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Brunsz R., Bogusławaska M., Gadomska H., Gniewecki A., Sulej S.
Effects of television screen pulsation on visual performance
Badanie wpływu tętnienia światła ekranów telewizyjnych na pracę narządu wzroku [en polonés]
Visual performance at a television screen and at a screen emitting continuous lighting was compared with respect to precision and speed in locating gaps in Landoldt rings. Television screen pulsation reduced the precision and speed of performance after the 1st hour of work in relation to the control screen; this aggravation remained till the end of the experiment. The introduction of 5-minute breaks for relaxation improved the performance. It is recommended to limit the effective working time to 6 hours daily, to make relaxation breaks and to conduct ophthalmological examination of newly employed persons as well as routine examinations.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.132, p.15-27. 9 ref.
Visual display terminals and workers' health
The literature was reviewed and evaluated by a WHO working group. Eye and visual problems; musculoskeletal, stress-related, and skin disorders; and adverse reproductive outcomes were examined. Sections cover: guidelines and recommendations for work with VDTs, background material on the use of VDTs (features of work, health effects), and recommendations for further research.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1987. 206p. Illus. Bibl. Price: CHF 32.00.
Billette A., Piché J.
Health problems of data entry clerks and related job stressors
A questionnaire survey was made of 350 women clerks who worked either full or part time. The clerks have a high rate of occurrence of psychiatric symptoms (measured by the Ilfeld index) as well as a high degree of use of over-the-counter and prescription drugs. In addition, these two problems are more prevalent in full-time clerks than in part-time clerks. The psychiatric symptoms appear related to the combined influence of two main factors: work overload and the monotony of work specialisation. A third factor, the quality of human relations among workers in the pool, also seemed to affect the regular full-time clerks.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.29, No.12, p.942-948. 24 ref.
Work at visual display terminals - A current occupational hygiene issue - A one day course at the National Institute of Environmental Medicine [Sweden]
Bildskärmsarbete - En aktuell arbetsmiljöfråga - En utbildningsdag vid Statens Miljömedicinska Laboratorium [en sueco]
This course, held on 10 Feb. 1987 in Solna, Sweden, was designed for professionals of occupational health services and health care units of the Swedish national health service. Topics covered: basic technical information on VDUs; ergonomic aspects; principles to be pursued to achieve a high quality image on VDU screens; skin diseases which may be associated with VDU work; psychological and social aspects; pregnancy hazards related to VDU work; effects of electromagnetic fields; existing legislation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 158p. Illus. 111 ref.
Pantallas de visualización de datos - Profesiograma/Pantallas de visualización de datos - Profesiograma
The aim of this ergonomic study is to set up a model evaluation method for work with visual display terminals. Contents: description of different types of display terminals and of the necessary ergonomic requirements to be fulfilled; analysis of the workplace in order to establish its ergonomic description; description of the physical and mental requirements needed for this type of work; description of an aptitude test for operators. A review of possible health hazards related to work with display terminals is included.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1987, Vol.34, No.135, p.69-77. Illus. 7 ref.
Council on Scientific Affairs (American Medical Association)
Health effects of video display terminals
This report and literature survey covers the various health effects reported by users of video display terminals (VDTs): cataracts, reproductive disorders, facial dermatitis and epileptic reactions alleged to be related to radiation from VDTs; visual and musculoskeletal disorders connected with the ergonomics of VDT work; stress-related effects. The conclusion of the report is that no association has been found so far between radiation emissions from VDTs and reported reproductive and other disorders, that radiation levels from such equipment are well below presently accepted standards of exposure, that health effects are apt to be ergonomically related, and that the nature of the task may be more responsible for workers' symptoms than the equipment.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 20 Mar. 1987, Vol.257, No.11, p.1508-1512. 65 ref.
Fighting the radiation hazards of VDTs
La lutte aux radiations provenant des terminaux à écran cathodique [en francés]
This bulletin explains the various types of radiation possibly involved with VDTs. It describes procedures for testing the equipment, standards, research needs, avoiding the hazards and sources of information.
Canadian Labour Congress, 2841, Riverside Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1V 8X7, Canada, Jan. 1987. No.3. 14p.
