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  • Visual display terminals (VDTs)

1989

CIS 90-1355 Working with visual display units
Santé et sécurité dans le travail sur écran de visualisation [en francés]
This practical review provides information and guidance on safety and health aspects related to the use of VDUs. Contents: safety and health issues in VDU work; special rules and regulations at government and enterprise levels; ergonomic aspects of work station and environmental design; job design and the organisation of work - job content, performance monitoring, working time, training; role of occupational health services - health surveillance, pre-assignment assessment, periodic assessment, examination on request; main findings and conclusions. The annex consists of 3 tables that include examples of regulations and guide-lines governing the use of VDUs in the workplace, representative clauses regarding work with VDUs from collective agreements at the enterprise level and recommended features of VDUs.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1989. 57p. 72 ref. Annex. Price: CHF 12.50.

CIS 90-1396 MacKay C.J.
Work with visual display terminals: Psychosocial aspects and health
Report of a meeting of experts (Streatly-on-Thames, UK, 22-24 Sep. 1987) sponsored by the WHO. Psychosocial aspects of work with VDTs may affect users' health and well-being and include a variety of situations: work demands, work design and organisational problems, workload, breakdown, control, pacing, social support and isolation, deskilling, management of change and user involvement, task analysis and job design, training, work scheduling, and rest periods. This report takes the view that, in the prevention of VDT-related health problems, psychosocial factors are at least as important as the physical ergonomics of workstations and the working environment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1989, Vol.31, No.12, p.957-968. 101 ref.

CIS 90-1390 Smith A., Peck D., Clatworthy T.
After-effects of working at visual display units
Two experiments were carried out to examine the acute and chronic after-effects of working with VDUs on subsequent subjective mood and performance efficiency. Both showed that working at a VDU has a negative after-effect on the user's subjective well-being but only if that person has a high level of cognitive failure. There was no evidence of any such effect on measures of performance efficiency.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.3, No.2, p.195-201. 17 ref.

CIS 90-1044
Gruppo di Lavoro Regionale sui Rischi da VDU
Work with visual display units - Guidelines for occupational safety and health workers
Il lavoro con unitŕ video - Guida all'intervento per operatori della prevenzione [en italiano]
Literature survey and guidelines for the assessment and control of the hazards of VDU work. Contents: lighting; sitting posture; psychosocial aspects; vision tests; comments on national collective agreements and international standards. Also included: detailed questionnaires used for evaluating the working conditions of VDU operators and the health effects they experience.
Regione Toscana, Dipartimento Sicurezza Sociale, via di Novoli 26, Firenze 50127, Italy, 1989. 155p. Illus. 76 ref.

CIS 90-521 Jaschinski-Kruza W.
Ergonomic advantages of greater distances to visual displays
Ergonomische Vorteile eines grösseren Sehabstandes [en alemán]
Two types of tasks were performed by test persons at various distances from visual display screens: comparison of data on visual displays and copying of data from a manuscript. There was lower strain on eye muscles at a distance from visual display screens of 70-100cm.
Sicher ist Sicher, 1989, Vol.40, No.9, p.506-508. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 90-158 Do computers cause illness?
Krank durch Computer? [en alemán]
Review of health hazards related to work at computer terminals reveals: work at visual display screens causes vision problems, headache, dry skin and neck pain. Little is known about the effects of radiation emanating from the screen, of pollutants emitted by toners used in printers and development of ozone in printers by electrostatic processes. Risks are considered to be low.
Chip (Deutschland), Apr. 1989, No.4, p.230-232.

CIS 90-285 Hanel J.J.
Noise at workplaces with personal computers
Lärm am PC-Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Noise levels emitted by microcomputers from different manufacturers have been measured to be 50-60dB(A). Printers may have noise levels as high as 73dB(A). Recent research has shown that noise levels of 50-60dB(A) could lead to performance impairment, in particular in complex intellectual activities where memorisation and concentration play an important role. It is therefore suggested to take into consideration the noise environment of PC workstations.
c't - Magazin für Computer-Technik, 1989, No.10, p.90, 92, 94-95. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 89-2082 Luberto F., Gobba F., Broglia A.
Temporary myopisation and subjective symptoms in video display terminal operators
Miopizzazione temporanea e sintomatologia soggettiva in operatori al videoterminale [en italiano]
A study of 64 female VDT operators showed a significant incidence of end-of-shift (temporary) myopia among operators with asthenopia, demonstrating VDT-related visual fatigue. Operators without asthenopia did not develop temporary myopia.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.80, No.2, p.155-163. 31 ref.

