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Hnizdo E., Sluis-Cremer G.K.
Silica exposure, silicosis and lung cancer: A mortality study of South African gold miners
The relationship of exposure to gold mining dust with a high concentration of free silica and of tobacco smoking to mortality from lung cancer was assessed in a sample of 2209 white South African gold miners who started mining during 1936-43, and were selected for a study of respiratory disorders in 1968-71 when they were aged 45-54. The mortality follow up was from 1968-71 to 30 December 1986. The relative risk for the effect of dust cumulated to the start of the follow up period was estimated as 1.023 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005-1.042) for a unit of 1000 particle-years. The combined effect of dust and tobacco smoking was better fitted by the multiplicative model than the additive model, suggesting that the two exposures act synergistically. No association between lung cancer and silicosis of the parenchyma or pleura was found, but a positive association existed between silicosis of the hilar glands and lung cancer.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1991, Vol.48, No.1, p.53-60. 26 ref.
Hegney R.P., Kuerschner G.T.
Australian Workers Union (Mining Division)
W.A. mining industry health and safety representatives training resource book
Resource book on mining safety to be used in conjunction with a 3-day intensive course on the subject. Contents: injuries in mining; legal aspects (including references to recent changes in legislation in the State of Western Australia); current concepts in work safety and health; hazard management; health and safety representatives and committees; workplace procedures for the resolution of safety and health issues; communication skills; role of the supervisor; accident investigation; organisational arrangements; check lists; glossary. Examples of typical course schedules are included.
South-East Metropolitan College, Bentley, TAFE Campus, Hayman Road, Bentley WA 6102, Australia, 5th ed., 1991. 220p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: AUD 20.00 + postage.
Statistics of accidents for 1990 in coal mines and other establishments supervised by the Belgian Mines Administration
Statistique des accidents survenus au cours de 1990 dans les mines de houille et dans les autres établissements surveillés par l'Administration des Mines belges [en francés]
Statistieken van de ongevallen in de kolenmijnen en in de andere inrichtingen onder het toezicht van de Administratie van het Mijnwesen in 1990 [en holandés]
Statistics of accidents for 1990 in coal mines, other underground and open-cast mines and quarries, iron and steel plants and explosives factories connected to these mines. Included are: introduction; underground and surface accidents; frequency, severity and hazard ratings underground and at the surface; accident reports prepared by the Mines Administration; trends in fatal accidents; breakdown of serious accidents by location and type of injury.
Annales des mines de Belgique - Annalen der Mijnen van België, 1st Semester 1991, p.51-70. Illus.
Trends and causes of fatalities in South African mines
Analysis of South African mine accident statistics shows that the gold mine fatality rate has improved only 33% since 1945, whereas for coal mines it has substantially declined. Fatality rates for diamond mines remain at levels similar to those in the 1920s, while for other mineral mines the rate has increased since the 1930s. The most important cause of fatalities is falls of ground, while in gold mines, rockbursts increase the fatality rate at depths below 3000m. South African fatality rates for underground coal mining are substantially higher than those in other countries with large coal mining industries. Recommendations are made to ameliorate the high fatality rates.
Safety Science, Nov. 1991, Vol.14, No.3-4, p.169-185. Illus. 9 ref.
Hnizdo E., Sluis-Cremer G.K., Abramowitz J.A.
Emphysema type in relation to silica dust exposure in South African gold miners
The relationship between silica dust exposure in gold mines and the type of emphysema was studied in a group of 1,553 white gold miners who had undergone autopsy examination between 1974 and 1987. Of particular interest was the contrast between centriacinar and panacinar emphysema as they relate to silica exposure and the presence of silicosis. Subjects with significant emphysema, that is, with an emphysema score of 30% or more, were classified as having predominantly panacinar or predominantly centriacinar emphysema, and compared to those without emphysema (emphysema score ≤10%). In conclusion, centriacinar emphysema was found to be more common than panacinar emphysema in smoking miners, but in nonsmokers insignificant panacinar emphysema was more common. Both types of emphysema were positively related to silica dust exposure, and centriacinar emphysema was related to the presence of silicosis of the lung.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, June 1991, Vol.143, No.6, p.1241-1247. Illus. 12 ref.
