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  • Mining and quarrying

1993

CIS 95-1875 Horten W.
Importancia para la prevención - Medición de los agujeros para barrenos y de las paredes a derribar en las canteras
Bedeutung für die Arbeitssicherheit - Vermessung von Bohrlöchern und Abbauwänden in Steinbrüchen [en alemán]
Puede determinarse con exactitud la profundidad e inclinación de los agujeros para barrenos en las canteras mediante la utilización de un cordón de fibra de vidrio o de fibra de carbono en cuyo extremo se encuentra fijado un detector sensible que mide ciertos parámetros. Estos datos son transmitidos a un microordenador, que calcula la carga adecuada que debe colocarse, evitando así la propulsión masiva de fragmentos de roca por exceso de carga. Las características de las paredeees pueden conocerse a distancia con un teodolito acoplado a un aparato de medida electrónica. Con este sistema puede prevenirse los accidentes por colisión con fragmentos despedidos por las explosiones.
Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, ene.-feb. 1993, vol.103, n°1, p.9-19. Ilus. 13 ref.

CIS 95-1774 Kaburaki K., Nagumo M.
De la esperanza de vida de los individuos neumoconióticos en una mina
Bō kōzan ni okeru jinpai chōki ryōyōsha no raifu supan ni tsuite [en japonés]
Se analizan los datos de 109 pacientes aquejados de neumoconiosis en fase 4, según la clasificación japonesa, que fallecieron entre 1948 y 1993. Todos ellos habían seguido tratamientos de larga duración. La media de edad en el momento de la muerte fue creciendo de 48,0 ± 3,8 entre los años 40 a 75,2 ± 5,7 en los 90. Asimismo, la media de edad en la que fueron diagnosticados aumentó pasando de 46,7 ± 3,9 a 58,3 ± 10,1 años. Se constató la misma tendencia entre los sujetos afectados de neumoconiosis en otros estadíos. La instalación más tardía de la patología y el incremento de la esperanza de vida en estos últimos años se deben probablemente a: 1) una limitación de la exposición al polvo gracias a los medios técnicos de prevención desarrollados y 2) a las mejoras aportadas a la gestión de la salud laboral y al sistema de indemnización de los trabajadores.
Annual Reports of the Medical Research Society for Mining and Smelting, 1 nov. 1993, n°32, p.23-28. Ilus. 3 ref.

CIS 95-1562 Ordenanza nº155/1993 (12 de Agosto) del gobierno relativa a la aplicación de la Ley nº48 de 1993 sobre Minas [Hungría]
A kormány 115/1993. (VIII.12.) Korm. rendelete a bányászatról szóló 1993. évi XLVIII. törvény végrehajtásáról [en húngaro]
Este Reglamento se adoptó de acuerdo a la Ley 48 de 1993 sobre Minas (CIS 93-1411). Temas de seguridad tratados: obligación del empresario de dar a conocer las instrucciones relativas a la seguridad de funcionamiento de los equipos y de manipulación de las sustancias; obligación de garantizar la formación de los trabajadores; instalación de barreras y zonas de seguridad; planos de minas; evaluación de los riesgos (incluso, si es necesario, los riesgos de radiación); medidas a adoptar previamente al cierre de una mina.
Magyar Közlöny, 12 ago. 1993, n°111, p.6017-6028.

CIS 95-805 Salud y Seguridad - Reglamento de 1993 sobre Gestión y Administración de la Salud y Seguridad en las Minas [Reino Unido]
Health and Safety - The Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993 [United Kingdom] [en inglés]
Este Reglamento (entrado en vigor el 1 de octubre de 1993) establece algunas obligaciones y prohibiciones en materia de gestión y administración de la seguridad y la salud en las minas, sustituyendo así en parte a las disposiciones de la Ley de 1954 sobre Minas y Canteras (CIS 89-1407). Sus puntos principales son: obligaciones generales del propietario en cuanto a la aplicación de la reglamentación sobre prevención; designación y responsabilidades de los directores de minas; seguridad en la explotación de las minas; seguridad en la instalación, inspección y mantenimiento de las instalaciones y equipos; cualificación y formación del personal; nombramiento y obligaciones de los expertos en minería; archivo de expedientes; comunicación de la información. En la ficha de referencia CIS 94-1274, aparece un análisis del Código de Directivas Prácticas basado en este Reglamento.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, Reino Unido, 1993. 28p.

CIS 95-190
Health and Safety Executive, HM Inspectorate of Mines
Informe 1993 sobre Seguridad Minera emitido por la Oficina Consultora de Investigación a la atención de la Comisión de Higiene y Seguridad (HSC)
Safety in Mines Research Advisory Board 1993 report to the Health and Safety Commission [en inglés]
Este informe contiene una síntesis de los trabajos de investigación examinados en 1993 por la Oficina Consultora de Investigación en Seguridad Minera en los siguientes campos: incendios y explosiones; extracción y transporte; detección, control y supervisión de los gases y vapores en las minas; factores humanos y ergonomía; medicina del trabajo.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, Reino Unido, 1993. 18p.