CIS 89-2028 Working with visual display units
This practical review provides information and guidance on safety and health aspects related to the use of VDUs. Contents: safety and health issues in VDU work; special rules and regulations at government and enterprise levels; ergonomic aspects of work station and environmental design; job design and the organisation of work - job content, performance monitoring, working time, training; role of occupational health services - health surveillance, pre-assignment assessment, periodic assessment, examination on request; main findings and conclusions. The annex consists of 3 tables that include examples of regulations and guide-lines governing the use of VDUs in the workplace, representative clauses regarding work with VDUs from collective agreements at the enterprise level and recommended features of VDUs.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1989. 57p. 72 ref. Annex. Price: CHF 12.50.

1988

CIS 93-334 Takemoto A., Yoshinori H.
A study on the effects of VDT work on information processing ability
VDT-sagyō no jōhō shori nōryoku e no eikyō ni kansuru kenkyū [en japonés]
Fourteen male college students aged 22-23 were tested for visual performance and information processing ability after working with VDTs for 5, 10, 15, or 30 minutes. Before and after each working period, each subject was given a visual flicker fusion test and asked to write down a sequence of random numbers. From the quality of the random number sequence reproduced, the information processing ability was calculated according to a mathematical model. With respect to initial values, information processing ability increased up to 15 minutes of work but was diminished after working for 30 minutes. The vision flicker fusion test gave identical results. Thus, VDT work influences not only visual ability but also the information processing ability of the brain.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Oct. 1988, Vol.24, No.5, p.313-318. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 92-1735 Megaw E.D.
Contemporary ergonomics 1988
Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society's 1988 Annual Conference held in Manchester, UK, on 11-15 April 1988. Papers given at the Conference are presented under the following headings: human-computer interface evaluation, application of speech recognition devices, task analysis, complex system design and evaluation, structured systems development, design for safety, display design, workstation design and evaluation, physiology and anthropometry at work, job design and work organisation, training and ergonomics, impact of new technology, posture and movement analysis, computer-aided design, human performance, vehicle ergonomics, animal ergonomics.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 OPR, Hants., United Kingdom, 1988. xiv, 556p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price (in Europe): GBP 32.00.

CIS 92-507 American national standard for human factors engineering of visual display terminal workstations
This technical standard specifies requirements for visual display terminals (VDTs) and associated furniture and VDT environments. Contents: the working environment and specification of illumination, noise levels and thermal characteristics for text processing, data entry and data enquiry workplaces; factors affecting human performance and comfort in the design of visual displays; characteristics of VDT keyboards; comfort criteria for seats and working surfaces; measurement equipment and procedures. Glossary.
The Human Factors Society, Inc., P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, California 90406, USA, 1988. ix, 90p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-336 Piccoli B., Gratton I., Perris R., Grieco A.
Ergo-ophthalmological investigation at the workplace - Study of a group of VDU operators engaged in book-keeping work
L'indagine ergoftalmologica sul campo: esempio di un intervento su di un gruppo di operatori video addetti a lavori di contabilitŕ amministrativa [en italiano]
Several investigators have put forward the hypothesis that even a single exposure to activities requiring prolonged visual effort at close range may cause transitory variations of ocular functions. These variations may be correlated to asthenopic symptoms and may indicate the risk of future irreversible variations. To verify this hypothesis, in a field study the variations of 3 parameters of visual function were examined (phorias, refraction, fusional convergence) before and at the end of the work day in 3 groups of 7 subjects: employees working with VDUs, employees engaged in conventional office work, workers not involved in visually demanding activities. The subjects were selected in order to be homogeneous as to age, sex and visual conditions (emmetropia, good ocular motility); further, the study was organised in such a way that exposure and environmental conditions were identical for all subjects. While phorias did not change significantly, refraction and convergence had small but consistent variations. Refraction showed a tendency towards an increase of accommodative tonus at long range and a decrease at close range, in both exposed groups. Fusional convergence decreased only in the VDU operator group.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1988, Vol.79, No.4, p.288-297. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 91-2039 Acoustics - Declared noise emission values of computer and business equipment
Acoustique - Valeurs déclarées d'émission acoustique des matériels informatiques et de bureau [en francés]
This international standard specifies: the method for determining the declared noise emission values of computer and business equipment; acoustical and product information to be given in technical documents supplied by the manufacturer; the method for verifying the declared noise emission values given by the manufacturers.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 15 Apr. 1988. 7p. 5 ref.