Johnson B.L., Melius J.M., Hurlebaus A.J., Posner S.A.
NIOSH publications on video display terminals
This bibliography contains abstracts of approximately 75 books, reports, journal articles, and presentations along with a statement by the director of NIOSH and a review of the NIOSH studies and recommendations. Information for obtaining the originals is included.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, May 1987. 40p. 16 ref.
Occupational health and video display terminals (VDTs)
Information on VDTs is summarised and recommendations are given for workplaces. Discussed are: background on VDTs and associated complaints; radiation; effect on pregnancy; skin rashes; epilepsy; vision, muscle and joint problems; beneficial exercises for parts of the body; psychological stress.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Medical Services Branch, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Jan. 1987. 11p. 18 ref.
Körösné Mikis M.
Ergonomic aspects of the utilisation of school computers
Az iskola-számítógép használatának ergonómiai kérdései [en húngaro]
Primarily concerned with the use of microcomputers in schools, this article discusses the ergonomics of microcomputer use everywhere, including the work environment. Aspects covered: screen, keyboard, auxiliary equipment (printers, light pens, joystick, sound effects), software quality, appropriate interface.
Ergonómia, 1987, No.1, p.48-53. Illus. 6 ref.
Office health hazards: an annotated bibliography
The source of many office-related problems is the rapid proliferation of micro-computers in most organisations over the past few years. The present bibliography aims to guide the reader selectively into the literature on the problems of office work which may adversely affect employees' health arising from the technology used or the environment at work. The bibliography does not cover more generic problem areas which may currently be of interest, such as the problems of stress, except where these have been studied in relation to technology or environment. It covers the period 1980-1986, although earlier work is cited where this is seen as important. The literature covered is not exhaustive, but sufficient for the reader to appreciate the main issues.
Ergonomics, May 1987, Vol.30, No.5, p.733-772. 9 ref.
Occhipinti E., Colombini D., Menoni O., Molteni G., Grieco A.
Work postures and spinal changes in telephone operators who use visual display units
Posture di lavoro ed alterazioni del rachide in operatori telefonici addetti a videoterminale [en italiano]
A study of 213 telephone operators (working on VDUs) revealed incorrect sitting postures for most of them (due to the fact that they have to sit for long periods with the arms raised and unsupported) and a significantly higher than normal prevalence of degenerative alterations of the cervical, thoracic and lumbo-sacral regions of the spine. These results support the hypothesis that prolonged sitting postures at work constitute a risk factor for the spine.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1987, Vol.78, No.1, p.59-67. Illus. 21 ref.
Cail F., Floru R.
Computer terminal work and health - Recent bibliographical data
Travail sur terminal d'ordinateur et santé - Données bibliographiques récentes [en francés]
The increasing use of visual display units (VDUs) calls for an examination of the health risks faced by operators. This article is the result of a review of all the studies, researches and surveys which have been carried out to date on the subject. The main themes covered are risks during pregnancy, skin disorders, eyesight, musculoskeletal system disorders, stress. Findings in each of these topics are summarised. Judging by most recent data, the screen itself is not a threat to the health of the operator. However, using screens under unsatisfactory conditions does contribute to the onset of health problems.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1987, No.126, Note No.1613-126-87, p.33-46. Illus. 120 ref.
Special protective eyeglasses for VDU work
Lunettes spéciales (de protection) pour travaux sur écran de visualisation [en francés]
Medical thesis. Contents: dimensions of and lighting at VDU workstations; different types of screens; harmful radiation; physiology of the eye; subjective symptoms and sources of visual fatigue; visual insufficiency; problems of binocular vision; contraindications of VDU work; medical monitoring and ophthalmological examinations; use of eyeglasses or contact lenses to correct visual deficiencies in persons working with VDUs; types, advantages and cost of specially designed correcting glasses for this kind of work.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisière-Saint Louis, Paris, France, 1987. 77p. 42 réf.
MacKay Rossignol A., Pechter Morse E., Summers V.M., Pagnotto L.D.