CIS 94-1605 Kabir H., Bilgi C.
Ontario gold miners with lung cancer - Occupational exposure assessment in establishing work relatedness
Determination of the work-relatedness of the compensation claims of Ontario gold miners who had primary lung cancer could not be based upon any strict occupational criteria. However, a relationship between exposure to silica, arsenic, and radon progeny was derived from results of the epidemiological studies. A retrospective occupational exposure assessment of silica dust, arsenic and radon decay products was made in 11 individual cases presented in this paper. The exposure parameters provided persuasive evidence when the data were consistent with the key epidemiological findings, e.g. the miner's age at first exposure, length of dusty exposure, and latency.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.12, p.1203-1207. 19 ref.

CIS 94-1632 Cenni A., Sciarra G., Sartorelli P., Pappalardo F.
Environmental and biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coke plants and other workplaces
Pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene were used as indicators of the presence of PAHs in a number of workplaces. A coke plant, a pyrite mine, a railway tunnel under construction, and several earthenware factories were investigated. Workers on the site underwent urine tests for PAH metabolites. The coke plant had the highest concentrations of the PAH indicators in the environment and in the workers' urine. Summary in Italian.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1993, Vol.84, No.5, p.379-386. 21 ref.

CIS 94-1602 Dosemeci M., Chen J.Q., Hearl F., Chen R.G., McCawley M., Wu Z., McLaughlin J.K., Peng K.L., Chen A.L., Rexing S.H., Blot W.J.
Estimating historical exposure to silica among mine and pottery workers in the People's Republic of China
A retrospective exposure assessment method was developed for use in a study of lung cancer among mine and pottery workers exposed to silica in 20 mines (10 tungsten, 6 iron/copper, 4 tin) and nine pottery factories. Historical exposure data and work histories were collected for 1,668 study subjects. The average total dust concentration was estimated to be 9mg/m3 with a range from 28mg/m3 in earlier years to 3mg/m3 in recent years. Several exposure indices (cumulative dust, average dust, cumulative respirable and thoracic silica dust, exposure-weighted duration and highest/longest exposure) were calculated for each subject.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.55-66. 20 ref.

CIS 94-1274
Health and Safety Commission
The management and administration of safety and health at mines
This Code of Practice gives practical guidance with respect to the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993. Contents: interpretation and general duties of employers and employees; duties of mine owners and notification of mining operations; structure of health and safety management, supervision and inspection of the mine; qualifications; training requirements; surveyors and plans; records and information; exemptions, repeals, modifications and revocations.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. v, 82p. Illus. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 94-1263 Sologub T.T., Slavnyyj I.Ju.
Accident with several victims in the First Bereznikov Potash Production Mine Administration mine
Gruppovoj nesčastnyj slučaj v pervom Bereznikovskom kalijnom rudoupravlenii [en ruso]
On 3 Dec. 1992, a gas explosion in exploratory underground workings of the Uralkalij enterprise killed three persons and injured three others. The deposit was known to emit a dangerous mixture of methane and hydrogen. In a new drift, the air was monitored regularly with portable equipment. On the morning of the accident, the foreman twice interrupted work in the drift when methane concentrations of 4% were detected. The sector supervisor decided to stop excavation completely and evacuate the area. Although the atmosphere was checked and found free of methane before transport equipment was set in motion, a moving mine car damaged a cable and detonated a pocket of gas 20m from the mouth of the new drift. Investigators found that the adequacy of the ventilation in the area had not been certified, that the devices ensuring the explosion-proof operation of the mining equipment were out of order, that air monitoring over the whole sector was inadequate and that workers were carrying smoking materials. Supervisory personnel were held responsible.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1993, No.8, p.18-19. Illus.

CIS 94-1287 Šrám R.J., Binková B., Dobiáš L., Rössner P., Topinka J., Veselá D., Veselý D., Stejskalová J., Bavorová H., Řeřicha V.
Monitoring genotoxic exposure in uranium miners
Three groups of miners from different uranium mines were studied for the effects of chemical mutagens. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in lymphocytes, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in both plasma and lymphocytes were studied on 66 exposed miners and 56 controls. Throat swabs were taken from 116 miners and 78 controls. Significantly increased numbers of aberrant cells were found in all groups of miners, as well as decreased UDS values in lymphocytes and increased LPO plasma levels in comparison with controls. Moulds were detected in throat swabs from 27% of miners, and 58% of these moulds were embryotoxic. Only 5% of the control samples contained moulds, and none were embryotoxic. The following mycotoxins were isolated from miners' swab samples: rugulosin, sterigmatocystin, mycophenolic acid, brevianamid A, citreoviridin, citrinin, penicilic acid, and secalonic acid. These data suggest that mycotoxins are a genotoxic factor affecting uranium miners.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1993, Vol.99. p.303-305. 14 ref.