CIS 90-1937 Code of practice for visual display units
This code of practice covers: technical information on VDU technology, image formation and factors influencing screen display; problems arising from the use of VDUs, such as visual and postural fatigue, repetitive strain injury, radiation; design and operation of the screen, keyboard and workstation; the working environment with reference to lighting, noise and atmospheric conditions; role of good work practices and supervisory procedures in the prevention of repetitive strain injury. Advice is given on the setting up of a VDU workstation.
Department of Labour, Private Bag, Wellington 1, New Zealand, 1988. 2nd ed. 34p.

CIS 90-1599 Williams T.A.
Computers, work and health, a socio-technical approach
This book written for managers, labour union members, computer system analysts and designers, occupational health and safety specialists, and for workers involved in the application of computer technology, focuses on office work, and particularly on how computer technology may affect clerical and keyboard work and the people performing it. Contents: new technology in working life; repetition strain injury; socio-technical strategies for new office technology; new office technology and work design alternatives; the design and implementation process, implication for practice.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hants RG 24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1988. 142p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 90-1388 Collier S.G., Talbot C.F.
Ergonomic guidelines for the design of computer-based information systems
To ensure efficient and effective operation of a computer-based information system, the following factors should be considered in its design: the physical environment within which the user is working; the hardware configuration; the type and style of dialogue between the user and the system; the amount of information required by the user and its presentation. These guidelines describe general features of good dialogue design, the use of colour, menus, graphs, charts and tables, and the structure and layout of text on VDU screens. The characteristics and applicability of several input/output devices are outlined.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, Feb. 1988. 41p. Price: GBP 20.00 (UK); GBP 25.00 (overseas).

CIS 90-885 Hentschel H.J., Prahl W.
DIN 5035 Part 7: The new standard on illumination for visual displays
DIN 5035, Teil 7: Die neue Norm für die Beleuchtung an Bildschirmen [en alemán]
The German (Fed.Rep.) standard DIN 5035 Part 7 addresses illumination design in rooms where VDUs are used. Maximum permissible illumination levels for lamps reflected on the screen are defined with the purpose of reducing glare.
Licht, 1988, Vol.40, No.8, p.586. 1 ref.

CIS 90-985 Goldhaber M.K., Polen M.R., Hiatt R.A.
The risk of miscarriage and birth defects among women who use visual display terminals during pregnancy
Use of visual display terminals (VDTs) was examined in a case-control study of pregnancy outcome among 1,583 pregnant women in northern California, 1981-1982. A significantly elevated risk of miscarriage was found for working women who reported using VDTs for more than 20h per week during the first trimester of pregnancy compared to other working women who reported not using VDTs (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence intervals 1.2-2.8). This risk could not be explained by age, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol consumption, or other maternal characteristics. One possible explanation for these findings is that women who had adverse pregnancy outcomes may have overreported their exposures to VDTs and/or women with normal births may have underreported theirs. The findings may also be due to unmeasured factors confounded with high VDT use such as poor ergonomic conditions or job-related stress.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.6, p.695-706. 29 ref.

CIS 90-619 Berg M.
Skin problems in workers using visual display terminals
201 patients with skin problems caused in their own opinion by working with visual display terminals (VDTs) were examined. In 25 patients, the skin problems occurred mainly on the cheek turned towards the VDT. Half the patients had rosacea and subjective skin symptoms such as severe pain, itching and burning. The rest of the patients mainly had common facial dermatoses such as seborrhoeic eczema, acne vulgaris and atopic dermatitis. 18% had non-specific skin problems, e.g. itching and redness. An attempt to correlate skin problems with VDTs' electrostatic field strength was unsuccessful because of difficulties in eliminating it. The prevalence of migraine-like headache was 40%, which is much higher than in a control population. After an average of 8 months, 2/3 of the patients had fewer skin complaints. The question of whether the prevalence of skin problems in general is higher amongst individuals using VDTs than in a control population is addressed in a current study.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1988, Vol.19, No.5, p.335-341. 17 ref.

