conductors; earthing or other suitable precautions; integrity of referenced conductors; connections; protection from excess of current; means for cutting off the supply and for isolation; work on equipment made dead; work on or near live conductors; working space, access and lighting; persons competent to prevent danger and injury; exemption certificates.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. iv, 28p. Price: GBP 4.00.
Malikouti H., Javelaud B., Lallement B., Boudène C.
Measurement method of urinary arsenic without prior mineralisation of a sample - 1. Urinary arsenic in the general population and in mispickel miners
Intérêt d'une méthode de dosage de l'arsenic urinaire sans minéralisation préalable de l'échantillon - 1. L'arsenic urinaire dans la population générale et chez les mineurs de mispickel [en francés]
The presence of arsenic in seafood interferes with the traditional determination method for arsenic, which relies on mineralisation. The method that is described can be used for the determination of urinary arsenic without prior mineralisation, making it possible to determine urinary arsenic levels in gold-miners exposed to mispickel and gold ore associated with arsenic pyrite on one hand and in the general population on the other. A comparative analysis of 218 urinary samples shows that there is a statistical difference between the 2 populations as far as arsenic concentrations in urine are concerned, but it cannot be concluded from this that gold-miners are exposed to harmful levels of arsenic.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1989, Vol.50, No.1, p.79-86. Illus. 29 ref.
Domański T., Kluszczyński D., Chruścielewski W.
Authorized limits of radon daughter products in Polish underground metal-ore mines in the light of experience
The paper presents the results of measurements of individual exposures of miners to radioactive radon daughter products in metal-ore mines in Poland. Results concern the 3-year period between 1985-87, during which the observed annual average concentrations were stable. The values: 1 WLM, 2.5 WLM, 3.5 WLM (Working Level Month) were considered and commended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and approved by the WHO, ILO and IAEA. Though the value of 3.5 WLM is presently adopted and officially authorised in Poland as the Authorised Limit of annual individual miners' exposure, the results presented in this paper lead to the conclusion that the value of 2.5 WLM could be adopted instead of the current one. This means that the present limit could be decreased by about 30% and without causing any social, technological and economic problems in Polish metal-ore mines.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.2, No.1, p.76-86. Illus. 15 ref.
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Department of Labor
Mineral resources - Code of Federal Regulations, Title 30, Parts 1 to 199 (Revised as of July 1, 1989) [USA]
Compilation of federal regulations relating to mine safety. Contents: testing, evaluation, and approval of mining products (mining equipment, safety equipment) by the MSHA; administrative requirements; safety education and training of miners; notification, investigation and recording of accidents, injuries and illnesses affecting miners; safety and health standards in metal and nonmetal mines (ground control; fire prevention and control; air quality and physical agents; explosives; drilling and rotary jet piercing; loading, hauling and dumping; aerial tramways; travelways; electricity; compressed air and boilers; machinery and equipment; personal protection; materials storage and handling; illumination; safety programmes; personnel hoisting; welfare facilities); coal mine safety and health; penalties.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC 20402, USA, 1989. ix, 749p. Illus. Index.
Las nuevas tecnologías y la seguridad en las minas. Telemando, automatización, visión
Review of some applications of new technology designed to achieve safer working conditions in mines. Included are remote control units, programmable robots for mining machinery, teletransmission nets, and artificial vision used for monitoring of mobile objects, identification of forms and establishment of models of the surroundings. It is stressed that these new technologies must be introduced gradually, accompanied by proper training of the personnel that will be in charge of the use and maintenance of the new equipment.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1989, No.36, p.25-32. Illus.
Evaluation of antistatic P.V.C. ventilation tubes used for long duration
Taidenbōshi biniru fūkan no keinen henka [en japonés]
The antistatic characteristics of carbon-printed ventilation tubes used for over 4yr in five coal mines were determined. There were some changes in appearance of the tubes tested due to the long duration of use: (1) hardening of the cloth part of the tubes; (2) disappearance of a part of the carbon printed on the inner surface of the tubes, etc. On the other hand, there was no change in the antistatic properties of the tubes used for over 4yr.