Seguridad y salud en minas a cielo abierto
Safety and health in opencast mines [en inglés]
La sécurité et la santé dans les mines à ciel ouvert [en francés]
This ILO code of practice covers the whole field of occupational safety and health in opencast mines. Contents: general provisions and duties; training; design and methods; machinery and plant; electrical apparatus; surface building structure; tips, dams and lagoons; fire protection and fire-fighting; explosives and shotfiring; drilling and rotary jet piercing; excavation and loading; dredges and other floating installations; transport and handling of materials; mobile and travelling cranes; hazards in the working environment and environmental protection; first aid and medical services; recording and notification of accidents, notifiable diseases and dangerous occurrences; consultation on health and safety; protective clothing and equipment. Miscellaneous provisions cover: general conduct; employment of workers speaking different languages; admission of outside persons; safety signs.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. xiii, 121p. Index. Price: CHF 20.00.
Koudogbo B., Mavoungou D., Khouilla J.D., Obame Nguema P., Obiang Ossoubita B.
Manganese exposure in miners of Ogooue Mining Company in Moanda (Gabon)
Imprégnation manganique des mineurs de la Compagnie minière de L'Ogooue à Moanda (Gabon) [en francés]
Analyses on manganese exposure were carried out at various work stations of the Moanda mine. Men who were most exposed were those working at grinding and packing posts. Air samples showed manganese levels of 146.42mg/m3 while the mean blood manganese level was 2.310µg/L. These levels are inferior to those found in the literature but superior to the maximum allowable concentration established by ACGIH.
Journal de toxicologie clinique et expérimentale, May-June 1991, Vol.11, Nos.3-4, p.175-182. Illus. 5 ref.
Underground locomotive haulage
This report reviews the use of locomotives as a system of underground transport and proposes principles of design and installation which would improve the safety of locomotive operation. Contents: review of accidents and incidents; principles of locomotive design; factors affecting locomotive brake design; maintenance; systems of operation; training and discipline; recommendations. Although the report deals specifically with the use of locomotives in coal mines, the principles apply equally to other mines and tunnelling operations.
Health and Safety Executive, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1991. 27p. Illus. 17 ref.
Fagá I., Trivelato G.C.
Measurement of the capture efficiency of exhaust hoods in gold-purchasing operations by determination of mercury in air
Avaliação da eficácia de capelas para casas compradoras de ouro, por determinação de mercúrio no ar [en portugués]
Description of a method for the evaluation of the capture efficiency of exhaust hoods in gold-purchasing operations, where large amounts of mercury are released into the atmosphere.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1991, Vol.19, No.72, p.12-16. 14 ref.
Meijers J.H.M., Swaen G.M.H., Slangen J.J.M., Vilet K., Sturmans F.
Long-term mortality in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis in the Netherlands: a pilot study
In order to investigate whether prolonged exposure to coal mine dust increases the cancer risk for coal miners, a pilot study in a selected cohort of 334 Dutch miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), followed from 1956 until 1983, was conducted. In total, 165 miners had died (49.4%); for 162 (98.2%) the cause of death was traced. In comparison to the general Dutch male population, total mortality in the cohort was statistically significantly increased (SMR: 153). This was in general due to the significantly higher than expected cancer mortality (SMR: 163), cancer of stomach and small intestine (SMR: 401) and nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR: 426). The lung cancer mortality was within the expected range.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1991, Vol.19, No.1, p.43-50. Illus. 31 ref.
Primeros auxilios en los lugares de trabajo
Illustrated training booklet on first aid, aimed at workers in the mining industry. Relevant passages from Peruvian mining safety legislation are quoted. Contents: contents of the first-aid kit; what to do when there is an accident; most common types of injury in the workplace; first aid action after superficial and serious injuries; head injuries; internal bleeding; burns; foreign bodies; fractures; contusions; poisoning; shock; cardiac and respiratory arrest; role of workers' organisations in first aid organisation; self-evaluation test.
Federación Nacional de Trabajadores Mineros, Metalúrgicos y Siderúrgicos del Perú, Plaza 2 de Mayo No.44, Lima, Peru, 1991. 54p. Illus.