Video display terminal use and reported health symptoms among Massachusetts clerical workers
Few well-controlled studies have assessed the extent and magnitude of adverse health conditions reported by video display terminal (VDT) operators. To evaluate the association between typical, daily VDT use and the prevalence of adverse conditions related to vision, musculoskeletal conditions, headaches, and colds or sore throats, a cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted of 1,545 Massachusetts clerical workers. The study results indicated an increased prevalence of adverse conditions pertaining to vision, musculoskeletal discomfort, and headaches among clerical workers who used VDTs. The magnitude of the increased prevalence was dose dependent. The effects related to musculoskeletal discomfort and headaches were higher among VDT workers in computer and data processing services, public utilities, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts than among workers in banking, communications, and hospitals. These latter effects, however, may have been due to random variation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1987, Vol.29, No.2, p.112-118. 23 ref.
Ergonomic guidelines for visual display terminals
Principes ergonomiques pour terminaux à écran de visualisation [en francés]
Guidelines aimed at the instruction and information of those involved in the assessment or planning of a workplace. Contents: introduction to ergonomics; worksite evaluation; workspace design; VDT screens; keyboards; work surfaces; seating; workspace adjustment; the visual, thermal and acoustic environments. The guidelines were produced by the largest Canadian telephone company, and are also available in French.
Info Pro (Bell Canada), 700, rue de La Gauchetière O, Bureau 16E2, Montreal, Quebec H3B 4L1, Canada, 1986. 1 Vol. Illus. 16 ref.
Lighting and work at display screens - Recommendations of the French Lighting Association
Eclairage et travail sur écrans de visualisation - Recommandations AFE [en francés]
Contents: ergonomics; medical and physiological aspects, and medical surveillance; lighting; the visual environment (Recommended values); examples of application of recommendations. In appendices: determination of limits for reflections that reduce the contrast of characters on the screen; measuring the luminance characteristics of display screens.
Lux Société d'éditions, 52, boulevard Malesherbes, 75008 Paris, France, 1986. 34p. Illus.
The Second International Scientific Meeting to examine the allegations of reproductive hazards from VDUs
Papers presented at a meeting held in London, (United Kingdom), 25-26 Nov. 1986. Some topics covered: epidemiology of the problem; review of proposed current and completed studies; VDU work and pregnancy outcome; electromagnetic radiation and VDUs; biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields; interpretation of scientific data; experience in the United Kingdom) of the Health and Safety Executive and the Trades Union Congress; counselling for VDU users.
Humane Technology, P.O. Box 2, Quorn, Leicestershire LE12 8EG, United Kingdom, 1986. 194p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 16.50 (Europe), GBP 18.00 (elsewhere).
Video display terminals and health - An appraisal of the state of the art
Bildskärmsarbete och hälsa - En utvärdering av kunskapsläget [en sueco]
This report evaluates recent research concerning the technical, occupational hygiene, safety and medical aspects of work with VDTs. It appears that the only specific problem which can be clearly related to work with VDTs is eye discomfort. The study is a revision and an update of a previous report. Video display terminals and health - A technical and medical appraisal of the state of the art, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Vol.10, Suppl.2, 1984 (CIS 85-1583). English language conclusions of a WHO Working Group on Occupational Health Aspects in the use of Visual Display Terminals are included in the text.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 231p. Illus. 247 ref.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Visual display unit workplaces: Emerging trends and problems
Postes de travail sur console de visualisation: perspectives de développement et problèmes [en francés]
Overview of research results into VDU work, written for decision makers in European Community institutions, governments, enterprises and trade unions. Contents: workplace design; the VDU workplace environment (lighting, noise, room climate, architectural design); work organisation; labour legislation factors; health effects of VDUs (physiological and psychological stresses, sociological effects, effects on skills); conclusions. Six research projects sponsored by the Foundation are summarised.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1986. 48p. Illus. Price: ECU 4.70; BEF 200; GBP 3.20; IEP 3.60; USD 5.00.
Ballarín Marcos L.