Safety and Health Digest, May 1989, Vol.35, No.5, p.3-6. Illus. 5 ref.
Roeser B.E., Stary A., Rüping K.W.
Diagnosis and therapy of Raynaud's phenomenon occupationally induced by vibration trauma
Zur Diagnostik und Therapie des Raynaud-Phänomens bei beruflich bedingtem Vibrationstrauma [en alemán]
Laser-Doppler blood-flow measurements were performed in a 41 year old miner with symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon in the left hand. In addition, transcutaneous O2 pressure and thermal relaxation time were measured. All three methods were found suitable for non-invasive diagnosis and observation of the progress of the disease. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and improvement of rheological properties proved superior to other therapeutic measures.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1989, Vol.37, No.3, p.78-81. Illus. 8 ref.
Spinal cord injury
Proceedings of the Mine Medical Officers' Association of South Africa's symposium on spinal injury, held 11-12 Aug. 1989 in South Africa. Papers cover: the history and state of the art of spinal cord injury in the mining industry; rehabilitation and the use of sport, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psycho-sexual counselling; epidemiology of spinal injury in a gold mining population; management of cervical spinal cord injuries; polytrauma; an approach to fractures of the dorsal and lumbar spine; urological assessment and management of patients with spinal injury; risk factors in the management of pressure sores.
Journal of the Mine Medical Officers' Association of South Africa, Nov. 1989, Vol.64, No.435, 91p. Special issue. Illus. Bibl.
De Klerk N.H., Armstrong B.K., Musk A.W., Hobbs M.S.T.
Predictions of future cases of asbestos-related disease among former miners and millers of crocidolite in Western Australia
In a cohort of 6,502 male and 410 female former workers from the crocidolite (blue asbestos) mining and milling works at Wittenoom, Western Australia, there were 94 cases of malignant mesothelioma, 141 cases of lung cancer and 356 successful compensation claims for asbestosis to the end of 1986. Using various statistical techniques, predictions were made on the future incidence of these diseases to the year 2020. The number of new cases of mesothelioma is expected to rise to a peak of around 25 cases per year in 2010, with an expected total number of 692 cases of mesothelioma (95% confidence interval (CI), 394-990 cases) between 1987 and 2020. A total of 2,898 deaths (95% CI, 2,284-3,511 deaths) of any cause is expected in the same period. New cases of lung cancer and asbestosis are expected to continue at roughly the current rates of 8 and 17 cases per year, respectively, before declining after the year 2000, leading to totals of 183 cases (95% CI, 34-335 cases) and 482 cases (95% CI, 236-728 cases), respectively, being expected by the year 2020.
Medical Journal of Australia, 4/18 Dec. 1989, Vol.151, No.11/12, p.616-620. Illus. 25 ref.
Dufetel P., Sambiani K., Mercier J.F., Togbey K., Abaglo A., N'Dakena K., Furon D.
Effects of dust on ventilatory function in phosphate miners in Kpeme (Togo)
Effets de l'empoussiérage sur la fonction ventilatoire chez les mineurs de phosphate de Kpémé (Togo) [en francés]
Pulmonary volume and flow were measured in 91 workers (aged 25-50) of an open-cast phosphate mine in Togo. Dust level was also evaluated at the main work posts. Dust levels were much higher than would be permitted in Europe, and in most cases miners did not wear respiratory protective equipment. Despite these facts, no significant differences were found between X-ray pictures, pulmonary volumes and mid-expiratory flows of miners (divided into 2 groups: workers employed at the extraction and workers engaged in the drying of the phosphate) and controls selected from administration workers of the mine. Only MEF75 and peak expiratory flow were significantly reduced among the miners. In conclusion, it is not phosphate but dust in general that seems to have an effect on respiratory function, and this effect is obstructive bronchopathy rather than fibrosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1989, Vol.50, No.8, p.773-778. 21 ref.
Green F.H.Y., Althouse R., Weber K.C.