La defensa del medio ambiente y los mineros
Training booklet on environmental protection, aimed at workers in the mining industry. Contents: environmental protection and ecology; the need for an environmental protection policy; the past negative role of the mining industry in environmental pollution; existing legislative instruments for environmental protection in Peru; the role of industry and workers' organisations in environmental protection; self-evaluation test.
Federación Nacional de Trabajadores Mineros, Metalúrgicos y Siderúrgicos del Perú, Plaza 2 de Mayo No.44, Lima, Peru, 1991. 54p. Illus.
Reglamento general sobre la seguridad e higiene del trabajo en las minas y las canteras [Portugal]
Regulamento geral de segurança e higiene no trabalho nas minas e pedreiras [en portugués]
Este Decreto sustituye al Decreto 18/85 (CIS 87-740). Se ocupa de la reglamentación concerniente a las minas y canteras en Portugal en noviembre de 1990. Contenido: generalidades (objetivos, campo de aplicación, definiciones y responsabilidad de empresarios y trabajadores); obligación de establecer planes detallados para el trabajo subterráneo; acceso a las canteras subterráneas; transporte de materiales y de trabajadores; extracción; cables; señalización; abertura y profundidad de los pozos; apoyo; ventilación; alumbrado; utilización de explosivos; atmósferas y partículas en suspensión explosivas; precauciones contra las inundaciones; prevención y extinción de incendios; maquinaria y material diverso; explotaciones a cielo abierto; instalaciones eléctricas; protección de la salud; primeros auxilios y salvamento; informes e investigación sobre accidentes; servicios de seguridad e higiene.
Federação dos Sindicatos da Metalurgia, Metalomecânica e Minas de Portugal, Lisboa, Portugal, 1990. 22p.
Instalaciones para extracción en minería [Noruega]
Gruveheisanlegg [en noruego]
Este folleto constituye una combinación de una directiva y algunas consignas de seguridad para el diseño y la utilización de las instalaciones de extracción minera. La primera parte, puesta en vigor el 1 de julio de 1980, está dedicada a las obligaciones. La segunda parte contiene las instrucciones para adaptarse a las reglas, así como normas de prácticas correctas. Principales aspectos tratados: resistencia, componentes eléctricos, componentes mecánicos, diferentes partes de la instalación (sala de máquinas, jaula de extracción, etc.), señalización, operadores, instrucciones de uso, pruebas y controles.
Direktoratet for Arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Noruega, feb. 1990. 76p. Ilus. Indice.
Mine Management Act 1990; Mine Management Regulations 1992 [Australia - Northern Territory]
The Act received assent on 22 June 1990 and was proclaimed on 24 dec. 1992 (modifications to 1 July 1993 are included). It repealed the Mines Safety Control Act 1976 (see CIS 92-1757). Contents: definitions; application (all mines plus other operations as specified by the Minister); appointment of the Chief Government Mining Engineer, government mining engineers, and mines inspectors, establishment and functions of the Mining Board of the Northern Territory; responsibilities of mine managers, keeping of mine record books; notification of mine operations; accidents (notification, inspection); lost time injury reports; employment standards; winding engines and their drivers; mine plans; inspection of mines; adoption of codes of practice; issuing of regulations. The Regulations were made on 18 Dec. 1992 and gazetted on 24 Dec. 1992. Only their Table of Provisions is microfiched by CIS. Regulations are classified by broad subject: preliminary; general medical examinations and records; occupational health; fire; explosives; electricity; machinery; mobile equipment; safety in open cuts; safety underground; engines underground; ventilation; winding; dams; dredges; miscellaneous.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.3, 19p. (pages numbered 88,411 - 88,553).
Contents of this training manual: prevention of accidents; investigative procedures; equipment and supplies; fact finding; interviews; problem-solving procedures (the scientific method, Change Analysis, sequence diagrams, Gross Hazard Analysis, Job Safety Analysis, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis); report of investigation. In appendices: glossary; accident types; direct and indirect causes of accidents; basic causes of accidents.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1990. 38p. Illus. 8 ref.
Contents of this safety training manual on accident prevention in mines: definition of accidents; statistical trends in mining accidents in the US; accident causes (direct and indirect causes, unsafe acts, unsafe conditions); accident prevention; accident investigation; glossary of terms.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1990. 38p. Illus. 10 ref.
