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  • Inorganic substances

1971

CIS 89-1808 Sulfuric acid
Kwas siarkowy [en polonés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 0.1mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.

CIS 89-1805 Sodium hydroxide
Wodorotlenek sodowy [en polonés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 0.5mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.

CIS 89-1791 Hydrogen sulfide
Siarkowodór [en polonés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 10mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.

CIS 89-1773 Ammonium nitrate
Azotan amonowy [en polonés]
Chemical safety information sheet.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.

CIS 89-1772 Ammonia
Ammoniak [en polonés]
Chemical safety information sheet. Permissible exposure limit (Poland) = 20mg/m3.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, 1 Ul. Tamka, 00-349 Warszawa 30, Poland, 1971. 2p.

CIS 74-821
Health and Safety at Work Series, No.27, Department of Employment, London.
Precautions in the use of nitrate salt baths.
This booklet, based mainly on the experience of factory inspectors, describes the following hazards: explosions due to physical and chemical reactions; fires due to contact of molten salt with combustible materials; burns; gassing from nitrous fumes. The precautions necessary to prevent injury due to the above hazards are described and include: strict care in the use of water near baths; use of dry sand or powder-type extinguishers; avoidance of entrapped air in hollow work being treated; supervision and care in storage and use of carbonaceous materials; removal of loose oxide scale from the bottom of the bath; avoidance of overheating and hot spots; consideration of the reaction between the molten nitrate, the steel bath and other metals; use of temperature controllers; systematic bath maintenance; protective clothing for workers.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1971. 16p. Illus. Price: £0.15.

CIS 74-50
General Commission for Safety and Health in the Iron and Steel Industry, General Directorate for Social Affairs, Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Oxygen - Design, construction, layout and operation of elements and fittings of oxygen installations
Oxygène - La conception, la construction, l'implantation et l'exploitation des organes des installations. [en francés]
Synthesis of the reports on cut-off and regulating devices (CIS 2166-1971, Coya Hgul Hguy) and connections (CIS 2165-1971, Coya Hgul Hxaz), bringing up-to-date the results of those reports. Recalls the hazards of oxygen piping, and studies the phenomenon of spontaneous combustion and causes of ignition. Detailed recommendations for the design and construction of piping, valves and other fittings, the use of metals and plastics, and the layout, assembly, installation and operation of these elements. There are specific indications concernig various types of valves, filters and connections.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2 Place de Metz, Luxembourg, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 1971. 35p. Gratis.

CIS 72-2661 Ozata K., Sugiyama Y., Ochiai A.
Gases produced during CO2 gas-shielded metal-arc welding.
Following complaints of eye, nose and throat irritation, headache and cough from CO2 gas-shielded metal-arc welders, measurements were made during welding to determine ultraviolet radiation levels and concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxide contamination. Ozone and nitrogen oxide levels were high near the arc but relatively low at a distance of 50cm from the arc. It is considered that the contaminant levels are similar to those found in argon-arc welding. The authors conclude that ozone was the main cause of the welders' complaints.
Journal of Labour Hygiene in the Iron and Steel Industry - Tekko Rōdō Eisei, Aug. 1971, Vol.20, No.3, p.136-139. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 72-2694 Coates E.O., Watson J.H.L.
Diffuse interstitial lung disease in tungsten carbide workers.
Case reports are given of 12 persons employed in the manufacture or grinding of tungsten carbide who developed a progressive diffuse interstitial pneumonia, characterised clinically by non-productive cough and by dyspnoea on exertion. Lung tissue examined by light microscopy in 8 patients and by electron microscopy in 1 showed interstitial infiltrates of mononuclear and mast cells, desquamated hystiocytes in the alveoli, and various amounts of interstitial fibrosis; 8 of the patients died. Details are given on observation of 5 additional subjects with episodic cough related to carbide dust exposure but without roentgen abnormalities. The disease is a pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of finely powdered cobalt in the carbide formulation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, Nov. 1971, Vol.75, p.709-716. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 72-2723 Accidental mixing of incompatible chemicals, followed by multiple fatalities, during a bulk delivery
During the transfer of bulk liquid sodium hydrosulfide from a tank truck to a tannery storage tank, the transfer hose was erroneously connected to an open vat containing a tanning liquor. Hydrogen sulfide was released when the chemicals reacted, and 12 tannery workers were overcome by the toxic gas; 6 died as a result of the accident. The investigation pointed to a failure in communications between the truck driver and the tannery foreman, to a lack of instructions, and to the need for adequate labelling in order to ensure clear identification of the chemicals involved by all parties concerned.
National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C. 20591, USA, 26 Aug. 1971. 9p. (Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151, USA. Accession No.PB.203402).