Prevalence of silicosis at death in underground coal miners
This study was initiated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Bureau of Mines (BOM) to determine the prevalance and pathological features of silicosis in coal miners. The population base was 3,365 autopsied underground miners whose records were examined between 1971 and 1980. The mean age at death of the population was 62 years, of whom 75% were current or ex-smokers at the time of death. The average work tenure was 26 years. Classical silicotic nodules were found in 12.5% of the population. There was a significant relationship between length of underground mining and prevalence and severity of silicosis consistent with a dose-response effect. The study also showed that job category and geographic location of the mine were important deteminants of silicosis prevalence and that silicosis was strongly associated with higher categories of coal workers' pneumoconiosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1989, Vol.16, No.6, p.605-615. Illus. Bibl.
Monk T.H., Wagner J.A.
Social factors can outweigh biological ones in determining night shift safety
Ten years of accidents experienced by workers in open-pit iron mines in the USA were surveyed to determine the distribution of accidents over a 7-day span of night duty. Sunday nights always occurred as the 4th night shift. Contrary to the gradually decreasing pattern expected on the basis of biological clock adjustment, Sunday nights were by far the worst for accidents. This suggests that the worker's weekend activities may be more disruptive than biological factors.
Human Factors, Dec. 1989, Vol.31, No.6, p.721-724. Illus. 12 ref.
Muir D.C.F., Shannon H.S., Julian J.A., Verma D.K., Sebestyen A., Bernholz C.D.
Silica exposure and silicosis among Ontario hardrock miners: I. Methodology
An epidemiological investigation was undertaken to determine the relationship between silicosis in hardrock miners in Ontario and cumulative exposure to silica (crystalline silica - α quartz) dust. This first report describes the cohort, the method of classifying the radiographs, and the identification of a case of silicosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.16, No.1, p.5-11. 15 ref.
Safety and mine-site traffic in quarries and opencast mines
Sécurité et circulation dans les exploitations à ciel ouvert des minières et des carrières [en francés]
Statistical analysis of fatal accidents published in the Annales des Mines de Belgique showed that 37% of these accidents occurred due to transport and traffic in opencast mines during 1975-1984. This report describes mine traffic as well as safety devices for equipment. Regulatory provisions and safety measures are pointed out.
Annales des mines de Belgique - Annalen der Mijnen van België, 1st Quarter 1989, No.1, p.40-90. Illus. 5 ref.
Kullman G.J., Doak C.B., Keimig D.G., Cornwell R.J., Ferguson R.P.
Assessment of respiratory exposures during gilsonite mining and milling operations
An industrial hygiene study of the entire United States gilsonite industry was done by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to evaluate the potential for occupational problems resulting from exposures to gilsonite and its constituents (Gilsonite is a solidified hydrocarbon substance). Air samples were collected at four gilsonite mining companies including nine mines and three mills. Gilsonite workers had no measurable exposures to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA) compounds, asbestos fibres, or hydrogen sulfide gas. Several organic gases/vapours and metals were detected in the airborne samples; but, none exceeded the current exposure standards. Gilsonite workers in some job categories were exposed to high levels of dust, exceeding ACGIH nuisance dust recommendations. These dusts, comprised largely of aliphatic hydrocarbons, had a large aerodynamic size distribution with average mass median aerodynamic diameters above 30µm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1989, Vol.50, No.8, p.413-418. Illus. 20 ref.
Sluis-Cremer G.K., Hnizdo E.
Progression of irregular opacities in asbestos miners
All white and mixed race men who were employed in South African asbestos mines and mills between 30 November 1970 and 30 November 1985 were studied. There were 1454 men with two radiographs available, the first taken some time between the above two dates and the latest available radiograph which had to be at least two years after the first one. 793 continued exposure after the first radiograph and 661 did not. Data available included age, years of exposure to asbestos and other mining, intensity of exposure to asbestos and other dust, and smoking habit. Progression was expressed as the difference between the average readings of radiograph 2 and radiograph 1 in minor categories per year of irregular opacities. Changes in pleural abnormality were also measured. No differences of progression in the profusion or change in the size of irregular opacities were found between the two groups or in the number of zones affected. "New attacks" appeared equally frequently between the two groups. No difference in the change in extent of any type of pleural change was seen. It appears that once a dose of asbestos sufficient to initiate the disease has been retained it is inexorably progressive.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1989, Vol.46, No.12, p.846-852. 15 ref.