Sub-committee report on refuge station guidelines
Guidelines are proposed for the construction of refuge stations in underground mines, the equipment, furnishings and supplies to be provided in refuge stations, and the use of portable refuge stations. Standard procedures for entry into and use inside refuge stations during emergencies are recommended as well as alternate emergency actions in the event people are unable to reach a refuge station. Inspection criteria and frequency requirements for all refuge stations are also proposed. Recommendations include minimum legislated requirements and suggested standards for industry. Appendices include design considerations, reference drawings and supplies/equipment information.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1991. 151p. Illus.
Statistics of accidents for 1989 in coal mines and other establishments supervised by the Belgian Mines Administration
Statistique des accidents survenus au cours de 1989 dans les mines de houille et dans les autres établissements surveillés par l'Administration des Mines belges [en francés]
Statistieken van de ongevallen in de kolenmijnen en in de andere inrichtingen onder het toezicht van de Administratie van het Mijnwesen in 1989 [en holandés]
Statistics of accidents for 1989 in coal mines, other underground and open-cast mines and quarries, iron and steel plants and explosives factories connected to these mines. Included are: introduction; underground and surface accidents; frequency, severity and hazard ratings underground and at the surface; accident reports prepared by the Mines Administration; trends in fatal accidents; breakdown of serious accidents by location and type of injury.
Annales des mines de Belgique - Annalen der Mijnen van België, 4th Quarter 1990, p.195-214. Illus.
Measurement systems and indices of miners' exposure to radon daughter products in the air of mines
This paper presents the classification of measurement systems that may be used for the assessment of miners' exposure to radiation in mines. The following systems are described: the Air Sampling System, the Environmental Control System, the Individual Dosimetry System, the Stream Monitoring System and the Exhaust Monitoring System. The following parameters of the working environments of miners were determined: average expected concentration, average observed concentration, average expected exposure cumulation rate, average observed exposure cumulation rate, and average effective exposure cumulation rate. Mathematical formulae for determining all these indicators, acccording to the type of measurement system used in particular mines, are presented. The reliability of assessment of miners' exposure in particular measurement systems, as well as the role of the possible reference system, are discussed.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1990, Vol.3, No.4, p.375-390. Illus. 7 ref.
Health, safety and reclamation code for mines in British Columbia [Canada - British Columbia]
The purpose of the Code is to: (1) protect both mine employees and the public from risks associated with mining activities, (2) protect and reclaim the land and watercourses affected by mining, (3) monitor the extraction of mineral resources to ensure the maximum of extraction with a minimum of environmental disturbance, taking into account sound engineering practice and prevailing economic conditions. The Parts of the Code concern: industrial hygiene (including a list of TLVs for harmful substances and dusts); emergency preparedness; buildings, machinery, and equipment; electrical power systems; mine design and procedures; hoists and shafts; explosives; dams and waste emplacement; reclamation and closure; exploration. The Mines Act (1989, c. 56) is included.
Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Engineering and Inspection Branch, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 1990. Illus. 1 vol. Index.
Guidelines on the ergonomics of underground illumination in coal mines
These guidelines were first published in 1987 and have since been updated by the addition of several supplements giving the illumination requirements in specific areas of the mine. Contents: general philosophy of mine illumination (factors to be considered in defining additional lighting requirements, major sources of additional lighting); lighting at fixed material transfer stations, movable loading and unloading stations and storage areas; lighting at the insets shafts and staple shafts; belt conveyor lighting; lighting in shield support faces; lighting at face-ends; ergonomically acceptable lighting levels and their measurement (quantities and units of measurement, measuring devices, measurement methods).
Bureau of Information and Coordination of Community Ergonomics Action, European Coal and Steel Community, P.O. Box 237, 2102 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1990. 92p. Illus.