Evaluación de las condiciones de iluminación en puestos de trabajo
Descriptions of 2 procedures for the determination of lighting conditions at workplaces. The first concerns the measurement of illumination of desks intended for reading, writing or drawing (measurement of illumination, reflected light or luminance and luminous contrast or luminance ratios of the entire working surface). The second concerns CRT display terminals, where it is necessary not only to measure the illumination of the workplace, but also the luminosity ratios between the characters on the screen and the background, contrast in the areas of text and keyboard and the luminance ratios between screen and text, screen and keyboard, and text and keyboard.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1986, Vol.6, No.22, p.39-47. Illus. 8 ref.
Job design and VDU work: A one day conference
Six papers presented at a conference held in London (United Kingdom), 1 Oct. 1986. The role of government agencies, labour unions and systems suppliers is discussed.
Humane Technology, P.O. Box 2, Quorn LE1 28EG, Leicestershire, United Kingdom, 1986. 87p. Price: GBP 7.50 (Europe), GBP 9.00 (elsewhere).
Pérez Retuerta G., Alonso Castellanos E.M.
Salud laboral y pantallas de datos
Analysis of the health complaints of operators of CRT display terminals as registered in a Spanish statistical study from 1982 covering 554 operators, mainly bank employees. The statistics were compared to the findings of a similar investigation in the USA and to the personal professional experience of the authors. The health complaints studied were: eye problems (irritation, eye strain, troubles of vision), musculoskeletal troubles (backache, pains in the neck, joints, waist, arms and legs), psychological problems (stress due to monotonous work and/or a rapid work pace, difficulties of adaptation to terminal work); impaired hearing (due mainly to printers), complaints associated with pregnancy (changed sitting posture, bad adaptation of the workplace).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1986, Vol.33, No.130, p.14-26. Illus. 11 ref.
Castillo González J.
Pantallas de rayos catódicos y molestias oculares/Pantallas de rayos catódicos y molestias oculares
The first part of this article gives a brief outline of general ergonomic problems associated with work at CRT display terminals (visual fatigue, sitting posture, mental tension due to monotonous tasks). The second part describes an investigation of 100 display terminal operators which was made with the intention of detecting possible visual alterations for this type of work. All of the operators were women, from 25 to 55 years old, and worked 7 hours a day. The visual discomfort was approximately the same for the operators who used glasses as for those who did not (56% for the first group and 50% for the second). The most frequent complaints concerned lighting, followed by uncomfortable reflections from the desks. No visual alterations that could be attributed to display work were found.
Salud y trabajo, Mar.-Apr. 1986, No.54, p.49-54. Illus. 6 ref.
El trabajo sobre pantallas de visualización - Informe del programa de investigación/El trabajo sobre pantallas de visualización - Informe del programa de investigación
Results of a study concerning work with visual display units. Survey of the health hazards: ionising and non-ionising radiation; evaluation of work stations; epidemiological study; medical aspects (visual fatigue, musculoskeletal changes, neuro-psychic problems); medical examinations (aptitude tests, what to do on the appearance of symptoms, ophthalmological tests). In the appendices: questionnaires used in the evaluation of work stations and in the study; visual function disturbances and counter-indications for this kind of work; requirements of VDU work as related to visual function; anatomy of the visual apparatus.
Asociación de Medicina y Seguridad en el Trabajo de UNESA para la Industria Eléctrica (AMYS), Spain, 1986. 156p. Illus. 79 ref.
Misawa T., Shigeta S.
An experimental study of work load on VDT performance - Part 2. Effects of difference in input devices
VDT sagyō ni okeru sagyō futan ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyû. Dai-2-hen. Nyûryoku hōshiki no sōi ni yoru eikyō [en japonés]
The subjects of the experiment were 8 healthy male college students. In an experimental word processing task, the subjects searched for e's in given sequences of letters displayed on the CRT and converted them to 5's by input device operations (keyboard or lightpen). Critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF), near point distance, accommodation time, subjective fatigue symptoms, blinking counts, pupillary reflex, electromyogram in upper limb, neck and shoulder and performance score were measured. Decrease in CFF was observed under both experimental conditions. Increments in complaints of subjective fatigue related to visual function were seen in both cases. A higher error rate was observed with use of the lightpen than with the keyboard. The frequencies of blinking and pupil-size changes were lower in the subjects using the lightpen. This suggests that the time spent looking at the VDT screen is longer with the lightpen. More complaints of subjective fatigue in the upper body, and also greater electromyogram amplitudes in upper limb, neck and shoulder muscles were observed in the subjects using the lightpen. This suggests that the muscular load on the upper limbs and the restriction of posture is greater in the case of the lightpen.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1986, Vol.28, No.6, p.462-469. Illus. 24 ref.