Sluis-Cremer G.K., Bezuidenhout B.N.
Relation between asbestosis and bronchial cancer in amphibole asbestos miners
In a necropsy series of 339 amphibole asbestos miners, heavy smoking, age, and the presence of asbestosis were significantly associated with the presence of bronchial cancer. Of the 35 cases of bronchial cancer, 24 were associated with asbestosis. Eleven cases of bronchial cancer occurred in men without asbestosis; all were smokers. Standardised proportional mortality rates indicated no excess of bronchial cancer in 302 exposed men without asbestosis whereas these rates were progressively raised in men with slight or moderate/severe asbestosis. Of the four exposure variables introduced separately into a logistic regression model, "years of exposure" made a small but significant contribution; "residence time" marginally failed to achieve a 5% level of significance. Two other exposure variables tested including cumulative fibre exposure (fibre years) made no significant contribution. In the absence of asbestosis at necropsy, bronchial cancer in someone exposed to asbestos is unlikely to be due to asbestos.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1989, Vol.46, No.8, p.537-540. 12 ref.
De Klerk N.H., Armstrong B.K., Musk A.W., Hobbs M.S.T.
Cancer mortality in relation to measures of occupational exposure to crocidolite at Wittenoom Gorge in Western Australia
The separate and combined effects of duration and intensity of exposure to crocidolite on mortality from lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, and stomach cancer were examined in 6506 male former crocidolite miners and millers. Each subject who had died from lung cancer (92), mesothelioma (31), or stomach cancer (17) was matched with up to 20 control subjects. For lung cancer the best fitting multiplicative model was one which estimated a relative risk (RR) of 1.12 per year of exposure and 1.01 per fibre/mL. This was statistically indistinguishable from an additive model showing an increase in RR of 0.01045 per f/mL year. For mesothelioma the best fitting model appeared to be one estimating a RR of 24.9 per log year since first exposed and a RR of 10.5 if exposed for longer than six months. This was not distinguishable statistically from a model that showed mortality increasing as the fourth power of time since first exposed less the fourth power of time since last exposed. The effect of intensity of exposure on the RR for mesothelioma was only slight. There was no consistent effect of any measure of exposure to crocidolite on death from stomach cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1989, Vol.46, No.8, p.529-536. 29 ref. Illus.
Der Minister für Wirtschaft, Mittelstand und Technologie des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen
Results of search in the area of dust and silicosis control in coal mining
Ergebnisse von Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiet der Staub- und Silikosebekämpfung im Steinkohlenbergbau [en alemán]
Compilation of the results of dust control and silicosis prevention research conducted in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany) in 1987 and 1988.
Steinkohlenbergbauverein, Franz-Fischer-Weg 61, 4300 Essen 13, Federal Republic of Germany, 1989. Vol.17. 347p. Illus.
Chen S., Hayes R.B., Wang J., Liang S.R., Blair A.
Nonmalignant respiratory disease among hematite mine workers in China
The mortality risk of nonmalignant respiratory disease among haematite workers in the Longyan and Taochong mines was investigated in a retrospective cohort study covering the period 1970-1982. The cohort was limited to men and consisted of 5406 underground miners, of whom 1335 (25%) were diagnosed as having silicosis. Among those with silicosis, 560 (42%) were diagnosed as having silicotuberculosis. Among the 490 underground miners who died, 278 (57%) died of nonmalignant respiratory disease. The relative risk for death due to nonmalignant respiratory disease for stage III silicotics compared to nonsilicotics was almost 100-fold. High dust exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk of death due to nonmalignant respiratory disease (relative risk 5.3). The relative risk associated with jobs with high dust exposure before the introduction of industrial hygiene controls was 7.7 and the corresponding value for after their introduction was 2.3. There is a need for continued close monitoring of industrial hygiene in these mines.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.319-322. 10 ref.