CIS 90-618 Oishi S., Yoshida H., Torikai H., Takagi M.
Glaucoma induced by visual display terminals
VDT-sagyō to ryokunaishō [en japonés]
Three cases of open-angle glaucoma related to VDT work were observed in those who have a disposition to a glaucoma. These symptoms developed even under satisfactory working conditions and despite regular therapy. The complaints were generally relieved when the subjects were released from VDT work. It is suggested that VDT work might induce glaucoma in those who have a predisposition to it.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1988, Vol.36, No.3, p.242-245. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 90-675 Moro'oka K.
VDT work and posture
VDT sagyō to shisei [en japonés]
Various postures of VDT work were investigated and the postures were classified into several patterns from the viewpoint of the inclination of the back, the state of the back and the inclination of the neck. Many bad postures were explained as attempts to prevent the VDT worker's fatigue. A chair, as an example of VDT facilities, is analysed by Value Analysis theory from the viewpoint of the VDT worker and of the designer of the chair.
Japanese Journal of Human Posture, Apr. 1988, Vol.8, No.1, p.43-55. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 90-289 Abenhaim L., Lert F., Kaminski M., Mamelle N., Spira N., Ayme S.
Video terminal work and pregnancy. Consensus evaluation of risks
Travail sur terminal ŕ écran et grossesse. Evaluation des risques par consensus [en francés]
On the basis of epidemiological studies, measurements of the radiation emmited by cathode-ray displays, biological data and experimental work, the authors evaluated the relationships between pregnancy outcome and work at video terminals in order to determine the appropriateness of removing pregnant women from such work. Video terminal work was not a risk factor for malformation, stillbirth, prematurity or spontaneous abortion. The risk of low birthweight could not be validly assessed.
Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique, 1988, Vol.36, No.3, p.235-245. 26 ref.

CIS 90-338 Evaluation of requirements and stress related to computer-aided work
Bewertung von Anforderungen und Beanspruchungen bei rechnergestützten Tätigkeiten [en alemán]
Ten papers deal with problems concerning VDU-workplaces: psychological workload, design of work functions, examination of employees at VDU-workplaces, ergonomical design of software, possibilities for active relaxation during VDU-work. Finally, the standard on the ergonomic design of VDU-workplaces (TGL 44690) is discussed.
Arbeitsmedizinische Praxis, Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin, Nöldnerstr. 42-44, 1134 Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 123p. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 90-166 Westlander G.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet
A working environment perspective on office automation
Kontorsautomation i ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv [en sueco]
Report on the psychosocial consequences of the introduction of word processing equipment, based on the results of case studies carried out at three different companies where multistation systems were introduced. A comparison showed that the different work methods chosen by the companies produced different kinds of changes in staff competence. The study showed also that initial stress responses induced by the new equipment were similar in the three cases, but once the techniques began to be mastered the stressors were of different kinds. The crucial factors regarding health and job satisfaction appeared to be the organisation of work with the word processing system and the forms of cooperation between different personnel categories.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 42p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 89-2015 McDonald A.D., McDonald J.C., Armstrong B., Cherry N., Nolin A.D., Robert D.
Work with visual display units in pregnancy
Data from the Montreal survey on occupational factors in pregnancy were used to test the hypothesis that visual display units constitute a hazard to reproduction. Use of VDUs was recorded in 4,712 current and 2,164 previous pregnancies of women in full time employment at the time of conception. After allowance for seven confounding variables, the risk of spontaneous abortion in current pregnancies relative to all working women was 1.19 and in previous pregnancies, 0.97. In an analysis by occupational title, in which 60 occupational groups were aggregated into eight categories according to use of VDUs, the relative risk for spontaneous abortion was 1.06 in current pregnancies and 1.01 in previous pregnancies. This suggests that the small excess of spontaneous abortions among women reporting the use of VDUs in current pregnancies may have been due to recall bias. Relative risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight all had 90% confidence limits.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1988, Vol.45, No.8, p.509-515. 25 ref.