CIS 94-1379 Laurer G.R., Gang Q.T., Lubin J.H., Jun-Yao L., Kan C.S., Xiang Y.S., Jian C.Z., Yi H., De G.W., Blot W.J.
Skeletal 210Pb levels and lung cancer among radon-exposed tin miners in Southern China
A preliminary case-control study of 19 lung cancer cases over 55 years of age and 141 age-matched controls was carried out among underground tin miners exposed to 222Rn and its decay products. Radon exposure was estimated through measurement of 210Pb activity levels in the skull, and in working level months. There was a smooth gradient of lung cancer risk with categories of skeletal 210Pb level at time of last radon exposure; relative risks of 1.0, 2.9, 3.2, and 4.7 for categories <51.8, 51.8-77.7, 77.8-107.3, and >107.3Bq (<1,400, 1,400-2,099, 2,100-2,899, and >2,899pCi), respectively. Relative risks were unaffected by adjustment for exposure to arsenic in the mine or by adjustment for working level months. Risks also increased with cumulative working level month exposure, but the gradient of risk lessened after adjustment for exposure to arsenic. 210Pb, at the time of last radon exposure (p=0.13) and at the current 210Pb level (p=0.01), was not highly correlated with the working level month estimate.
Health Physics, Mar. 1993, Vol.64, No.3, p.253-259. 23 ref.

CIS 94-971 Potthast J., Marek W., Marczynski B., Baur X.
Isocyanates on the workplace - Diseases of the respiratory tract and the lung
Isocyanate am Arbeitsplatz - Erkrankungen der Atemwege und der Lunge [en alemán]
The results of experimental studies of the effects of isocyanates such as diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) over a two-year period are summarized. In vivo short-term exposure to 10ppb TDI led to bronchial hypersensitivity. In vivo and in vitro exposure to the isocyanates produced breaks in DNA. A reduction of the present maximum workplace concentration for TDI is recommended.
Kompass, July 1993, Vol.103, No.7, p.338-345. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 94-1061 Günter L., Taube H.
Unauthorized operation of mine locomotives
Unerlaubtes Fahren mit Grubenlokomotiven [en alemán]
Some accidents in coal mines have been caused by driving a locomotive without a licence. The records on accidents in the mines of Bochum, Germany, are used as examples. The outlined measures to curb operation of mine locomotives without training include: the use of films and posters to inform of the dangers, and the display of the operating licence on the helmet.
Kompass, July 1993, Vol.103, No.7, p.331-336. Illus.

CIS 94-884 Hnizdo E., Sluis-Cremer G.K.
Risk of silicosis in a cohort of white South African gold miners
The risk of silicosis was investigated in a cohort of 2,235 white South African gold miners who had, on average, 24 years of net service from 1940 to the early 1970s and who were followed up to 1991 for radiological signs of onset of silicosis (ILO category 1/1 or more). There were 313 (14%) miners who developed signs of silicosis at an average age of 55.9 years. The latency period was largely independent of the cumulative dust exposure. In 57% of the silicotics, the radiological signs developed, on average, 7.4 years after mining exposure ceased. The risk of silicosis increased exponentially with the cumulative dust dose, the accelerated increase being after 7mg/m3-years. At the highest exposure level of 15mg/m3-years, which represents approximately 37 years of gold mining at an average respirable dust concentration of 0.4mg/m3, the cumulative risk for mining for silicosis reached 77%. In conclusion, the risk of silicosis was strongly dose dependent; however, the latency period was largely independent of the dose.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.447-457. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-878 Hnizdo E., Murray J., Sluis-Cremer G.K., Thomas R.G.
Correlation between radiological and pathological diagnosis of silicosis: An autopsy population based study
The radiological findings for the profusion of rounded opacities were compared with pathological findings for parenchymal silicosis in 557 gold miners who had, on average, 2.7 years between the radiological and pathological examination. Three readers read the radiographs, and ILO category 1/1 or more was defined as a positive diagnosis of silicosis. The sensitivity values were 0.393, 0.371, and 0.236, and the specificity values were 0.987, 0.965, and 0.978, for three readers, respectively. The sensitivity of the readers improved with increasing degree of autopsy silicosis, but a large proportion of those with a moderate and marked degree os silicosis were not diagnosed radiologically. The diagnostic sensitivity of the radiological test could be improved by using category 0/1 as a cutoff point for workers exposed to a high average concentration of respirable silica dust. The diagnostic specificity of radiology could be improved by using category 1/0 or 1/1 as a cutoff point for a positive diagnosis for workers exposed to a low average concentration of respirable silica dust.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.427-445. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-905 Pham Q.T., Caillier I., Chau N., Téculescu D., Patris A., Trombert B.
Mortality study of the iron miners of the Lorraine basin
La mortalité des mineurs de fer du Bassin de Lorraine [en francés]
The whole population of iron miners (still working or retired) of the Lorraine basin (France) who were alive on 1 January 1982 (13,801 subjects) were followed up until 31/12/86. During this 5-year period, 1,813 deaths were observed. Calculation of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with the Lorraine male population as standard population showed a global excess mortality (SMR=145) mainly due to lung cancer (SMR=244), stomach cancer (SMR=248) and chronic non-specific lung diseases (C.N.S.L.D.) (SMR=461). Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases and cirrhosis and liver diseases were also increased (respectively SMR=144 and SMR=149). Mortality from cardiovascular disease was similar to the reference population (SMR=104). Smoking habits, higher than in the general population, would explain only a small part (relative risk equal to 1.20) of the excess mortality from lung cancer and from C.N.S.L.D.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.391-396. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 94-596
Health and Safety Executive
The Coal Mines (Owner's Operating Rules) Regulations 1993 - Guidance on Regulations
These Regulations apply to all coal mines and require the owner of the mine to ensure that the mine is not worked unless there are in force owner's operating rules which are suitable for that mine. The full text of the Regulations is reproduced followed by guidance on the content of the operating rules presented in the form of model rules. These cover the ventilation of blind ends, mine fires (fire fighting, underground belt conveyors, fire precautions in winding engine houses, training in the use of a self-rescuer) and frictional ignition.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 34p. Price: GBP 5.50.