De Klerk N.H., Cookson W.O.C., Musk A.W., Armstrong B.K., Glancy J.J.
Natural history of pleural thickening after exposure to crocidolite
Serial plain chest radiographs of 384 men who worked at the Wittenoom (Australia) crocidolite mine and mill between 1943 and 1966 and who applied for pneumoconiosis compensation between 1948 and 1982 have been examined independently by two trained observers for pleural disease using the 1980 ILO-UICC classification of radiographs to record width and extent of pleural disease. Radiographs covering follow up periods of from 2 to 38 years were examined (median number of films per subject was nine). The degree of crocidolite exposure was estimated from employment records and a survey of airborne fibre concentrations was performed in 1966. Diffuse pleural thickening extending for >50% of the lateral chest wall was the most common type recorded by both observers. Pleural plaques were not seen to progress beyond their initial thickness or extent. The rate of onset of thickening in this population increased continually from the time of first exposure and also increased slightly with age. There was evidence that the level of total cumulative exposure to crocidolite increased the rate of onset of pleural thickening in the period between 5-15yr after first exposure. The relative rate of progression decreased slowly with time from first signs of thickening, with no progression >15yr after onset.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.46, No.7, p.461-467. 27 ref. Illus.
Commonwealth Trade Union Council (CTUC)
Training guide to safe work practices in mines. Each discussion topic is accompanied by illustrations, a workers' checklist, discussions of relevant legislation and case studies.
Institute for Miners' and Metalworkers' Education (IMMWE), 13, Ganesh Chandra Ave., Calcutta 700013, India, no date. 33p. Illus.
Health and Safety Commission
Safety of exit from mines underground workings; Mines (Safety of Exit) Regulations 1988 [United Kingdom] - Approved Code of Practice
This booklet contains 2 documents. The Mines (Safety of Exit) Regulations (effective 1 Apr. 1989 for mines of coal, stratified iron stone, shale or fireclay and 1 Apr. 1994 for 'miscellaneous' mines) set out the aims to be achieved in order to prevent danger from operations at working underground parts of all mines. Methods of meeting these requirements and also provisions of sections 2(2)(a) and (c) of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and paragraph 14 of Part II of Schedule I to the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 are given in the Approved Code of Practice. Content: application; exit from the mine; auxiliary apparatus and equipment; access between exits; construction and maintenance of roads, ladderways and stairways; ways from places of work; provision of barriers and enclosures; intake airways; exemptions; disapplication of section 157 of the Mines and Quarries Act 1954; repeals, revocations and modifications.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 16p. Price: GBP 3.00.
Uranium and Thorium Mining Regulations [Canada]
Règlement sur les mines d'uranium et de thorium [Canada] [en francés]
Regulations issued on 21 Apr. 1988 under the authority of the federal Atomic Energy Control Act. It covers the following aspects of the mining of radioactive ores: licensing; preparation and submission of Codes of Practice; ventilation and dust control; mining facilities (obligations; loss, escape and release of ores); waste management; washing facilities, change and lunch rooms, and work clothes; management, supervision and training; responsibilities and rights of workers; inspection and compliance; reports and records; general requirements (medical surveillance, respirators, etc). In annex: mines and mills (plans, descriptions, safety measures, environmental impact studies, waste management systems); outline of a Basic Radiation Health and Safety Training Programme and of a Job-related Programme; information to be submitted to the authorities on mines, mills and waste management systems; contents of a Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement.
Canada Gazette - Gazette du Canada, 11 May 1988, Part II, Vol.122, No.10, p.2361-2401.
Conference review - International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, 2-5 November 1987, Beijing, China
Review of the International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes held 2-5 November 1987 in Beijing, China. The conference is restricted to underground coal mining safety. Topics covered by the conference are listed and comments made on the quality and originality of the papers presented. The productive capacity and safety performance of the Chinese coal industry are outlined along with descriptions of visits to a coal mining management college and a research institute.
Mineral Resources Engineering, 1988, Vol.1, No.2, p.181-186. Illus. 1 ref.
Grif B.V., Gorčakov S.P.