Misawa T., Shigeta S.
An experimental study of work load on VDT performance - Part 1. Effects of polarity of screen and colour of display
VDT sagyō ni okeru sagyō futan ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyū. Dai-1-hen. VDT gamen no hyōji-kyokusei to hyōji-shoku no eikyō [en japonés]
Eight healthy male college students searched for e's in given sequences of letters displayed on a CRT and converted them to 5's by keyboard operations. Four levels of screen image (positive and negative screens and green and white coloured displays) were adopted and 2h were given for each operation. Critical flicker fusion frequencies (CFF), near point distance, accommodation time, subjective fatigue symptoms, heart rate, electromyogram in upper limbs and performance score were measured. Decrease in CFF, extension of near point distance and increase in complaints of subjective fatigue related to visual function were observed under all experimental conditions. Greater extension of near point distance and more complaints of subjective fatigue were observed in subjects using the green display than in those using the white display. This suggests that the visual load using the green display is larger than that using the white display. A larger decrease in CRT and greater complaints of subjective fatigue occurred with negative screens than with positive screens. This suggests that the visual load using the negative screen is larger than that using the positive screen.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1986, Vol.28, No.6, p.420-427. Illus. 27 ref.
Sugita M., Minowa H., Ishi M., Etoh R.
Factors affecting subjective symptoms of VDT workers
Sagyōsha no jikaku shōjō no uttae ni eikyō o oyobosu inshi [en japonés]
285 (male: 129, female: 156) VDT workers and 60 (male: 30, female: 30) control subjects were examined. Biological information (e.g. sex, age), life histories, information about VDT work, tests (e.g. visual acuity), symptoms and interferences with daily life of VDT workers and control subjects were collected. Female VDT workers experienced more fatigue from commuting to work, stiffness in shoulders, blurred distance vision and higher scores of ocular complaints than did female control subjects. Only among female VDT workers was there a positive correlation between working hours and ocular symptoms. A clear relationship was observed between psychological stress factors (e.g. self-control of VDT work, sensation of excessive VDT work) and subjective symptoms of the VDT workers (both sexes). In particular, VDT workers who considered VDT work to be excessive had greater subjective symptoms than those who did not.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1986, Vol.28, No.6, p.409-419. 21 ref.
Video terminal work: use of colour in screens
Travail sur écrans: utilisation de la couleur sur les écrans [en francés]
A set of tables. One summarises psychophysical phenomena (image sharpness, adaptation), their effects on perception, recommendations for displays and the importance of the recommendations. The other 3 tables present applications of the principles of Table 1 to text processing, computer-aided design and process control.
Travail et sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 1986, No.9-10, p.532-534.
Cail F., Méreau P.
1st Colloquium on work at visual display units, Paris, 7 December 1985
1er colloque Travail sur écran, Paris, 7 décembre 1985 [en francés]
Organised by the Syndicat national des ophtalmologistes de France, this colloquium was attended by about 1000 persons, mainly from medical fields. Summaries of the sessions are given under the headings: display colours; visual and postural fatigue; organisation of working time; aptitude for VDT work and corrected vision; visual function tests; trends and new technologies.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, July 1986, No.26, p.151-157. Appendices.
Prenafeta Grisar J.
Condiciones de trabajo y salud ocupacional de las personas que operan terminales de computación
Survey article in a Chilean safety and health journal, covering: illumination; visual and postural fatigue; ergonomic design of work table and seats; characteristics of the screen; psychological factors; preventive measures.
Prevención de riesgos, Sep.-Dec. 1986, Vol.5, No.15, p.22-29. Illus. 4 ref.
Marriott J.A., Stuchly M.A.