CIS 72-2722
Committee on Toxicology, National Academy of Sciences
Guides for short-term exposure of the public to air pollutants - II. Guide for hydrogen chloride
On the basis of a review of the documentation available as regards single or intermittent brief exposures to hydrogen chloride, the Committee has established a series of exposure limits applicable to short-term public exposures (from 10 to 60min and over) and to public emergency exposures (10 to 60min). The analytical methods available for the determination of HCl in air are briefly discussed.
National Research Council, Washington D.C. 20418, USA, Aug. 1971. 10p. 31 ref.

CIS 72-2626 Tušl M., Kaut V., Švorcová Š.
Organic effects of low concentrations of nitrogen oxides
K problému vlivu malých koncentrací kysličníků dusíku na organismus [en checo]
A review of animal experiments showing that NO2 concentrations not exceeding 2.5ppm may, under chronic exposure conditions, produce local reactions (pulmonary tissue irritation) and general reactions (increase in the free amino acid level in the blood, in the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes, and in spleen weight); some of these reactions reach a maximal level during the fourth or fifth week of exposure. These observations were confirmed by a fall-off in physical strength.
Lékařské zprávy, 1971, Vol.16, No.7-8, p.155-161. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 72-2687 Qazi Q.H., Madahar D.P.
Simple rapid test for lead poisoning
A description of a lead poisoning test suitable for mass screening which utilises the phenomenon of increased osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in lead poisoning and could be used for the detection of increased lead burden. Preliminary observations suggest that the test can identify more than 85% of persons with blood lead levels of 0.06mg/100mL or higher, and a larger percentage of persons with blood levels of 0.09mg/100mL and higher. The test is rapid, simple to perform, requires only 0.04mL of blood, and utilises reagents and equipment available in almost any laboratory.
Journal of Pediatrics, Nov. 1971, Vol.79, No.5, p.805-808. 9 ref.

CIS 73-137 Kuljak S., Stern P.
Protective effects of glutathione and xanthinol nicotinate against carbon disulphide poisoning in the mouse
Experiments with mice, which received 100mg glutathione per kg body weight and were then exposed to carbon disulfide inhalation at the acute LD50, showed that glutathione has a protective action. The same dose of xanthionol nicotinate, administered under similar conditions provided protection against the effects of CS2 inhalation. The mechanism of protective action for each substance is discussed and the differences highlighted.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.2, p.137-142. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 73-4 Kaufman S.L.
Investigation of tritiated luminous compounds
A study of the absorption and metabolism of various commercially available tritium-containing luminous compounds in the mammalian organism. Each compound was administered cutaneously to rats and gastrointestinally to cats. The absorption of the individual compounds via the cutaneous route varied from 0.10 to 8.83%, and from 0.67 to 21.55% via the gastrointestinal route. The data show a positive correlation between the relative absorptions of each compound through both routes. Tritium activity was eliminated in 2 components, a rapid one and a slower one.
Eastern Environmental Radiation Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency, Montgomery, ALA 36101, USA, June 1971. 14p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 73-139 Žarković G.
Health damage in workers exposed to high concentrations of arsenicals
Oštećenija kod radnika izloženih povišenoj koncentraciji arsenovih spojeva [en serbocroata]
158 ferrosilicon workers (with exposure to high arsine concentrations) and 152 gypsum-plant workers (control group) were examined for arsenic absorption; chemical analysis of urine, fingernails and hair revealed no differences. Analysis of medical findings showed no statistical difference between the 2 groups - except for a higher incidence of acute hepatitis in the arsenic-exposed group. The only significant difference was revealed by dermatological examination: arsenic-exposed workers suffered more from melanoderma, hyperkeratitis, leuco-melanoderma and nail changes.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1971, Vol.22, No.3, p.245-252. 9 ref.

CIS 73-204 Grozdev I.
Changes in the buccal cavity in workers exposed to cadmium compounds
Otnosno săstojanieto na ustnata kuhina u rabotešti v kontakt s kadmievi săedinenija [en búlgaro]
Symptoms found in certain structures of the buccal cavity are of great importance in the diagnosis of cadmium poisoning, in particular a golden yellow colouring of the teeth due to cadmium sulfide, and the cadmium line at the base of the incisors, which is considered a decisive early symptom. The author examined 47 workers (31 men and 16 women) employed in the cadmium department of a Bulgarian non-ferrous metals plant, aged 18-55 years (with up to 12 years' exposure). In most cases, the pathological processes were not specific either clinically or morphologically. Their great prevalence and their simultaneous appearance with other paraclinical divergencies confirmed the influence exerted by the toxic substance. The yellow cadmium line at the base of the teeth occurs on exposure to even small concentrations of cadmium at the workplace. For specific diagnosis, it is necessary to use hystochemical methods for detecting tissue cadmium.
Naučni trudove na NIOTPZ - Razdel uši-nos-gărlo i stomatologija, June 1971, Vol.18, p.267-271. 10 ref.

