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  • Visual display terminals (VDTs)

1991

CIS 92-833 Abenhaim L., Lert F.
Methodological issues for the assessment of clusters of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the workplace: The case of video display terminal users
The paper reviews the consecutive methodological steps to follow when assessing clusters of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in the workplace and the decisions to be taken at each step. The example of clusters of APO reported in VDT users in 1979 to 1982 is taken to illustrate each point. It appears that the number of "expected-unexpected" clusters of APO in VDT users has been largely overestimated when checked against observations and that this might be due to inadequate choices in the models used.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1091-1096. 14 ref.

CIS 92-997 Kavet R., Tell R.A.
VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies
This paper's objectives are to summarise (1) how a visual display terminal (VDT) operates; (2) the electric- and magnetic-field (E/MF) environments a VDT produces at the operator position; (3) the health research relevant to an evaluation of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators; and (4) existing E/MF exposure standards as they apply to VDTs. Although VDTs produce E/MFs in the extremely low frequency or ELF range (<300Hz) and very low frequency or VLF range (3-30kHz), this paper focuses primarily on the VLF fields.
Health Physics, July 1991, Vol.61, No.1, p.47-57. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 92-718
Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle
Circular of 4 November 1991 pertaining to work on VDT equipment [France]
Circulaire du 4 novembre 1991 relative au travail sur des équipements comportant des écrans de visualisation [France] [en francés]
The decree of 14 May 1991 (see CIS 92-13) transposing Directive No.90/270/EEC of 29 May 1990 (see CIS 90-1069) into French law provides for special preventive measures against risks related to work on VDT equipment. This circular clarifies certain points in the decree: scope; effective dates (1 Jan. 1993; for already installed equipment: 1 Jan. 1997); clarification of the concept of periodical interruption of screen work; medical surveillance of screen workers; provisions relating to equipment and environmental conditions (seat, relative humidity, ionising radiation, non-ionising radiation, lighting).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1875-146-92, p.89-91.

CIS 92-620 Bell R.I.
Visual display - A practical guide to office lighting and healthy use of VDUs
Guidance is given on the evaluation of visual problems of VDU workstations and on how correct lighting can be used to reduce them. Basic visual mechanisms are explained along with factors affecting visibility (size of detail, contrast and luminance of task, disability glare, adaptation time, chromaticity contrast). Different types of lighting systems are discussed including uplighting and low-brightness reflector fittings.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 1991, Vol.9, No.4, p.28-33. Illus.

CIS 92-179 NIOSH publications on video display terminals (revised)
This revised compilation (see CIS 88-170 for original) comprises a bibliography of all NIOSH reports and publications on video display terminals (VDTs) along with full-text copies of selected references. These include testimony presentations and results of NIOSH studies and recommendations on VDTs, including those regarding radiation and reproductive effects. Information for obtaining listed items is included.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, June 1991. iii, 84p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-13 Decree No.91-451 of 14 May 1991 on the prevention of risks to operators of VDT equipment [France]
Décret n°91-451 du 14 mai 1991 sur l'équipement à écrans de visualisation - Prévention des risques liés à leur utilisation [France] [en francés]
This decree is applicable to premises in which employees regularly work with VDT equipment for a substantial part of the working time. The employer is bound by certain obligations in connection with the analysis and organisation of screen work, in connection with information and training for employees working with VDT equipment, and arrangements for medical supervision. The decree includes specific provisions concerning equipment (screen, keyboard, etc.) and the working environment (radiation, humidity, noise, lighting). The decree will come into force on 1 January 1993, but in the case of equipment in operation prior to this date, certain provisions will not come into force until 1 January 1997.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1991, No.144, Note No.1848-144-91, p.539-541.