Health aspects of work with visual display terminals
Physical factors that may affect an operator's performance and health include: display characteristics, image quality, resolution, stability, colour, polarity, luminance and contrast, as well as lighting conditions and indoor climate. Work station design and layout play the most critical role in eliminating sources of postural problems. Exposure of the operators to various radiations that may be produced by VDTs is not expected to have any health implications as the levels of emissions are very low. Musculoskeletal effects and visual fatigue can usually be successfully controlled through proper design and use of work stations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1986, Vol.28, No.9, p.833-848. Illus. 62 ref. Appendices.
McDonald A.D., Cherry N.M., Delorme C., McDonald J.C.
Visual display units and pregnancy: Evidence from the Montreal survey
Data on 56,012 current and 48,608 previous pregnancies were obtained by interview in 11 Montreal hospitals, 1982 to 1984, after delivery or spontaneous abortion. In 17,632 pregnancies in occupations with substantial use of visual display units (VDUs), users and nonusers had similar rates of congenital defects in both current and previous pregnancies and of abortions in previous pregnancies. In current pregnancies there was an excess of abortions in users which could have been due to biased recall. In a further analysis of all 42 occupational groups ranked according to percentage use of VDUs, the risk of spontaneous abortion in both current and previous pregnancies was the same irrespective of the amount of VDU use. Thus, the study does not support the suggestion that work with a VDU in pregnancy increases the risk of congenital defect or spontaneous abortion.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1986, Vol.28, No.12, p.1226-1231. 15 ref.
Hagberg M., Sundelin G.
Discomfort and load on the upper trapezius muscle when operating a wordprocessor
Surface electromyogram recordings from the descending part of the trapezius muscle and discomfort ratings were assessed for 6 female VDT word processor operators. Each operator was studied during 3 work periods of 3 to 5h on different days. During one of the work periods, 15-sec. pauses were introduced every 6th minute. A static muscular load of 3.2% and 3.0% of the maximal voluntary contraction was found on the right and left side, respectively. The median and peak muscular loads during work were low. There was a significant negative correlation between pauses and static load on the right upper trapezius muscle. The rating of perceived discomfort was less after the work periods with short pauses than after the work periods without.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1986, Vol.29, No.12, p.1637-1645. Illus. 18 ref.
Juutilainen J., Saali K.
Measurements of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields around video display terminals
The extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field emissions of 7 video display terminals (VDT) models were measured. At a distance of 50cm, the magnetic field strength was still slightly higher than the background level in usual office rooms, but several orders of magnitude lower than the thresholds of known interaction mechanisms. Some recent experiments suggest that certain biological effects to chick embryos may occur at field strengths only a few times higher than those found at the position of VDT operators, but the significance of these effects to human health is not known.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.12, No.6, p.609-613. Illus. 28 ref.
Terminal shock - The health hazards of video display terminals
Contents of this up-to-date survey of the health problems connected with VDU use: examples of adverse health effects (miscarriages, babies born with health problems, cataracts, skin rashes, stress-related effects) among VDU operators; ionising and non-ionising radiation from VDUs; pulsed electromagnetic fields; synergistic effects; control and monitoring of VDU radiation; general ergonomic problems; stress and other hazards; legislative initiatives; workers' compensation and legal liability in Canada and the USA. Appendices contain questionnaires to be filled out by employers and operators using VDUs, recommended medical tests for radiation effects and for eye damage, summary of legislation from around the world, results of radiation emission tests of VDUs, summary of biological effects of non-ionising radiation, relevant provisions in Canadian collective agreements, a list of companies marketing ergonomically acceptable VDU furniture and a glossary.
NC Press Limited, Box 4010, Station A, Toronto, Ontario M5H 1H8, Canada, 1986. 239p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: Can$13.50.
Control of working conditions when using VDUs
Der Bildschirmprüfer [en alemán]
This check list, in a fold-out format, can be applied to work with visual display units, word processors and microcomputers.
Zentralorganisation der Angestellten und Beamten, Postfach 5252, 102 45 Stockholm, Sweden, 1986. 8p.+ 1 enclosure. Illus.