CIS 73-30 Essing H.G., Szadkowski D., Valentin H.
The significance of valency in chromium compounds when preparing expert medical opinions
Die Bedeutung der Valenzstufen von Chromverbindungen in der arbeitsmedizinischen Begutachtung [en alemán]
With reference to the literature, the author discusses the biological activity, general toxic potential, allergenicity and carcinogenicity of trivalent chromium compounds. Trivalent chromium ions can also be taken up by the body and produce disease and malignomata. Consequently it is not possible to dismiss a casual relationship between typical pathological signs and symptoms and occupational exposure to trivalent chromium compounds.
Der medizinische Sachverständige, Apr. 1971, Vol.67, No.3-4, p.35-39. 39 ref.

CIS 73-1072
Department of Labour
Factories (Lead Materials) Regulations, 1971 [Australia - Western Australia]
These regulations are applicable to factories in which lead processes are carried out and deal with: cleaning and washing of floors; use of wet methods or exhaust ventilation in the handling of lead dust; prevention of exposure to lead fume, vapour or dust in lead melting or in the assembly of lead accumulators; disposal of containers that have contained lead; provision of work clothing; prohibition of employment of women and persons under 16yrs of age; provision of a mess room, changing rooms and separate lockers for work and street clothing; provision of washing facilities and washing time; prohibition of smoking.
Government Gazette of Western Australia, 26 May 1971, No.40, p.1798-1800.

CIS 73-1021 Petrov M.S.
Instructions for planning heating and ventilation plant in lead-accumulator factories
Ukazanija po proektirovaniju otoplenija i ventiljacii zavodov svincovyh akkumuljatorov [en ruso]
Basic rules for the elimination of air pollutants in workplaces and the removal of gaseous emanations from accumulator factories, the planning and construction of industrial buildings, and the planning of production processes. Instructions for the heating and ventilation of workplaces (with table of local exhaust ventilation systems adapted to certain types of work), and for filtering and purifying intake air. Numerous diagrammes illustrating the principles of ventilation and exhaust systems are appended.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij Institut ohrany truda VCSPS, Leningrad, USSR, 1971. 56p. Illus.

1970

CIS 74-748
Health and Safety at Work Series, No.37, Department of Employment, London.
Liquid chlorine.
After referring briefly to the industrial uses, health hazards and threshold limit values of chlorine, the booklet sets out recommendations for precautionary measures in premises in which liquid chlorine is used or stored, covering supervision of operations, storage of cylinders and drums, stability of containers, opening and handling of cylinders, ventilation, pipe work, cylinder lifting tackle, discharge of tank cars, fire precautions, compressed air lines, leakages, breathing apparatus, first aid and treatment of persons affected by gassing. An appendix quotes the relevant statutory provisions in force in the United Kingdom.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1970. 16p. Illus. Price: £0.15.

1963

CIS 93-18 Hazardous Occupation Rules, 1963 [Pakistan]
These nine Regulations, issued under the authority of the Factories Act, 1934 (see CIS 93-14), prescribe medical certification and examinations, prevention activities (exhausts, washing facilities, protective clothing), prohibition of employment (women, young persons) and the issuing of certificates of fitness in the case of dangerous jobs involving exposure to certain substances (lead, rubber, chromium, sodium and potassium bichromates) and certain other dangerous operations (manufacturing of aerated waters, spraying of cellulose solutions, sand blasting, generation of petroleum gas). One of the Regulations, the West Pakistan Hazardous Occupations (Miscellaneous) Rules, 1963 specifies a large number of processes (manufacturing and/or utilisation of a large number of harmful or explosive substances) as hazardous under the meaning of the Rules, and it permits the Chief Inspector of Factories to declare other processes hazardous as well.
In: Labour Code of Pakistan (Shafi M.), Bureau of Labour Publications, Zam Zam Chambers, Dunolly Road, P.O. Box 5833, Karachi 2, Pakistan, 11th ed., 1986, p.300-321. Also in: Gazette of West Pakistan, Extr. 4 Sep. 1964, p.2835-.