CIS 92-344 Working safely with video display terminals
This booklet examines the potential hazards and interventions employers can use to prevent or reduce the potential harmful effects of working with video display terminals (VDTs). Contents: VDT components; health effects (eyestrain, fatigue and musculoskeletal problems, effects of radiation); interventions (correct lighting, work station compatibility and design, VDT design).
OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 1991. 17p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 91-1825 Lips W., Weickhardt U., Buchberger J., Krueger H.
Work at video terminals
Die Arbeit am Bildschirm [en alemán]
Il lavoro al videoterminale [en italiano]
Le travail à l'écran de visualisation [en francés]
This booklet updates and replaces data sheet No.11037 (CIS 83-1583). It takes into account technical developments, incorporates results of recent studies and includes a new chapter (No.5) on the issue of software.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach 4358, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Feb. 1991. 63p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 91-1744 Pickett C.W.L., Lees R.E.M.
A cross-sectional study of health complaints among 79 data entry operators using video display terminals
This paper reports on the findings of a cross-sectional study of 79 data entry clerks employed by a Canadian organisation in 5 separate offices. The study was conducted to identify factors associated with physical complaints experienced by these office workers. A large percentage of the data entry clerks reported chronic physical complaints (eyestrain, musculo-skeletal pains, headache) as well as emotional or mental stress which they felt were associated with their occupation. Poorly designed overhead lighting systems in all offices contributed to both eyestrain and headache. Highly significant associations between occupational stress levels and some physical complaints were observed. The existence of such associations indicates that the management of physical and stress complaints in office environments should be tackled simultaneously.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1991, Vol.41, No.3, p.113-116. 10 ref.

CIS 91-1690 Cail F., Mouzé-Amady M.
Physical hazards and work with visual display units in industry - Experimental simulation
Nuisances physiques et travail sur écran en industrie - Simulation expérimentale [en francés]
This study investigated the behavioural and psychophysiological changes during a simulated process control task performed under single and combined physical stressors. Twenty-four subjects took part in the task on a visual display unit (VDU), in 4 experimental conditions: adequate lighting (control); noise; inadequate lighting; noise and inadequate lighting. Response times (performance), electroencephalogrammes, electro-oculogrammes and heart rate (vigilance indicators) were continuously recorded during the task. The main results show that the longest response times and the highest activation levels occurred in a multistressor environment. This suggests that combined inadequate lighting and noise impairs the operator's efficiency in process control on a VDU. Recommendations are made for improving the situation in such workplaces.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.142, Note No.1816-142-91, p.71-77. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 91-1729 Sauter S.L., Schleifer L.M., Knutson S.I.
Work posture, workstation design, and musculoskeletal discomfort in a VDT data entry task
Self-report data on musculoskeletal discomfort were collected from several hundred VDT users in 2 agencies of a US state government. Worker posture and workstation design were assessed for 40 of the subjects. Multiple regression analyses showed a clear relationship between ergonomic factors and discomfort. Leg discomfort increased with low soft seats, suggesting that postural constraint is more important than thigh compression as a risk factor for leg discomfort in VDT work. Arm discomfort increased with increases in keyboard height above elbow level. High levels of neck and shoulder girdle discomfort were observed, which suggests the need for further attention to the control of cervicobrachial pain syndromes in VDT work.
Human Factors, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.2, p.151-167. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 91-1382 Jaschinski-Kruza W.
Eyestrain in VDU users: viewing distance and the resting position of ocular muscles
The purpose of this study was to test whether eyestrain during near work depends on the individual's position of convergence and/or accommodation in darkness. A VDU task which placed a predominantly static load on the ocular muscles was performed at two viewing distances. Visual strain at a viewing distance of 50cm was greater than at 100cm. The more distant the individual's dark convergence, the greater was the visual strain at the 50cm viewing distance. When subjects were free to adjust the viewing distance to their comfort level, they chose distances between 51 and 99cm (mean 74cm) with characters 5mm tall.
Human Factors, Feb. 1991, Vol.33, No.1, p.69-93. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 91-1000 Salud y seguridad en el trabajo con unidades de visualización
Spanish translation of a document originally abstracted as CIS 89-2028. It provides information and guidance on safety and health aspects related to the use of VDUs. Contents: safety and health issues in VDU work; special rules and regulations at government and enterprise levels; ergonomic aspects of work station and environmental design; job design and the organisation of work - job content, performance monitoring, working time, training; role of occupational health services - health surveillance, pre-assignment assessment, periodic assessment, examination on request; main findings and conclusions. The annex consists of 3 tables that include examples of regulations and guidelines governing the use of VDUs in the workplace, representative clauses regarding work with VDUs from collective agreements at the enterprise level and recommended features of VDUs.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. viii, 59p. 72 ref. Price: CHF 12.50.

1990

CIS 94-501 Cail F.
Visual display unit work in 50 questions
Le travail sur écran en 50 questions [en francés]
Practical guide (usable for training purposes) containing 50 questions that VDU operators are most often faced with. For each problem, solutions are proposed and rated according to their ergonomic feasibility. Contents: introduction; installation; layout, information display; work organization.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1990. 27p. Illus.