Datorstöd i arbetet [en sueco]
These recommendations cover the use of computers for administrative and technical tasks and for process control purposes: preparation and training of operators; work organisation and work content (requirements to be met by the working environment with respect to psychological and social factors; measures against social isolation); communication between man and computer (software; irregular response times, malfunctions and interruptions); ergonomic and physical requirements to be met (work posture; noise; lighting; heat and ventilation); accident hazards in the industrial setting; adaptation of systems to handicapped operators. An example of how to develop a system adapted to man is appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 6 Feb. 1987. 26p.
Special issue on visual display units
Information is provided on the following developments: fact sheets summarising the provisions of selected laws and regulations, collective agreements, model codes, guidelines and policy statements relating to the use of visual display units; abstracts of nearly 200 books, articles and other publications; data on over 100 research projects currently being undertaken in 24 countries; succinct definitions of terms commonly used in connection with VDUs.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1986, Vol.5, No.1. 399p.
Koch H., Schäfer R.
West German standards for display workstations: A new report
Up-to-date report of the present state of standardisation in the field of visual display workstation ergonomics in the Federal Republic of Germany. Standardisation efforts have been continued; standards of more than five years old are now to be revised. The report concerns: DIN 66 233 - Terminological standards; DIN 66 234 - Technical standards (character design, workstation design, lighting and arrangement, man-machine dialogue design, measuring methods).
Displays Technology and Applications, Apr. 1986, p.73-77. Illus. 8 ref.
The social impact of micro-electronics in Japan
Les effets sociaux de la micro-électronique au Japon [en francés]
In spite of the speed and extent of micro-electronic technology growth in Japan, concern about its possible social impact has developed later than in most Western societies. Since 1980, however, a number of research findings have begun to influence the thinking and policies of the Government and the industrial relations partners. The author explains how the introduction of micro-electronics is affecting, inter alia, employment levels, job content and task allocation in offices and factories, work organisation, training and wage practices. He also analyses the impact on workers' skills, qualifications and working conditions and such problems as displacement, downgrading and adjustment difficulties. Finally, he discusses some model agreements on micro-electronics and safety standards for the use of visual display terminals in Japan.
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, July-Aug. 1986, Vol.125, No.4, p.473-497.
Visual display units
This special issue of the ILO's Conditions of Work Digest focuses on visual display units (VDUs) and provides a wide range of information: fact sheets summarising the provisions of selected laws and regulations, collective agreements, model codes, guidelines and policy statements relating to the use of visual display units; abstracts of nearly 200 books, articles and other publications; data on over 100 research projects currently being undertaken in 24 countries; succinct definitions of terms commonly used in connection with VDUs.
Conditions of Work Digest, 1986, Vol.5, No.1, 399p.
McGee K., Matthews C.
The design of interactive computer displays. A guide to the select literature
Descriptions of 301 published and unpublished works, including many on ergonomic and safety-and-health aspects of visual display design. The descriptions include reviews of each publication, tables of contents and bibliographic data. The entries are indexed by subject and author. Four appendices list titles for: a basic library on display design; design guidelines; graphics standards; readings on video terminal health and safety.
The Report Store, 910 Massachusetts Street, Suite 503, Lawrence KS 66044, USA, 1986. 618p. Price: US$125.00.
The design of interactive computer displays II. A guide to selected periodicals
Descriptions of 94 periodicals, many of which cover ergonomics and the safety and health aspects of visual display terminals. Each description contains a summary of the periodical's content, its frequency of publication, representative article titles, abstracting/indexing services that cover the periodical, and the address from which subscriptions can be ordered. Three appendices give guidance on the use of indexes, list periodicals according to the associations that publish them and cite additional resources on specialised topics.
The Report Store, 910 Massachusetts Street, Suite 503, Lawrence KS 66044, USA, 1986. 105p. Price: US$25.00.
Reading from microfiche, a VDT, and the printed page: subjective fatigue and performance
Subjects read continuous text for 80min. Visual fatigue was greater when subjects read from negative microfiche (light characters, dark background) projected on a metal screen or from the screen of a video display terminal (VDT) with positive-appearing images (dark characters, light background), than when they read from print. When they read from microfiche projected on a high-reflectance matte screen or from the screen of a VDT with negative images, visual fatigue was not significantly greater than that reported for printed material. Reading speeds tended to be slower for the negative image conditions, but reading comprehension scores were similar for all conditions.