CIS 94-708
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of belt conveyors in mines. Topic report
This report examines and reviews the safety of belt conveyor operations and recommends where safety could be improved. While accident analysis is based on the use of belt conveyors below ground in coal mines, the majority of the recommendations are applicable to other uses. Contents: use of belt conveyors in coal mines; legislation and British Coal Corporation standards; review of accidents and dangerous occurrences (including statistics for the period 1986-1991); specific hazards (man-riding hazards, nip-point hazards, stored energy); training; conclusions and recommendations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. 43p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 12.50.

CIS 94-671
Health and Safety Commission
Explosives at coal and other safety-lamp mines. Coal and Other Safety-Lamp Mines (Explosives) Regulations 1993. Approved Code of Practice
This Code of Practice gives practical guidance with respect to the Coal and Other Safety-lamp Mines (Explosives) Regulations 1993 and to sections 2-4 and 7 of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 in so far as they relate to explosives at coal and other safety-lamp mines. Contents: interpretation and applications; appointment of shotfirers and trainee shotfirers; materials and equipment; safety and security of explosives and detonators (handling and use, manager's duties, movement of explosives/detonators, control of explosives/detonators and their containers); shotfiring procedures; application to barriers; general provisions.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. vi, 48p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.50.

CIS 94-242
Health and Safety Commission
First aid at mines. Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981. Approved Code of Practice [United Kingdom]
This Code of Practice gives practical guidance on the requirements of the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 (see CIS 91-11) as they apply to mines. Contents: interpretation; duty of employer to make provision for first-aid and to inform his employees of the arrangements made in connection with first aid; duty of self-employed person to provide first-aid equipment; cases where these regulations do not apply; application to mines and application offshore.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 11p. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 94-223 Kusiak R.A., Ritchie A.C., Springer J., Muller J.
Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners
A rather surprising excess mortality from stomach cancer was observed in gold miners in Ontario (Canada) in a retrospective cohort study of all miners in the province having attended compulsory chest clinics since 1928 (104 cases, SMR=152, 95% CI=125-185). Detailed exposure records and statistical analysis suggest that the probable causative agent is chromium-containing dust in gold mines, rather than, for example, arsenic or mineral fibres.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.117-126. 28 ref.

CIS 94-250 Eisner H.S.
Safety rating systems in South African mines
This paper follows up a critical review published in 1988 of safety rating systems applied to South African mining. It is shown that there is no evidence to support claims that any of the systems themselves were responsible for the continuing decline of injury and fatality rates particularly in gold mining. South African mines have largely abandoned the International Safety Rating Scheme in favour of systems of their own and without star awards. Based on this experience, suggestions are made for the beneficial application of such systems to mining and other industries.
Journal of Health and Safety, Sep. 1993, No.9, p.25-30. 11 ref.

CIS 94-263 Carr T.L., Mayne J.
Commission of the European Communities
Final report on the second research programme "Safety in mines"
Abschlussbericht über das zweite Forschungsprogramm "Betriebssicherheit im Bergbau" [en alemán]
Summary presentation of research projects conducted within the EEC on mine safety. The projects are classified according to the following main areas: accidents (incl. noise); fires; explosions; rescue; monitoring, communication, automation and remote control; transport; electricity; materials technology; working methods; rock and gas outbursts; surface operations. A separate section surveys the research proposals conducted by the First Joint Research Programme on Safety in the ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community) Industries. The Final Report of the first research programme (1976-1981) was abstracted under CIS 88-510.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1993. 175p. Illus. Price: ECU 20.00.

CIS 94-146 MSHA's guide to equipment guarding for metal and nonmetal mining
Safety guide to machine guarding in the mining industry.
Mine Safety and Health Administration, Ballston Towers #3, 4015 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22203, USA, 1992. 32p. Illus.

CIS 94-324 Murray J., Reid G., Kielkowski D., de Beer M.
Cor pulmonale and silicosis: A necropsy based case-control study
The presence of cor pulmonale at death in relation to other factors such as emphysema, silicosis, and thromboembolism was analyzed in a case-control study of 732 South African gold miners. Marked emphysema was the highest risk factor with an odds ratio of 21.32 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.02-90.7), then extensive silicosis (OR 4.95, 95% CI 2.92-8.38) and thromboembolic disease (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.37-2.69). Age and smoking were not significant predictors of cor pulmonale.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.544-548. 28 ref.

CIS 94-277 Chen R.I., Wei L., Huang H.
Mortality from lung cancer among copper miners
A cohort mortality study of lung cancer in 7088 copper miners was made from 1 January 1969 to 31 December 1988. There was an excess of deaths from lung cancer. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 147 (p<0.01). The SMR increased with calendar period. There was a higher risk of deaths from lung cancer in the miners employed in the 1950s. Age at the start of exposure had no effect on the risk of lung cancer. The risk of death from lung cancer increased with the duration of exposure and the time since first exposure. The SMR for lung cancer was 173 in underground miners and 193 for drilling miners (both p<0.01). These data show that exposure to dust is associated with an excess of deaths from lung cancer in copper miners whereas exposure to radiation does not seem to carry such risk.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.505-509. 16 ref.