1961

CIS 93-1419 Law No.706 of 19 July 1961 concerning the use of white lead in painting [Italy]
L. 19.7.1961, n.706 - Impiego della biacca nella pittura [en italiano]
This law prohibits in general the use in painting and varnishing of lead carbonate (white lead), lead sulfate and other pigments containing these substances. However, white paints with less than 2% Pb content may be used. Further provisions allow some derogations, but the employment of women and minors in the presence of lead carbonate is always prohibited, and special measures are foreseen for the labelling, handling and spraying of these substances, for their use in varnishing, for the provision of work clothes and personal protective equipment, and for the reporting of cases of lead poisoning and for medical surveillance.
In: Zucchetti R., Igiene del lavoro e prevenzione delle malattie professionali, Buffetti Editore, Via Sud Africa 29, 00144 Roma, Italy, 1987 (ISBN 88-19-48201-0, price: ITL 60,000), p.337-340. Also in: Gazzetta ufficiale, 9 Aug. 1961, No.197.

1950

CIS 92-1074 Ordinance on acetylene, oxygen and calcium carbide (of 28 Feb. 1950) [Switzerland]
Verordnung über Azetylen, Sauerstoff und Kalziumkarbid [en alemán]
Ordinanza concernente l'acetilene, l'ossigeno ed il carburo di calcio [en italiano]
Ordonnance concernant l'acétylène, l'oxygène et le carbure de calcium (du 28 fév. 1950) [Suisse] [en francés]
This ordinance (effective 1 Mar. 1950) applies to storage depots of calcium carbide, acetylene apparatus, installations where acetylene in solution is present, and installations where oxygen is used in conjunction with acetylene and other flammable gases. Its provisions concern: notification; requests for authorisation to use; installation requirements; requirements for safe storage and handling; acetylene and oxygen distribution pipes; functioning and maintenance of installations; regular safety checks. In insert: modification (Jan. 1982) authorising iron or steel cylinders of up to 40bars.
SUVA, Sektion Administration, Postfach 4358, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1985. 15p. + insert.

1946

CIS 94-299 Buckell M., Hunter D., Milton R., Perry K.M.A.
Chronic mercury poisoning
Reprint of a classic study of chronic mercury (Hg) poisoning in a thermometer workshop (72 workers) and a pharmaceutical factory where Hg compounds were manufactured (11 workers), originally published in the BJIM in 1946 (3:55-63). The symptoms of chronic mercury poisoning (erethism, tremor and stomatitis) are described. Only the thermometer makers seemed to be affected. Results of urine analysis and atmospheric sampling suggested that these workers must have absorbed ten times as much Hg in a day than could have been absorbed from the atmosphere. The additional route of entry is suggested to be either absorption through the skin or ingestion.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.98-106 (given as p.55-106). Illus. 27 ref.

1939

CIS 95-33 Directiva que modifica la Directiva relativa al diseño y utilización de recipientes transportables para gases comprimidos [Dinamarca]
Bekendtgørelse hvorved Socialministeriet......Ændring i Socialministeriels Bekendtgørelse Nr. 338 af 11. december 1935 om Indretningen og Brugen af transportable Beholdere for sammentrykkede, fordraabede eller under Tryk opløste Luftarter [en danés]
Directiva que señala los procesos a seguir para la purga de los depósitos de cloro a presión.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Dinamarca, 1939. 2p.

1931

CIS 91-1063 The White Lead Ordinance [Indonesia]
Undang-undang tentang timah putih [en indonesio]
Ordinance originally enacted by the Government of the Netherlands Indies. It bans the processing and, except when used for scientific or medical purposes, or when under special dispensation, the importation, storage or sale of white lead.
In: Labour Legislation in Indonesia, Department of Manpower, Jakarta, Indonesia, 1988, Vol.II, p.75 (Indonesian-language section), p.75 (English-language section). Also published in the State Gazette, No.509 of 1931.

1921

CIS 89-1765 Convenio 13 relativo al empleo de la cerusa en la pintura [OIT]
Convention 13 concerning the use of white lead in painting [ILO] [en inglés]
Convention 13 concernant l'emploi de la céruse dans la peinture [OIT] [en francés]
One of the first international instruments ever adopted in the field of occupational safety and health. The use of white lead and lead sulfate, and all products containing these pigments, in the internal painting of buildings is, except for derogations, prohibited. Even when permitted, minors and women are not allowed to do any painting work with these substances. The Convention also prescribes safety and hygiene rules to be applied when working with these substances.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1921. 4p.
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C013 (Convention 13) [en inglés]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convdf.pl?C013 (Convention 13) [en francés]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convds.pl?C013 (Convenio 13) [en español]

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