CIS 89-1550 Strasser H.
Radiation exposure from monitors and effects on hearing of high-frequency tones at workplaces in television and film production studios
Zur Strahlenbelastung durch Monitore und zu Auswirkungen von Pfeiftönen auf die Hörfähigkeit an Arbeitsplätzen im Fernseh- und Filmbereich [en alemán]
The radiation measured at a distance of 5cm from visual display units is 0.2mR/h. Thus, the quarterly radiation dose operators are exposed to is 0.5rem. In the Federal Republic of Germany the permissible quarterly radiation dose for women is 1.5rem. For men it is 3rem. A similar comparison for high-frequency tones in film studios yielded no noise exposure that would lead to hearing impairment.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1988, Vol.38, No.6, p.170-176. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-1558 Harima M., Horiguchi S., Karai I., Takise S., Matumura S., Tojo F., Miki T.
Pupillary changes due to work using visual display terminals
Pupillary dynamics were measured in 26 subjects aged 19 to 37 before and after playing TV games for 30 minutes at indirect light levels of 100 lux. Results of measurements of pupil size and pupillary light reflex were found to reflect acute ocular fatigue due to the performance of tasks at visual display terminals. Changes in pupillary dynamics were traced to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.60, No.4, p.303-306. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 89-1398 Boucsein W.
Waiting time at the computer - recreation or stress?
Wartezeiten am Rechner - Erholung oder Stress? [en alemán]
Subjective complaints, physiological changes (e.g. of heart rate, blood pressure), and performance at various computer response times were determined. Observed negative effects by too short and too long computer response times are outlined.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1988, Vol.42, No.4, p.222-225. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 89-1363 Acoustics - Measurement of high-frequency noise emitted by computer and business equipment
Acoustique - Mesurage du bruit ŕ haute fréquence émis par les matériels informatiques et de bureau [en francés]
This international standard specifies 4 methods for the determination of the sound power levels of high-frequency noise emitted by computer and business equipment in the frequency range covered by the octave band centred at 16kHz. They are complementary to the methods described in ISO 7779 (see CIS 88-2055).
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 15 Nov. 1988. 11p. Illus.

CIS 89-1032 Ong C.N., Koh D., Phoon W.O., Low A.
Anthropometrics and display station preferences of VDU operators
The anthropometric dimensions of three major ethnic groups in Singapore were studied on 94 female VDU operators. The postural preferences at the VDU work stations were also investigated. Few anthropometric differences were noted for the Chinese, Malays and Indians. However, when compared to data from Germany and the USA, the three Asian cohorts are smaller in body size. Owing to the smaller body build, the Singapore operators preferred to have a sitting height of about 46cm, and a working height of about 74cm, compared with the 47cm and 77cm, respectively, preferred by European operators. Despite the anthropometric differences, the Singapore VDU operators, like their counterparts in Europe and the USA also preferred to sit in a pronounced backward leaning posture with a slightly open elbow angle. This sitting posture seems to ignore the traditional recommended upright trunk position of 90°.
Ergonomics, Mar. 1988, Vol.31, No.3, p.337-347. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 89-265 Boikat U.
Minimising the field
Minimierung des Feldes [en alemán]
Presently available methods of minimizing electromagnetic fields generated by visual display units include: generation of a compensating field with auxiliary coils; use of grounded metallic screens, casings or foils; automatic switching off of the horizontal sweep oscillator during standby operation.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1988, Vol.10, No.2, p.20-21.