CIS 93-1828
Health and Safety Executive
Dust in quarries
Videotape on the health hazards associated with exposure to dust in quarries, and on the means of prevention.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby, West Yorkshire, LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1993. Videotape (18min; VHS all colour standards). Price: GBP 95.00.

CIS 93-2071 Fegan D., Glennon J.
Malaria prophylaxis in long-term expatriate mine workers in Ghana
The role of malaria chemoprophylaxis for long-term expatriates has not been re-evaluated since the emergence of widespread multidrug resistance. A survey of 106 expatriates working in a mine in Ghana (holoendemic for malaria) was conducted to determine the compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis. Overall 64 per cent took regular chemoprophylaxis. Of the long-term expatriates (5 or more years in areas with holoendemic malaria), 48.4 per cent either took malaria prophylaxis very irregularly or not at all. The main reasons for failing to comply were fear of long-term side effects and conflicting advice on prophylaxis. This reluctance to take long-term chemoprophylaxis highlights the need to re-emphasise the importance of anti-mosquito measures, prompt treatment of fevers, and perhaps consider abandoning chemoprophylaxis in those expatriate workers with ready access to hospital care.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.135-138. 17 ref.

CIS 93-1902 Lee T., Anderson C., Kraus J.F.
Acute traumatic injuries in underground bituminous coal miners
Using injury information from the 1986 Mine Safety and Health Administration database, and demographic information from a 1986 sample survey of the miner population, acute traumatic injury rates for male workers in underground bituminous coal mines were computed by age, current job experience, and total mine work experience. Three groups of workers assessed in this study showed the highest injury rates: workers aged 15-30 years; workers with between two and three years of experience; and workers with 10 or more years of experience in the current job. Injury rates decline with age in each time-interval of current job category and each total mine working experience category. Experience by itself does not appear to be related to lower injury rates independent of age, which is paradoxical. The interaction of worker age with length of current or total mining experience is complex. The potential for catastrophic multiple fatalities and severe injuries suggests that additional work is needed to study, simultaneously, factors such as training and job task, and those that describe specific work exposures and mining hazards.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.23, No.3, p.407-415. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 93-1682 Kolesov O.A., Busygin K.K., Mnuhin A.G.
Some aspects of the investigation of the reasons for the accident in the Suhodol'skaja-vostočnaja mine
Nekotorye aspekty rassledovanija pričin avarii na šahte "Suhodol'skaja-vostočnaja" [en ruso]
An explosion of methane and coal dust in the Sudohol'skaja-vostočnaja mine in Ukraine on 9 June 1992 injured 112 persons, 59 of them fatally; four rescue workers were also killed. Inadequate air flow in a ventilation tunnel under construction allowed methane to build up. Faulty insulation on a power cable and a disabled safety device allowed an electric discharge to occur and detonate the gas. The explosion propagated widely because dust control measures were not properly implemented and coal dust concentrations had been allowed to reach dangerous levels. The investigation revealed many violations of rules and regulations in addition to the immediate causes of the accident.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Jan. 1993, No.1, p.2-7. Illus.

CIS 93-1411 Law No.48 of 1993 concerning mining, incorporating application ordinance No.203/1998 (19 Dec.) [Hungary]
1993. évi XLVIII. törvény a bányászatról, egységes szerkezetben a végrehajtásáról szóló 203/1998. (XII. 19.) Korm. rendelettel [en húngaro]
This Law (adopted 20 Apr. 1993, effective 20 May 1993) concerns the regulation of mining activities, including research and production of geothermal energy, and the building and operation of oil and natural gas pipelines. Among its provisions: the granting of mining concessions; the establishment of safety zones around mining establishments; operation of mines according to safety regulations; notification of serious accidents and incidents to the competent authority; role of the Mining Inspectorate. The application ordinance repeals the previous application ordinance No.115/1993 (se CIS 95-1562).
Magyar Közlöny, 13 May 1993, No.61, p.3345-3357.
http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99300048.TV [en húngaro]

CIS 93-1071 Health and Safety - The Mines (Shafts and Winding) Regulations 1993 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations concern the safe installation and use of shafts and winding apparatus in mines.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. 15p. Price: GBP 3.20.