Human Factors, Feb. 1986, Vol.28, No.1, p.63-73. 28 ref.
Data presentation on VDUs - Literature review
Présentation de l'information sur écran de visualisation - Revue bibliographique [en francés]
Part 1 is devoted to the parameters of data presentation: density, display format and display speed. Part 2 is devoted to physical factors: colour, highlighting, blinking, marking, characters, etc. Most configurations proposed in the literature aim at an improvement in the way data are displayed on the screen, at a reduction of the possibility of confusion, at a better way of emphasising important data and at facilitating the operator's work. It is difficult to determine the best solution, because recommendations differ depending on the nature of the task. It is important to have a good knowledge of the operators' work and to consult with them before undertaking any changes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1986, No.123, Note No.1580-123-86, p.193-200. 68 ref.
Brunner D., Elg R., Kern P.
Visual display unit workplaces - Ergonomic and work organisation aspects - Consolidated report
Postes de travail sur les consoles de visualisation - Questions d'ergonomie et d'organisation du travail - Rapport de synthèse [en francés]
This report is based on eight earlier studies on the impact of developments in electronic technology on the working environment and work organisation, sponsored by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. It covers: trends, definitions and special problems involved in work at VDUs; workplace design; the VDU workplace environment; work organisation; labour legislation aspects; man at the VDU workplace; conclusions and summary. The report also includes the evaluation comments of the Employers Group and the Trade Union Group from the Seminar on Visual Display Unit Workplaces, Ergonomic and Work Organisation Aspects, held in Dublin on 29 Nov. 1983. The research projects sponsored by the European Foundation are appended.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1985. 76p. (English language version). Illus. 25 ref. Price: BEF 350; IEP 5.70; GBP 5.20; USD 7.50.
Work at visual display units
Arbejde ved skærmterminaler [en danés]
Contents of this guidance note and training brochure edited by the Danish Safety Council: health problems due to work at visual display units; arrangement of working premises; adaptation of the workplace to the operator; lighting conditions; eye problems and vision adaptation; questionnaire to be completed before vision tests.
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vesterbrogade 69, 1620 København V, Denmark, 13p. Illus. 13 ref.
VDUs, health and jobs
A guide aiming to instruct office workers on the health hazards of VDU work (eye problems, muscle and body pain, repetitive strain injury, job stress, skin rashes and reproductive hazards), health and safety solutions, and the impact of new technology (job security, job gains, union intervention, monitoring and control, job content, new technology agreements, etc.).
Labour Research Department, 78 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HF, United Kingdom, 1985. 64p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 1.10.
A conference on the alleged health hazards of work at VDUs - Current industrial relations issues
Papers presented at a meeting, held in London (United Kingdom), 26-27 Nov. 1985. Contents: the alleged reproductive hazard; a union approach to the hazard; reproductive hazards in the lead-using industries; practical approaches to policy making; reproductive hazard policies and VDUs - a review of current practives; occupational upper limb disorders - causes and prevention; repetition strain injuries - the Australian experience; actions by responsible manufacturers; struggle with prejudice - failing to help VDU users; a large employer's approach to the use of VDUs; an international perspective on the trade union attitude to VDUs; employers' liability insurance and the alleged hazards; the legal aspects.
Humane Technology, P.O. Box 2, Quorn, Leicestershire LE12 8EG, United Kingdom, 1985. 195p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 16.00 Europe, GBP 17.50 elsewhere.
El trabajo en ordenadores de pantalla/El trabajo en ordenadores de pantalla
Ergonomic guide concerning work with CRT display terminals. Contents: common complaints among display terminal operators; general principles concerning illumination and visual perception; ergonomic aspects of the workplace (terminal, keyboard, desk, seat, foot-rest, sitting posture); workplace design; hygienic aspects (radiation, thermal environment, noise, organisation of working time and pauses, orthopaedic aspects); psychological aspects of work with display terminals; ergonomic checklist.
Asociación para la Prevención de Accidentes, C/Echaide 4, 20005 San Sebastián, Spain, 1985. 58p. Illus.
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