Combined effect of silica dust and tobacco smoking on mortality from chronic obstructive lung disease in gold miners
A sample of 2209 white South African gold miners aged 45-54 between 1968-71, who started to work in mines during 1936-43, was investigated from 1968-71 to Decembber 1986. The effect of silica dust and tobacco smoking on mortality from chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) was assessed. The combined effect of dust exposure before 1950 and years of cigarette smoking on mortality from COLD was best estimated by the multiplicative model, indicating that the 2 exposures act synergistically. All those that died of the disease were smokers. According to the estimates of attributable risk about 5% of the deaths from COLD were from the effect of dust, 34% were from smoking, and 59% were from the combined effect of dust and smoking. In conclusion, the results indicate that workers exposed to silica dust who smoke are at higher risk of dying from COLD than smokers not exposed to silica dust, as the 2 exposures act synergistically in causing COLD.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1990, Vol.47, No.10, p.656-664. Illus. 24 ref.
Hnizdo E., Baskind E., Sluis-Cremer G.K.
Combined effect of silica dust exposure and tobacco smoking on the prevalence of respiratory impairments among gold miners
The combined effect of underground gold mining dust with a high content of free silica and tobacco smoking on the prevalence of respiratory impairment was examined among 2209 South African gold miners and 483 non-miners. The subjects were grouped as having normal function; minimal, moderate or marked obstruction; marked obstruction with restriction; or pure restriction on the basis of their lung function profiles. Each profile group was compared with the normal group for exposure prevalences, and additive and multiplicative relative risk models were applied to test for departure from the additivity of individual effects. Departure from additivity was found to increase progressively with the severity of obstructive impairment. The results indicated that approximately 94% of the cases with the most severe respiratory impairment (N=191) could have been prevented through the elimination of tobacco smoking. In conclusion, tobacco smoking was found to potentiate the effect of dust on respiratory impairments.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1990, Vol.16, No.6, p.411-422. Illus. 30 ref.
Hazards due to silicogenic dust in asphalt-mixing plants
Gefährdung durch silikogenen Staub in Asphaltmischanlagen [en alemán]
In 10 enclosed asphalt-mixing plants the respirable dust concentrations at the major emission sources, such as driers and mixers, were measured. The quartz fraction in the respirable dust was determined. From it and the duration of daily work in the vicinity of emission sources the quartz exposure of workers was assessed. None of the time-weighted quartz concentrations were in excess of the existing threshold limit value.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, 1990, Vol.100, No.5, p.2-9. Illus. 13 ref.
Bauer H.D., Dahmann D., Kollmeier F.W., Lindecke B.
Diesel engine emissions in potash mining
Dieselmotoremissionen in den Gruben des Kalibergbaus [en alemán]
In two potash mines with horizontal and inclined strata the soot concentrations caused by emissions from diesel engine operated mining equipment were determined. Stationary and personal dust samplers were employed. Coulometry was used for determining the carbon content of the samples. A total of 144 measurements were taken. The highest soot concentrations in both types of mines were measured in the vicinity of loaders.
Kompass, Oct. 1990, Vol.100, No.10, p.516-524. Illus. 21 ref.
Canada Labour Code - Coal Mines (CBDC) Occupational Safety and Health Regulations [Canada]
Code canadien du travail - Règlement sur la sécurité et la santé dans les mines de charbon (SDCB) [Canada] [en francés]
These regulations under Part II of the Canada Labour Code concern safety and health in Nova Scotia coal mines. Contents: explosives and detonators; safe occupancy of the workplace, including mine inspections; underground transportation and hoisting; ventilation; explosion and fire protection; approval procedures for mine construction or alteration plans; investigation and reporting of hazardous occurrences.
Canada Gazette - Gazette du Canada, 14 Feb. 1990, Part II, Vol.124, No.4, p.550-603.
Berms in pits and quarries
Contents of this data sheet: use of berms on elevated roadways; design and construction of berms and locations where they may be required; types of materials for berms; periodic inspections; screening the public.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1990. 5p. Illus. 3 ref.
Mine injuries and worktime, quarterly
Statistics on reportable occupational injuries and illnesses resulting from work accidents in the US mining industry, January-March 1990. A chart shows number of fatal injuries in each quarter 1988-1990. Tables include numbers of operator and operator injuries, injury incidence rates, employee-hours and other data by type of coal mined, work location, mineral industry, State and accident classification.
U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, P.O. Box 25367, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, USA, Jan.-Mar. 1990. 31p.
Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids
Much of the information presented in this data sheet is based on the use of these fluids in mining applications. Contents: definition of terms; test procedures for certification of fluids; selection of a suitable hydraulic fluid; types and characteristics of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids; storage; system requirements; converting to a fire-resistant fluid; precautions during use; operating temperature; toxicity; personal safety.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1990. 7p. Illus. 14 ref.
Load-haul-dump machines in underground mines
This data sheet is a revision of the 1983 edition (CIS 85-195). It describes safe operating procedures for rubber-tyred diesel- or electric-powered vehicles. Contents: hazards and accident situations; training; starting, running and stopping the job; lighting; towing other equipment; personal protective equipment; roll-over protective structures and canopies; servicing and maintenance; specific loading operations (underground mines, fly rock clean-up, preparing a heading for drilling); list of operational prohibitions.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1990. 7p. Illus. 1 ref.
Prevention of falls through openings in mines
This data sheet is a revision of the 1984 edition (CIS 85-198). Contents: hazards of mine openings (mill holes, ore passes, ladderways, box holes, shafts); guarding of vertical openings (guardrails, sliding gates, safeguarding of grizzly bars); fall protection (use of safety belts and lanyards); safe use of ladderways, sollars and bored raises.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1990. 4p. Illus. 2 ref.
Rifat S.L., Eastwood M.R., McLachlan D.R.C., Corey P.N.
Effect of exposure of miners to aluminium powder
This morbidity prevalence study examines rates of chronic disorder among miners in Ontario likely to have been exposed to McIntyre powder, a finely ground powder of aluminium and aluminium oxide, used as a means of prophylaxis against silicotic lung disease between 1944 and 1979. There were no significant differences between exposed and non-exposed miners in reported diagnoses of neurological disorder; however, exposed miners performed less well in cognitive tests; also the proportion of men with scores in the impaired range was greater in the exposed group. The findings are consistent with putative neurotoxicity of chronic aluminum exposure.
Lancet, 10 Nov. 1990, Vol.336, No.8724, p.1162-1165. 28 ref.
Ng T.P., Chan S.L., Lee J.
Mortality of a cohort of men in a silicosis register: further evidence of an association with lung cancer
Lung cancer mortality from 1980 to 1986 was studied in a cohort of 1,419 men in a silicosis register who had no previous exposure to asbestos or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The 28 deaths from lung cancer were statistically in excess of expected (SMR 2.03; 95% CI 1.35-2.93). Excess risks of lung cancer were found in both underground workers and surface workers. All lung cancer deaths were smokers. There was an increase in SMRs with longer latency periods and years of exposure. The risk for lung cancer was higher in those with tuberculosis (SMR 2.52; 95% CI 1.52-3.94). The results show that most of the excess lung cancer risk in silicotics is due to smoking, but a synergistic effect between smoking and silica/silicosis on the risk of lung cancer is also likely. In particular, a possible role of silicosis and tuberculosis as the fibrotic seedbed for malignant growth in the lung is strongly supported.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.17, No.2, p.163-171. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Landau K., Brauchler R., Brauchler W., Ballé W., Blankenstein U.
The applicability of procedures of job-analysis to the prognosis of possible job-related impairments
Eignung arbeitsanalytischer Verfahrensweisen zur Prognose möglicher arbeitsbedingter Schädigungen [en alemán]
A multi-causal model was developed for predicting work-related diseases. It links the results of objective job-stress assessments with those of medical examinations. The model was applied to data on 348 workers in opencast mining performing driving, control and monitoring tasks. The most frequently occurring health problems were obesity and impairment of the lipid metabolism, hearing difficulties, hypertension, chronic degenerative joint and spinal diseases and skin diseases.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postf. 10 11 10, W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 210p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Falling or sliding rocks in quarries
Contents of this data sheet: hazards encountered in quarry work; safe operating and blasting methods; barring down the face; regular inspection of the rock face; use of safety equipment. A table shows safe bearing loads for various types of soils and rocks.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1990. 3p. Illus. 4 ref.
Secondary breaking of rock in quarries
This data sheet, a revision of the 1984 edition (CIS 85-1101), identifies hazards involved in the breaking of large rocks produced by primary blasting misfires or improper shot patterns, and outlines general safe practices and specific precautions for the use of drop balls and jackhammers.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1990. 5p. Illus. 5 ref.