CIS 93-1008 Tomášek L., Darby S.C., Swerdlow A.J., Plaček V., Kunz E.
Radon exposure and cancers other than lung cancer among uranium miners in West Bohemia
Report on a site-specific cancer mortality study of 4,320 uranium miners in Western Bohemia (Czech Republic), who have been followed up for an average of 25 years, and among whom a 4-fold radon-related excess of lung cancer had already been established. For all cancers other than lung cancer the number of deaths was slightly greater than expected from national rates, but the increase was not statistically significant (O/E 1.11, 95% CI=0.98-1.24). There was no relationship between mortality on one hand, and duration of employment underground and cumulative radon (Rn) exposure on the other. There was a significant increase (unrelated to cumulative Rn exposure) in non-lung cancer mortality among men who started mining work aged under 25. Of the 28 site-specific cancers examined, significant increases were found for cancers of the liver (O/E=1.67) and gallbladder and extrahepatic bileducts (O/E=2.26, related to cumulative Rn exposure). There were no significant increases in overall mortality from multiple myeloma (O/E=1.08) and leukaemia (O/E=0.91), but mortality from these causes increased with cumulative Rn exposure and increased employment duration, respectively. Further research is needed to confirm any association between Rn exposure and cancers other than lung cancer.
Lancet, 10 Apr. 1993, Vol.341, No.8850, p.919-923. 30 ref.

CIS 93-882
Health and Safety Executive
Belt and braces (Quarry vehicle safety)
This booklet covers two major factors which contribute to many quarry vehicle accidents: inadequate vehicle brakes and lack of safety banks or barriers. Examples are given of accidents caused by these factors along with guidance on brake testing and maintenance and the construction of safety banks and barriers. Other important safety factors include the use of seatbelts and driver training and assessment.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 16p. Illus.

CIS 93-619 Câmara V.M.
World Health Organization (OMS)
Mercury in areas of gold mining settlement
Mercúrio em áreas de garimpos de ouro [en portugués]
Contents of this study of the mercury (Hg) contamination problem in gold mining areas of Brazil: epidemiologic monitoring of gold mining areas; work processes involved in gold mining and related health hazards (particularly due to exposure to Hg); Hg in the environment and its hazards for man (Hg in the air, in the soil and in water); information on gold miners relevant to the development of epidemiologic monitoring (distribution of the mining population, migratory movements, original occupation, educational level, work organisation, use of pollution control equipment); effects of Hg on man and diagnostic methods (symptoms of acute and chronic Hg poisoning, diagnosis, treatment, medical questionnaire given to miners exposed to Hg); methods for collecting blood, urine and hair samples for purposes of measuring Hg levels in the body; environmental monitoring for Hg (in fish, soil, sediments, water); basics of atmospheric monitoring of Hg; laboratory measurements; control of Hg contamination in gold mining areas; development of programmes for the health training of workers; the health dimension in environmental impact studies.
Centro Panamericano de Ecologia Humana e Saúde (ECO), Apartado Postal 37-473, 06696 México D.F., Mexico, 1993. xix, 164p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

1992

CIS 07-1097 Seguridad y salud en las minas a cielo abierto
Lutian kuangshan anquan yu weisheng: shiyong guicheng [en chino]
Esta guía de directivas prácticas de la OIT es la traducción al chino del documento referenciado en CIS 92-175 y trata de la seguridad y la salud en las minas a cielo abierto. En el sumario: disposiciones y obligaciones generales; formación; maquinaria y otros dispositivos mecánicos; material eléctrico; construcciones y estructuras de superficie; escombreras; diques de escombros y balsas de decantación; prevención de incendios y lucha contra el fuego; explosivos y voladuras; perforaciones; excavaciones y carga; dragas y otras instalaciones flotantes; transporte y manutención; grúas móviles y carretillas elevadoras; riesgos del medio laboral y protección del medio ambiente; primeros auxilios y servicios médicos; registro y declaración de los accidentes; enfermedades sometidas a declaración e incidentes peligrosos; consultas sobre cuestiones de seguridad y salud en el trabajo; ropas y equipos de protección; disposiciones diversas (consignas generales de conducción, empleo de trabajadores que hablan lenguas diferentes; admisión de personas extranjeras en la mina; señalización de seguridad)
China Labor Press, Beijing, China, 1992. iv, 92p.
07-1097.pdf [en chino]

CIS 98-1087 Ley relativa a las minas de carbón subterráneas - Actualización a 1992 [China]
Underground coal mine safety regulations - Revised as of 1992 [China] [en inglés]
Temas tratados: aireación; metano; China; electricidad; explosivos; explotaciones mineras de carbón; gas grisú; industrias extractivas; inyección de agua; legislación; minas de hulla; perforación de pozos; primeros auxilios; protección contra incendios; tiro de minas; trabajos subterráneos; transporte interior; ventilación artificial.
Ministry of Energy, China. 1992. 367p.
98-1087.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 98-377 Ley de 7 de noviembre de 1992 de la República Popular China sobre seguridad en las minas [China]
Law of 7 Nov. 1992 of the People's Republic of China on Safety in Mines [China] [en inglés]
Temas tratados: China; electricidad; función de la dirección; formación para la prevención; industrias extractivas; inspección; investigación post-accidente; legislación; mantenimiento preventivo; minas; organización de la prevención; primeros auxilios; responsabilidades de los empresarios; responsabilidades de los trabajadores; riesgos de explosión; salvamento en las minas; sanciones; seguridad e higiene del trabajo; ventilación; verificaciones de seguridad.
Ministère du travail, Bureau de surveillance de la sécurité et de la santé dans les mines, Beijing, China, 25 dic. 1992. 9p. (inglés); 12p. (chino). Con CIS.
98-377zh.pdf [en chino]
98-377en.pdf [en inglés]