Occupational safety and health in the coal mining industry
Ohrana truda v ugol'noj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
Contents of this training manual, intended for mining technical school students: general aspects (fundamentals of labour legislation in the USSR; forms and methods of work organisation in undertakings; occupational injuries, etc.); mining safety (general measures; mining operations; blasting; ventilation, dust and gas conditions; mine transport and lifting equipment operation; electrical equipment operation; operating coal-getting, transport and other machinery; compressor plant operation; preventing mine workings inundation); occupational hygiene and sanitation (welfare facilities and medical services; controlling dust as an occupational hazard; protection against workplace noise and vibration; requirements for mine workings lighting); basic principles of fire prevention and mine rescue (mine fire safety; mine surface fire protection; fire protection of underground facilities; fire fighting methods and equipment; mine rescue organisation; mine accident control planning). In an appendix: description of unified signs for coal and shale mines (illustrated inside front and back covers).
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 351p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: SUR 0.95.
Mines Regulation Act 1964-1983 [Australia - Queensland]
Consolidated version of the law regulating the operation and inspection of mines (except coal mines, petroleum wells and quarries) in the State of Queensland. It also deals with the safety and health of persons employed in such mines. Main provisions deal with: powers of inspectors; keeping of records; accidents (notices, investigation); employment of young persons and women; safe operation of winding engines; issuing of regulations.
Government Printer, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 1988. 69p. Index.
Proceedings of the VIIth International Pneumoconioses Conference - Part I.
Part 1 of the Proceedings of the 7th International Pneumoconioses Conference held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 23-26 August 1988. Papers cover: exposure monitoring and control in coal mines; epidemiology of workers exposed to coal dust, asbestos, silica and fibres; animal models of pneumoconiosis, the lung fibre burden and asbestos pleural pathology; radiology; toxicity and surface characterisation of dusts; health effects of metal exposures; characteristics of coal mine dust; hazard evaluation and clinical studies; bronchoalveolar lavage/treatment; medical methods, including exercise tests and lung function; general occupational lung disease; instrumentation for dust measurement; pathology standards with reference to microorganisms and occupational dust; prevention and intervention, including respiratory health programmes in various countries; surveillance, screening and health reviews.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1990. 834p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Kluszczyński D., Żórawski A., Olszewski J.
Radiation exposure of miners and systems of radiation protection in Polish nonuranium mines
This article presents an original solution to the problem of radiation protection in Polish mines where miners are exposed to the radioactive gas radon and radioactive aerosols. The system refers to hygienic evaluation of the workplace and the individual exposure as well as to technical prevention, the aim of which is to minimise exposure. Hygienic supervision uses a dosimetric technique with track detectors. Principles of the system have been worked out in metal-ore mines where they have been applied for 10 years, markedly decreasing miners' exposure. The results of preliminary tests in coal mines are also presented.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.1, No.1, p.88-97. Illus. 25 ref.
Igišev V.G., Portola V.A.
Effects of foam curtains on air leaks via coal mine goafs
Vlijanie pennyh zaves na utečki vozduha čerez vyrabotannoe prostranstvo [en ruso]
Air egresses from coal mine goafs into active workings create a major fire and toxic hazard because oxidation of the residual coal is promoted and firedamp spreads. It is thus important to seal off the active workings from worked-out spaces. Some mines treat their goafs with foamed suspensions and water-air and inert foams (in the form of foam curtains), exploiting the insulating properties of foams. This study used an electric model simulating a goaf of a flat coal seam 450m to the strike and 90m to the dip. The internal leaks caused by a pressure gradient of 100Pa between a vent drift and a conveyor drift were modelled. The findings testify to the necessity of regulating the location of foam curtains inside mine goaves. In flat seams, foam curtains are best upt up in the most hazardous zones adjoining vent and conveyor drifts in the vicinity of a working face.
Ugol', Nov. 1988, No.11, p.41-42. Illus.
Soldak I.I., Maksimovič V.A.