Wiktorowski W., Zawadzki A.
Minute by minute. Halemba 2:24
Minuta po minucie. Halemba godz. 224 [en polonés]
Detailed description of the events leading to the ignition of methane in the Halemba coal mine, Poland, on 10 Jan. 1990. 19 workers were killed and 9 seriously injured.
Ochrona pracy, June 1990, No.6, p.11-14. Illus.
High idle as a predictor of noise exposure
High idle noise measurements were conducted on internal combustion engine-powered mining equipment using a sound level meter, microphone and tape recorder. It was concluded that high noise measurements correlate poorly with mining machine operator's noise exposure expressed in percent or as a time weighted average in dB. This suggests that factors other than engine noise contribute significantly to the operator's noise exposure.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, July-Aug. 1990, Vol.35, No.1, p.21-27. Illus. 7 ref.
Canada Labour Code - Coal Mining Safety Commission Regulations [Canada]
Code canadien du travail - Règlement sur la Commission de la sécurité dans les mines de charbon [Canada] [en francés]
Regulation concerning the manner in which members of the Coal Mining Safety Commission, established by Part II of the Canada Labour Code, are to be selected. The Commission will be composed of 2 members representing employers, 2 members representing non-supervisory employees, and a Chairperson appointed by the Minister of Labour. The terms of office for the Chairperson will be 2 years and for the other members 1 year.
Canada Gazette - Gazette du Canada, 14 Feb. 1990, Part II, Vol.124, No.4, p.604-607.
Noise reduction by selection of machines with low sound emission - Pneumatic hammers and drilling machines
Lärmminderung durch Auswahl leiser Maschinen - Druckluftbohrhämmer und -hammerbohrmaschinen [en alemán]
Pneumatic hammer drills are used in underground mining and in civil engineering for tunnel construction. The noise levels of 117dB(A) for machines up to 30kg - and 120dB(A) - up to 200kg - were determined to be maximum permissible sound levels. No newly purchased machines should have sound power levels above these values.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Jan. 1990, Vol.1, p.7-8. Illus.
Annual report - Mutual Accident Insurance Association for the Mining Industry - 1989
Jahresbericht - Bergbau-Berufsgenossenschaft - 1989 [en alemán]
Contents: the association, general overview; scope of insurance; accident and disease experience; accident and disease prevention, first aid; medical and vocational rehabilitation; pensions and compensation; total disbursements; sources of funds; administration and legal activities; regional affairs; special institutions. 23 tables give statistics on 1989; 4 of them show trends since 1920, 1925 or 1950.
Bergbau-Berufsgenossenshaft, Hauptverwaltung, Hunscheidtstrasse 18, 4630 Bochum, Germany, Aug. 1990. 119p. Illus.
Radical solutions are needed
Nužny radikal'nye rešenija [en ruso]
Editorial presenting fatal accident statistics for mining, metallurgy, petroleum and gas extraction, petroleum refining, the chemical and petrochemical industry and geological exploration, as well as for cranes and for equipment subject to the boiler and gas inspectorates in the USSR for 1988 and 1989. Although there were 89 fewer deaths in 1989 (1151 versus 1240 in 1988), the decrease is modest, and there was actually an increase in the petroleum and gas industry. The numbers are broken down by industrial sector and republic; total figures for the Russian, Ukrainian and Kazakh republics are broken down by district. The relation of these figures to the safety situation in general is discussed. Improvement requires action on 3 fronts: increasing the safety consciousness of the whole population; imposing serious fines on those who violate safety rules; establishment of a legal and regulatory system that clearly defines the rights and responsibilities of individuals, enterprises and authorities.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 1990, No.3, p.2-6.
Work in gravel and sand pits [Norway]
Arbeid i grus- og sandtak [en noruego]
This directive contains guidance on how to achieve safe working conditions in gravel and sand pits. Coverage: excavation work and prevention of dangerous landslides; measures for the prevention of transportation accidents; machinery; blasting in gravel and sand pits; dust control; lighting; first aid and personal protective equipment; work-rooms and welfare facilities; permits to work; evaluation of different types of soil in gravel and sand pits. A list of relevant Norwegian laws, directives and standards is appended.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 2nd ed., Feb. 1990. 10p. 18 ref.