CIS 95-1779 Müller K.M., Weigt-Weber B., Fischer M., Marmulla W.
Las afecciones pleurales debidas al amianto alcanzan también a los mineros
Asbestbedingte Pleura-Erkrankungen auch bei Bergleuten [en alemán]
En el transcurso de los últimos cinco años se observó un creciente número de casos de mesotelioma pleural entre los mineros y trabajadores de las fábricas de coque de la región del Ruln (Alemania). Sobre un total de 89 casos, 17 permanecen en fase de investigación. En 33 casos se confirmó el carácter profesional de la exposición al amianto. Los forros de los frenos del material de transporte, los revestimientos aislantes de los hornos de coque y los trabajos de soldadura constituían las fuentes de exposición al amianto más importantes.
Kompass, ago. 1992. vol.102, n°8, p.373-375. Ilus. 6 ref.

CIS 95-1828 Revell N.
Incendios subterráneos e igniciones por fricción
Underground fires and frictional ignitions [en inglés]
Se describen las circunstancias que rodearon un incendio en una mina de carbón en Escocia en 1959. El fuego se originó en la correa de transmisión de un ventilador reforzador de la circulación, y se extendió al techo y los soportes de madera; murieron 47 trabajadores. En este documento se recogen las medidas adoptadas y las recomendaciones propuestas tras el desastre. Se analizan los datos estadísticos sobre igniciones e incendios sobrevenidos durante los últimos años, junto a comentarios sobre los métodos utilizados para detectar el fuego y controlar el ambiente de trabajo. Se estudian las causas de los incendios y las propuestas sobre los sistemas de depuración del carbón y el diseño de la maquinaria para reducir el riesgo de ignición del cuarzo y la pirita por fricción.
Mining Engineer, mayo 1992, vol.151, n°368, p.299-307. Ilus. 13 ref.

CIS 95-606 Caxarla C., da Costa F.
Análisis de los accidentes de trabajo en la industria extractiva
Análise dos acidentes de trabalho no sector extractivo (1987-1991) [en portugués]
Análisis de unos 6.000 accidentes de trabajo aproximadamente ocurridos en la industria extractiva en Portugal entre 1987 y 1991. Principales parámetros estudiados: tipo de extracción (mina de superficie o subterránea); consecuencias (accidente con o sin parada de trabajo); número total de jornadas de trabajo perdidas; índices de frecuencia y gravedad; causas técnicas; lugar del accidente; tipo de operación en curso en el momento del accidente; localización de la lesión; hora del accidente
Sindicato Democrático das Minas e Afins (SINDEMINAS), [Lisboa], Portugal, 1992. 26p. Ilus.

CIS 95-605 Seguridad, higiene y salud en las minas
Safety, hygiene and health in mining [en inglés]
Actas de un coloquio sobre seguridad, higiene y salud en las minas, celebrado en Harrogate en el Reino Unido del 18 al 20 de noviembre de 1992. El tomo 1 reúne las comunicaciones técnicas agrupadas en los siguientes apartados: revisión de la seguridad, higiene y salud en las minas; legislación minera, formación y educación; higiene y salud (reglamentación británica de seguridad en las minas de carbón (COSHH), ergonomía, alteraciones respiratorias, partículas emitidas por los motores diesel); riesgos y peligros específicos de la industria minera (explosiones, incendios subterráneos, grisú); gestión de la salud y la seguridad en diversas empresas; recientes accidentes mayores no asociados a la actividad minera, avances modernos; tendencias internacionales. El tomo 2 contiene los comentarios sobre estas comunicaciones, y tres comunicaciones suplementarias.
The Institution of Mining Engineers, Danum House, South Parade, Doncaster DN1 2DY, Reino Unido, 1992. 2 vol. (xii + 334 + 176p.). Ilus. Ref.bibl. Precio: GBP 90,00.

CIS 95-316 Bolm-Audorff U.
Se sospecha después de mucho tiempo: el trabajo en las minas de uranio lleva aparejados riesgos para la salud
Verdacht gab es schon lange - Gesundheitsgefahren im Uranbergbau [en alemán]
Tras la reunificación de Alemania, se ha comprobado que 5.237 mineros de uranio de Aue en Saxe, en la ex-República Democrática de Alemania, habían fallecido por cáncer de pulmón desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La dosis acumulativa de exposición se ha establecido a partir de estudios realizados en las minas de uranio de Estados Unidos y, sobre todo, de la antigua Checoeslovaquia. Se ha recomendado indemnizar a todos los futuros cánceres de pulmón que puedan aparecer entre cualquiera de los 50.000 trabajadores de las minas de uranio de la ex-Alemania del Este.
Sicher ist Sicher, nov. 1992, vol.43, n°11, p.624-628. Ilus.