CIS 89-325 Hertting-Thomasius R., Rötting M., Luczak H., Klutmann B., Krüger K.
Ergonomic design of a hand-held terminal for data recording
Ergonomische Gestaltung eines Handterminals zur Betriebsdatenerfassung [en alemán]
A hand-held data collecting computer terminal and its optimisation is described (small weight and size, liquid crystal display for 80 characters and snap-action buttons). The data can be entered either coded or in plain language. Abbreviations are completed by the system with the aid of an internal dictionary. The hand-held terminal is used for quality control in automobile manufacturing.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1988, Vol.42 (14 NF), No.2, p.83-88. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 88-1836 New technology: The value of work
Instruction manual based on material developed by a Swedish labour union organisation and aimed at workers. This version is adapted to circumstances in Malaysia, but it is easily adaptable to any English-speaking country. Contents: new technology (computers and automation); work organisation; health hazards (vision, skin rashes, photosensitive epilepsy); design of terminal work stations; shift work; view of the future.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis, rte des Acacias, C.P. 563, 1227 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1988. 33p. Illus.

CIS 88-2055 Acoustics - Measurement of airborne noise emitted by computer and business equipment
Acoustique - Mesurage du bruit aérien émis par les équipements informatiques et de bureau [en francés]
Contents of this international standard: scope and field of application; conformance; definitions; methods for determining sound power levels of equipment in reverberation rooms or under essentially free-field conditions over a reflecting plane; a method for measuring sound pressure levels at the operator and bystander positions. Annexes include a standard test table, alternative measurement surfaces for sound power measurements in accordance with the standard, installation and operating conditions for specific equipment categories and a measurement method of impulsive sound pressure levels and discrete tones at the operator position.
International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 15 June 1988. 37p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 88-2044 Berg M., Lindelöf B., Langlet I., Victorin K.
Absence of mutagenic response to radiation from a video display terminal
The standard Ames Salmonella test (TA 100) was used to assess the mutagenicity of radiation from a video display terminal. The Ames test is a sensitive assay that assesss the ability of a chemical to damage deoxyribonucleic acid. It has also been employed to assess the mutagenicity of electromagnetic radiation. An extremely short distance (62mm) from a video display terminal and an extremely high electrostatic field strength (250 kV/m) was employed. No mutagenic response was found in this test system.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1988, Vol.14, No.1, p.49-51. 15 ref.

CIS 88-1728 Gobba F.M., Broglia A., Sarti R., Luberto F., Cavalleri A.
Visual fatigue in video display terminal operators: Objective measure and relation to environmental conditions
Female (28) and male (16) CRT data-acquisition operators in Italy were subjected to ophthalmological examinations. A questionnaire was administered to determine prevailing subjective ocular symptoms and discomfort. Workplace illumination, luminance and constrast between text and screen background were determined. In 10 (26.3%) subjects significant myopisation was observed. A significant correlation between reported eye discomfort, ocular asthenopia and myopisation existed. Illumination level, luminance and contrast were found to be of great importance for visual symptoms: neither asthenopia nor myopisation occurred at adequate lighting and contrast conditions.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.60, No.2, p.81-87. Illus. 31 ref.

1987

CIS 90-2080 Knave B., Widebäck P.G.
Work with display units 86
Selected papers from the International Scientific Conference on Work with Display Units, Stockholm, 12-15 May 1986. Topics covered: reviews and field studies of health effects including eye fatigue, repetitive strain injury, ergonomic and physical stress; radiation emissions; studies on pregnancy outcome and birth defects; skin problems; considerations for visually impaired workers; working posture and physical inactivity; workplace design and lighting; image quality of screen displays; vision monitoring and visual impairement; work organisation; worker education; mental fatigue and stress effects; human-computer interaction.
Elsevier/North-Holland, Biomedical Press, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1987. 880p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-620 Mackay C.
The alleged reproductive hazards of VDUs
This paper reviews the available evidence on the alleged reproductive hazards of VDUs. It concludes that it is unlikely that any threat is posed by irradiation. Poor design of the work station and job-related stress may pose a problem for some users. However, these reflect the way in which the VDU is used, and not the VDU per se. It is recognised that anxiety about VDU use needs to be taken into account. Current guidelines on VDU are introduced and briefly discussed.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1987, Vol.1, No.1, p.49-57. 43 ref.