Comprehensive assessment of mine climate
Kompleksnaja ocenka šahtnogo mikroklimata [en ruso]
The proposed method proceeds from the premise that the human body is a sensitive instrument, which promptly responds to and integrates the influence of all the affecting variables. The thermal state of the body depends on a certain combination of microclimatic and body heat production parameters, integrated in a thermal gradient, which is composed of the difference of environmental and skin boundary air layer enthalpies, air flow density and heat exchange efficiency, as well as internal body heat flux, which is a function of work intensity. Physiological equivalents of changes in microclimate parameters and work intensity were established: an air flow velocity increase of 1m/s is equivalent to an average decrease of air temperature by 2°C, of relative humidity by 20% and of work intensity by category. The thermal gradient may be calculated with an equation that is presented. A nomogram is given relating air temperature limits to relative humidity and flow velocity. Use of the discussed method, validated and approved under laboratory and field conditions, is illustrated by 2 examples.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Dec. 1988, No.12, p.37-38. Illus. 2 ref.
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Labour and Mine Inspectorate - Annual report 1988
Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Inspection du travail et des mines - Rapport annuel 1988 [en francés]
Among other items, this report gives information on working hours, night work, safety and health in plants, electrical safety and explosives used in mines. One chapter deals with occupational accidents: statistics on fatal accidents, accidents in all branches of industry in Luxembourg, accidents in the iron and steel industry.
Inspection du travail et des mines, Boîte postale 27, 2010 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1988. 145p.
Prudnikov V.S., Gajdašev V.I.
Increasing the electrical safety of power-supply systems in mines
Povyšenie ėlektrobezopasnosti v šahtnyh učastkovyh ėlektričeskih setjah [en ruso]
Adding an extra relay to the circuit breaker system of a mine power supply enables the individual starters to be cut off from the system in case of a short circuit. This reduces the capacitance of each section of the power supply circuit and thus the amount of electricity that will pass through a person's body in the event of accidental contact.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, July 1988, No.7, p.52-53. Illus.
Ševčenko N.I., Marčenko A.A., Argučinskij V.I.
Pneumatic tubing gas monitoring system
Vozdušno-kanal'naja sistema gazovogo kontrolja [en ruso]
A gas monitoring system (description, schematic diagram and specifications are given) was developed and tested for the continuous automatic remote sampling and analysis of coal mine air both in normal and emergency conditions. The main purpose of the system is early detection of spontaneous coal combustion and incipient fires. Air is sampled at multiple locations of the facility (mine, working, etc.) and is pumped via special tubes, which are taped together in looms, to a central surface station, where it is analysed by automatic gas analysers. The system can be used for: routine mine air monitoring for gas (CO and methane) volume; air composition monitoring in isolated mine workings in cases of emergency (underground fires, outbursts of coal and gas); methane level monitoring inside coal bins at concentrating mills, etc. The main limitation of the system is a transport time lag, which may reach 2-3hrs when the sampling point and analyser are 5km apart.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Oct. 1988, No.10, p.35-36. Illus.
Occupational safety and health in quarries
Ohrana truda na kar'erah [en ruso]
Contents of this training manual written for vocational training school students: general aspects; fundamentals of Soviet OSH legislation; OSH organisation; occupational injuries and diseases; general requirements for the protection of workers and environment at the stage of quarry design and operation; workplace climate and microclimate; noxious dust and gas control; workplace lighting; radiation protection; safety of the main processes; safety of the pressure vessels and systems, hoisting and lifting equipment and repair work; electrical safety; fire safety; flood and snow-drift control; mine rescue fundamentals.
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 197p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: SUR 0.30.
Miller B.G., Kinnear A.G.
Pneumoconiosis in coalminers and exposure to dust of variable quartz content
This report describes the design and execution of a study in which existing radiographs for man at a Scottish colliery were re-examined with the objective of relating any abnormalities to the men's histories of exposure to respirable dust and its components, particularly quartz. The relationships between exposure, progression of radiographic abnormalities and lung function were also examined. Data analysis confirmed that appearances of small pneumoconiotic shadows were associated most strongly with estimates of exposure to respirable dust, and particularly with estimates of exposure to the quartz component of these dusts. There was no evidence of a relationship between apparently dust related lung function effects and the radiographic abnormalities ascribed to quartz exposures in the same men.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 1988. 120p. Price: GBP 20.00 (UK); GBP 25.00 (Overseas).