CIS 94-758 Council Directive 92/104/EEC of 3 December 1992 on the minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers in surface and underground mineral-extracting industries (twelfth individual directive within the meaning of article 16 of Directive 89/391/EEC)[European Communities]
Directive 92/104/CEE du Conseil, du 3 décembre 1992, concernant les prescriptions minimales visant à améliorer la protection... des travailleurs des industries extractives à ciel ouvert ou souterraines (12e directive... au sens de l'art. 16... de la dir. 89/391/CEE) [Communautés européennes] [en francés]
This directive states the rules that should be implemented as a minimum in the EC Member States' regulations concerning mines and quarries. More strict rules may be implemented, if the Member States wish to do so. Main topics: general provisions, employers obligations, protection from fire, explosions and health-endangering atmospheres, escape and rescue facilities, communication, warning and alarm systems, informing workers, health surveillance, workers' participation, minimum requirements for safety and health, adaptation procedures of the directive. Mineral extraction by dredging is not subject to this directive. Minimum safety and health requirements are outlined in an annex.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Dec. 1992, Vol.35, No.L.404, p.10-25.

CIS 94-278 Ng T.P., Phoon W.H., Lee H.S., Ng Y.L., Tan K.T.
An epidemiological survey of respiratory morbidity among granite quarry workers in Singapore: Chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment
Respiratory symptoms of chronic bronchitis and measurements of lung function were studied in all workers currently employed in granite quarries in Singapore. Highly exposed rock drilling and crushing workers showed a greater prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm and a mean reduction of 5% in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Similar results were obtained after excluding those with silicosis. The study indicates a demonstrable risk of occupational bronchitis and obstructive and restrictive lung function impairment, apart from the well known risk of silicosis.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, May 1992, Vol.21, No.3, p.312-317. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-245 Ng T.P., Phoon W.H., Lee H.S., Ng Y.L., Tan K.T.
An epidemiological survey of respiratory morbidity among granite quarry workers in Singapore: Radiological abnormalities
The prevalence of radiological abnormalities among 219 quarry workers was estimated according to a number of parameters of dust exposure. Silicosis was noted in eleven subjects. The prevalence of silicosis was 12.5% in highly exposed drilling and crushing workers, and 0.8% in maintenance and transportation workers with low level exposure to granite dust. No cases of silicosis were noted in any quarry worker first exposed to granite dust after the introduction of control measures in 1979. It is concluded that reduction in dust exposure since 1979 has so far been successful in producing nil or negligible risks of silicosis among active quarry workers over ten years.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, May 1992, Vol.21, No.3, p.305-311. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 94-265 A guide to miners' rights and responsibilities under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977
Guide to the rights and safety responsibilities of coal miners as defined by the US Mine Safety and Health Act (see CIS 91-14). Main topics covered: legal rights of miners (protection against discrimination; enforcement of the Act; safety and health training; health protection; new and revised standards; access to information); legal responsibilities (prohibition of smoking; penalties for making false statements and false representations). In annex: addresses and telephone numbers of federal agencies dealing with mine safety (principally the MSHA).
Mine Safety and Health Administration, Ballston Towers #3, 4015 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22203, USA, 1992. 34p. Illus.

CIS 94-145 Stockpiling safety
This training manual deals with the safe operation of mobile equipment on and around surface stockpiles of material awaiting shipping and processing. It discusses the hazards associated with stockpiles and reviews the procedures that can be used to minimize the occurrence of accidents. Main topics discussed: accidents involving mobile equipment and stockpiles; job experience; drug and alcohol abuse; seat belts; stockpiling techniques; removal of material from the base of a stockpile ("loading out at the toe"); slope instability; problems specific to equipment type (haulage trucks, front-end loaders, dozers, scrapers, trucks); working on foot.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1992. 58p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 94-323 Greskevitch M.F., Turk A.R., Dieffenbach A.L., Roman J.M., Groce D.W., Hearl F.J.
Quartz analyses of the bulk dust samples collected by the National Occupational Health Survey of Mining
The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed 491 mines across the country during the National Occupational Health Survey of Mining (1984-89). The aim of the survey was to inventory and characterize all of the health-related agents to which US miners are potentially exposed. This report presents the potential exposure data for quartz measured in bulk dust samples. The bulk dust samples that were analyzed from the 491 mines yielded an average 14% of quartz. Surface labourers in coal mine occupations and bin pulley/truck loader workers in metal/non-metal occupations were potentially exposed to bulk dust containing the highest average percentage quartz (19% and 33%, respectively) compared to other occupations. The highest average percentage quartz (22%) was found in surface pit coal mines. Out of 272,000 miners represented in the study, 78,000 (29%) were potentially exposed to bulk dust containing an average of quartz greater than 12%.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1992, Vol.7, No.8, p.527-531. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 94-306 Cooper W.C., Wong O., Trent L.S., Harris F.
An updated study of taconite miners and millers exposed to silica and non-asbestiform amphiboles
This is the second update (for a first update, see CIS 94-305) of a study of 3,444 taconite miners and millers who were first exposed to taconite, with associated exposures to silica and non-asbestiform amphiboles, from 1947 through 1958. Previous analyses of deaths through 1977, and again through 1983, showed no significant excess deaths from any specific causes. The present study continues the follow-up through 1988. The total number of deaths was significantly fewer than expected. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 83 and 91, based on US and Minnesota death rates, respectively. In no instance were there any patterns suggesting work exposures being associated with causes of death. The study, in which the minimum potential latency period was 30 years, provided no evidence for any association between low-level exposures to non-asbestiform amphibole particles or quartz with either lung cancer, non-malignant respiratory disease or any other specific cause.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.34, No.12, p.1173-1180. 33 ref.

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