CIS 89-2014 Orsini S., Sagramoni V., Zambelli P.L.
Radiations emitted by video display units of personal computers and video terminals
Radiazioni emesse dalla unitŕ video di personal computer e videoterminali [en italiano]
Radiation emissions were measured from CRT terminals associated with the following kinds of computer equipment: IBM PC (Colour Display); IBM PC-AT (Colour Display); Apple II; P.C. Bass 161; Ericsson Alfascope. The kinds of radiation tested for were: X-rays, ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), extremely low frequency (ELF), and radiofrequency (RF) radiations. The potential difference between video display unit and the operator was also measured, as was the level of ultrasound emission. The results of the measurements confirmed that there was no risk from any type of radiation or from ultrasound. There was some measurable potential difference increase (although this was difficult to quantify), but only when the video display units were turned on and off.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1987, Vol.78, No.6, p.480-486. 11 ref.

CIS 89-1746 Grandjean E.
Ergonomics in computerized offices
This book, which is of particular interest to those who deal with the ergonomic design of video diplay terminals (VDTs) and workstations, covers major current issues in work with VDTs from an ergonomic point of view. Contents: the present metamorphosis of offices; VDT jobs seen through ergonomic-tinted spectacles; physical characteristics of VDTs; vision; ergonomic principles of lighting in offices; visual strain and photometric characteristics of VDTs; ergonomic design of VDT workstations; noise; occupational stress, work satisfaction and job design; radiation, electrostatic fields and alleged health hazards; recommendations for VDT workstations.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke Hants RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1987. 227p. Illus. 214 ref. Index. Price: GBP 11.50.

CIS 89-1745 Mason S.
Ergonomic aspects of visual display terminal use
This report provides practical advice to those involved in the purchasing of VDU equipment and/or in the design of offices. It outlines the areas where ergonomics can contribute to successful office redesign and presents the more important ergonomic recommendations for equipment selection, VDU workstation design, office layout and the working environment.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 1987. 20p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 89-1046 Computer terminals - Correct design, correct use
Bildschirmarbeitsplätze - richtig gestaltet, richtig verwendet [en alemán]
This is a guide to safe and ergonomic working conditions with VDUs: correct choice of the furniture at work; terminal adjustment; working posture; lighting; radiation; working aids and working methods.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 9p. Illus.