Chen S.Y., Hayes R.B., Liang S.R., Li Q.G., Stewart P.A., Blair A.
Mortality experience of haematite mine workers in China
The mortality risk of iron ore (haematite) miners between 1970 and 1982 was investigated in a retrospective cohort study of male workers from 2 mines in China. The cohort consisted of 5,406 underground miners and 1,038 unexposed surface workers. The standardised mortality ratio for lung cancer compared with nation-wide male population rates was significantly raised, especially for those miners who were first employed underground before mechanical ventilation and wet drilling were introduced; with jobs involving heavy exposure to dust, radon, and radon daughters; with a history of silicosis; and with silicotuberculosis. No excess risk of lung cancer was observed in unexposed workers. An excess risk of lung cancer among underground mine workers which could not be attributed solely to tobacco use was associated with working conditions underground, especially with exposure to dust and radon gas and with the presence of non-malignant respiratory disease.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1990, Vol.47, No.3, p.175-181. 23 ref.
Real Decreto de 21 de abril de 1989 relativo a la seguridad y las condiciones de trabajo del personal empleado en las explotaciones mineras a cielo abierto y en las canteras, así como en los trabajos asociados [Bélgica]
Arrêté royal du 21 avr. 1989 relatif à la sécurité et aux conditions de travail du personnel occupé dans les exploitations à ciel ouvert des minières et des carrières, ainsi que dans leurs dépendances [Belgique] [en francés]
21 April 1989 - Koninklijk besluit betreffende de veiligheid en de arbeidsvoerwaarden ven het personeel tewerkgesteld in de ontginningen in open lucht van de graverijen en de groeven en in hun aanhorigheden [en holandés]
Topics: Belgium; coal mining; conditions of work; dangerous work; dust control; explosive atmospheres; law; mining and quarrying; mining industry; noise control; opencast work; quarrying industry; restricted areas; safety checks; safety engineering.
Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 10 mayo 1989, n°89, p.7913-7916.
Dinamitero, ¿conoces esto?
Sprengbefugter, weisst Du das? [en alemán]
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, jul. 1989. 25p. Ilus. ###
Industrial hygiene for healthier miners
Contents of this training manual aimed at miners: survey of the basic concepts of industrial hygiene; recognition of harmful agents and factors in the workplace; evaluation of the hazard; control of harmful agents and factors; lung diseases related to mining. Glossary of terms.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1989. 53p. Illus. 8 ref.
Environment and health in nineteenth century America. Two case studies
These two case studies illustrate how the urbanisation and industrialisation processes that occurred in nineteenth century America affected the environment and the health of urban dwellers and workers. One study concerns coal mines and the relationship between growth, a deteriorating environment and the health and safety of coal miners. Underground operations and technological change are described along with the dangers of coal mining (mine gases, dust, explosives, roof falls) and accounts of mine disasters. Health issues discussed include medical knowledge related to coal miners' diseases, social attitudes towards miners' diseases and welfare techniques. Protective labour legislation for miners is also discussed. The second study concerns public health in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where the environment and sanitary conditions of the city deteriorated as the city grew.
Peter Lang Publishing, 62 West 45th Street, New York, NY 10036, USA, 1989. xxi, 308p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 80.30.
In-house training at Falconbridge - Kidd Creek
The Kidd Creek Mines (Timmins, Ontario, Canada) common core training programme for basic underground mining skills is explained. Using modular techniques for organising training, new employees are taught the skills needed to perform a particular task such as scaling or drilling and are certified according to their performance of these tasks. The underground equipment in-house licensing training programme is also described.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1989. 24p. Illus.
Hardrock miner, common core training for area mines
The Hardrock Miner Common Core Training Program at Citadel Gold Mines Inc. in Wawa (Ontario, Canada) is described. Training modules on inspection, scaling, staging, drilling, rock bolting, blasting, and mucking are outlined, as well as the certification process, costs, and benefits of the programme.
Mines Accident Prevention Association Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, 147 McIntyre Street West, North Bay, Ontario P1B 8K6, Canada, 1989. 5p.
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