Agius R.M., Lloyd M.H., Campbell S.J., Grarding R.A., Hutchison P.A., Muirhead M.J., Gurr D., Soutar C.A.
Epidemiological and chemical studies of back pain in the mining industry
The aims of these epidemiological, clinical and ergonomic studies were to determine: whether the prevalence of back pain among miners was higher than among a control group of office workers were; whether back pain was associated with particular named occupations or work areas in mining; whether certain characteristics of individuals may be associated with increased susceptibility to back pain; possible relationship between postures and movements and the incidence of back pain. Questionnaire surveys were carried out at collieries in Scotland and Wales, together with a survey of office workers were. A further study was carried out at 2 English collieries with different underground haulage and transport systems. Anthropometric and clinical studies were also made. Differences in back pain frequency between miners and office workers were significant only after the age of 40. There were small differences in back pain frequency between named occupations. No significant clinical factors were identified.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 1988. 200p. Price: GBP 20.00 (UK); GBP 25.00 (Overseas).
Graveling R.A., Morris L.A., Graves R.J.
Working in hot conditions in mining: a literature review
The literature review includes a brief overview of thermal physiology: environmental and metabolic heat loads and the physiological and behavioural responses to such loads. It also covers methods for the assessment of hot conditions, either directly, through measurement of physiological strain, or indirectly via thermal indices. These elements are examined in the context of UK mining conditions with sections on reported thermal and metabolic heat loads and an assessment of the indices which suitably reflect the potential effects of such loadings. Fluctuations in environmental heat load are reported, both over time and between adjacent locations. Finally the review examines various control measures such as refrigeration and personal coolers for their potential impact on the workforce.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 1988. 116p. Price: GBP 20.00 (UK); GBP 25.00 (overseas).
Cullen R.T., Love R.G., Cowie H.A., Parker I., Hannant D., Collins H.P.R., Soutar C.A.
Biochemical studies of the pathogenesis of emphysema in men in the British coal industry
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of emphysema to elastic metabolism and to the balance in sputum between elastinolytic enzymes and their inhibitors. Miners and non-dust exposed controls from other industries were selected from 3 geographical areas of Britain. Lung function measurements and chest x-ray were recorded and detailed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms, smoking history and occupational history were administered. Sputum samples were sent by post for laboratory assay. Sputum elastase was found to be associated with impaired lung function, but not with dust exposure. The association with diminished lung function is consistant with the elastase/anti-elastase theory of emphysema pathogenesis, but does not prove a causal link. It is concluded that a prospective study of sputum elastase activity and lung function in coal miners would be extremely worthwhile.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 1988. 83p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 20.00 (UK); GBP 25.00 (Overseas).
Le Bouffant L.
Health in mines - Community research into the relationship between epidemiological data and the toxicity of mine dusts
Hygiène dans les mines - Recherche communautaire d'une relation entre les données épidémiologiques et la nocivité des poussières de mine [en francés]
Evidence of major differences in the frequency of pneumoconiosis between coal fields has been gathered in all the coal producing countries of the EC. Since these differences could not be explained simply by differences in the dust levels, it was decided to look into "dust quality" in addition to "dust quantity". Dust samples were taken in the coal mines of each country and sent to laboratories for physical and chemical analysis and biological tests. The present report summarises the main results obtained by each laboratory and presents the statistical conclusions drawn.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1988. 201p. Illus.
Occupational Health and Safety Regulations [Canada - Yukon Territory]
Regulations issued under the 1984 Act (see CIS 89-1054). Seven volumes: general safety regulations (109p); occupational health regulations (45p.; includes, among others, noise exposure and permissible concentration lists); blasting regulations (23p.); radiation protection regulations (14p.); commercial diving regulations (19p.); mine safety regulations (91p.); minimum first-aid regulations (35p.).
Government of the Yukon Territory, Whitehorse, Y.T., Canada, no date. 7 vols. Illus.
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