CIS 89-330 Erzberger H., Görner C., Ilg R.
The use of colour for improved presentation of information on visual display terminals
Der Einsatz von Farbe zur verbesserten Informationsdarstellung auf den Bildschirmgeräten [en alemán]
After a review of the physiological background of colour vision, 24 recommendations for designing menus and screens are listed. Colour should not be the sole means of conveying information (colour blindness) and its significance should conform to customary uses (e.g. red for danger). The number of different colours should not exceed 7, and red should be used sparingly.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, Dec. 1987, Vol.9, No.10, p.10-15. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 88-2081 Horie Y.
A study on optimum work-rest schedules for VDT workers
VDT sagyō ni okeru ichirenzoku sagyō jikan to kyūkei ni kansuru kenkyū [en japonés]
Groups of VDT workers followed 3 different routines during total work periods of 3h: 30min of work alternating with 4min rest, 60min work and 10min rest, and 90min work and 20min rest. Error rates and sensitivity to sounds were measured. From the results obtained, 60min work with 10min rest is the best regime for VDT workers to minimise fatigue levels and to increase comfort and productivity. VDT workers working over 2 hours in a day should take at least 15min rest every 60min of work.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Dec. 1987, Vol.23, No.6, p.373-383. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 88-2080 Windberg H.J., Fleischer A.G., Rademacher U., Sondermann P.
Body movement and constrained posture at CRT workplaces
Körperbewegung und Zwangshaltung am Bildschirmarbeitsplatz [en alemán]
During the work of 12 skilled operators at CRT display terminal,s the following parameters were measured: (1) the distance between the eyes and the display terminal, (2) the forces acting on the back and (3) on the seat of the chair, (4) the magnitude of changes in foot position. The operators performed two tasks: copying and editing. After each session the perceived stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire. Copying and editing required more body motions than copying alone. It was perceived to be less strenuous. For CRT workplaces a table adjustable in height without footrest is recommonded, in order to provide freedom of leg and foot movement.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1987, Vol.41, No.4, p.227-232. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 88-2092 Sundelin G., Hagberg M., Hammarström U.
Muscular strain and subjective experiences of different types of pause during work with video display terminals
Muskulär belastning och subjektiva upplevelser vid olika typer av pauser under arbete med ordbehandlingsdator [en sueco]
Assessment of the muscular strain and the influence of different types of pause during work with VDT terminals. 12 secretaries, from 21 to 48 years old, participated in the study. They had to work during 3 periods of 30 minutes each and every 6 minutes a pause of 15-20 seconds was taken. The pauses were of 3 types: passive pause (the operator rested on the seat with the eyes shut), active pause (doing gymnastic movements) and work breaks (leaving the room). The results showed that muscular strain was low and similar for all the pauses, with the exception of the active pause, where the muscular activity was high during a short period. The subjective evaluation of the pauses was very individual (9 preferred some kind of muscular activation: gymnastics or work breaks). Perceived fatigue in the eyes and limbs was the same for the 3 types of pause.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 21p. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 88-2078 Draganova N., Dacov E.
Studies on working posture in videoterminal (VT) work - Data input
Izsledvane na rabotnata poza pri rabota na videoterminal (VT) - văveždane na danni [en búlgaro]
The results obtained revealed that the proportions of workstations do not correspond to the anthropometric data of the female operators studied. The basic working angles depending on the proportions and arrangements of the workstation and the construction of the keyboard, produced forced positions of the hands, shoulders and back. The electromyogram of the flexors of the arm showed a considerable loading and fatigue of the muscular system. The percentage of subjective complaints in the upper extremities was high (especially with respect to the right side) in the region of the shoulders, back and sacrum. Proposals are presented for optimisation of working posture during data input on video terminals.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.2, p.23-29. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 88-1377 Sauter S.L., Chapman L.J., Knutson S.J., Anderson H.A.
Case example of wrist trauma in keyboard use
Evidence of injury to the pisiform and dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve in a video display terminal operator is presented. The subject has performed data entry work via keyboard for 20 years and has the common habit of resting her wrist against the leading edge of the keyboard. Skin lesions have been observed in other keyboard operators who similarly support their limbs. The opportunity for this type of trauma has gone unreported (and apparently unrecognised) in the ergonomics literature, which generally advocates wrist support to reduce upper extremity fatigue and improve wrist-hand posture. This study indicates a need for further evaluation of the dynamics of wrist rest use and of the design of support systems such that forces acting upon the wrist or palm can be controlled.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 1987, Vol.18, No.3, p.183-186. 16 ref.

CIS 88-1370 Evans J.
Women, men, VDU work and health: A questionnaire survey of British VDU operators
Study based on the analysis of 3819 questionnaires. 57% of the sample were female, 68% were under 35 years old and 73% were members of a trade union or staff association. The large number of male respondents meant that it was possible to compare work patterns, types of work and health effects for men and women. It appears that women are engaged in more repetitive and less varied tasks at the VDU and that they work longer hours and for longer periods without a break than men. The most frequently reported health problems were eyestrain, painful or stiff neck and shoulders, fatigue and irritated eyes. The incidence of symptoms was related to hours of work at the VDU. Women were more likely to report health effects than men. This difference remains when hours of work, type of work and hours worked without a break are taken into account. Ergonomically designed equipment such as adjustabe chairs, lighting or keyboard did not have an obvious effect on the reporting of symptoms. It appeared that there is a complex interaction between the physical, ergonomic and psychosocial factors associated with new technology. All these factors need to be taken into account in further research into the health problems of VDU operators.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1987, Vol.1, No.3, p.271-283. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 88-1369 Brunsz R., Bogusławaska M., Gadomska H., Gniewecki A., Sulej S.
Effects of television screen pulsation on visual performance
Badanie wpływu tętnienia światła ekranów telewizyjnych na pracę narządu wzroku [en polonés]
Visual performance at a television screen and at a screen emitting continuous lighting was compared with respect to precision and speed in locating gaps in Landoldt rings. Television screen pulsation reduced the precision and speed of performance after the 1st hour of work in relation to the control screen; this aggravation remained till the end of the experiment. The introduction of 5-minute breaks for relaxation improved the performance. It is recommended to limit the effective working time to 6 hours daily, to make relaxation breaks and to conduct ophthalmological examination of newly employed persons as well as routine examinations.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.132, p.15-27. 9 ref.

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