CIS 92-2036 Koh D., Goh C.L., Jeyaratnam J., Kee W.C., Ong C.N.
Dermatological symptoms among visual display operators using plasma display and cathode ray tube screens
A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of dermatological complaints in 672 full-time operators of plasma display (PD) screens and cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors in Singapore. The overall one year period prevalence rate for dermatological complaints was 12%. 36 (13%) of PD operators and 46 (11%) of CRT operators had skin complaints. Results indicate that the prevalence and nature of dermatological symptoms among operators using either type of VDU monitor are similar. A personal history of atopy was strongly associated with the likehood of having skin complaints.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Sep. 1990, Vol.19, No.5, p.617-620. 15 ref.

CIS 92-2043 Ong C.N., Thein M.M., Berquist U.
A review of adverse effects on reproduction amongst female computer terminal workers
Some recent studies on the possible reproductive effects of VDUs are reviewed with emphasis on spontaneous abortion and birth defects. Factors affecting pregnancy outcomes in general are explained along with the need to compensate for such factors in comparative studies. Clusters of reproductive failures among VDU operators within several organisations are described along with epidemiological investigations. Suggested reproductive factors in VDU work are outlined. According to current scientific knowledge, the use of computer terminals during pregnancy does not by itself lead to increased risks of adverse reproductive effects.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Sep. 1990, Vol.19, No.5, p.649-655. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 92-1385 Sauter S.L., Dainoff M.J., Smith M.J.
Promoting health and productivity in the computerized office - Models of successful ergonomic interventions
Papers presented in this volume are arranged under 3 headings: physical ergonomic interventions and job/task design (workspace influence on worker performance and satisfaction; employee comfort, satisfaction and productivity; ergonomic improvements in VDT workstations; postural load and the incidence of musculoskeletal illness; optimising physical activity in VDT/office work; effect of exercise breaks on musculoskeletal strain among data-entry operators); organisational approaches and issues in the redesign of VDT work (ergonomic issues in a VDT office; organisational culture and VDT policies; preventing mental health disturbances with new office technologies); clinical evaluation and management of health complaints (vision and the VDT; neck and arm pain in office workers).
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 0PR, United Kingdom, 1990. vi, 248p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 35.00.

CIS 92-1342 Feierfeil P.J., Schaffert E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Noise emissions by office and information processing equipment - Personal computers (networks) and printers
Geräuschemission von Geräten der Büro- und Informationstechnik - Arbeitsplatzcomputer (Mehrplatzsysteme) und zugehörige Druckeinrichtungen [en alemán]
This report describes the results of investigations into the determination of the noise levels of computer and business equipment; computers (multi-user systems) and related printing devices. Noise emission levels were determined for 9 different computers from 6 manufacturers and 13 printing devices under standard conditions. The results, especially in relation to the mode of operation and design details of a keying robot, were incorporated in the national standard DIN 45 635 Part 19 and into a European manufacturers' agreement (ECMA standard 74). The investigations revealed that the main noise sources in computers are the mechanical components, such as the streamer and diskette drives, and the fans of the central processing units. On average, noise level of printer and PC in an office are estimated at 56dB(A) compared to 65dB(A) in the case of a typewriter. Noise emission reductions of up to 10dB are achievable by improving the thermal design of the computers and selecting slow-running fans. Summaries in English, French, German.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1990. 63p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: DEM 14.00.

CIS 92-805 Duell W., Katz C.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Manual on work with visual display units
Ratgeber Bildschirmarbeit [en alemán]
This guide reviews the current ergonomic data on VDU work and provides checklists and a compilation of regulations, legislation and standards (e.g. DIN) to be observed when working with a VDU. It also deals with the selection of VDU, software and training tools for work with computers and makes recommendations on software, hardware and workplace ergonomics and on the organisation of work and tasks following the introduction of VDU's.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1990. 161p. Illus. 38 ref. Index. Price: DEM 26.00.

CIS 91-1906 Berlinguet L., Berthelette D.
Work with display units 89
Selected papers from the 2nd International Scientific Conference on work with Display Units held in Montreal, Canada, 11-14 September 1989 (for the 1st Conference, see CIS 90-2080). Papers cover the following topics: visual discomfort and disorders; lighting and image quality; musculoskeletal problems; pregnancy outcome; skin problems; stress; work organisation; elderly VDU users; functional disability; non-ionising radiation; human-computer interaction; evaluation of standards; education (VDU use in schools, worker involvement in technological change); VDUs in developing countries; consequences of the VDU debate.
Elsevier Science Publishers, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1990. xii, 558p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Author index. Price: USD 140.00

CIS 91-1915 Epelman M., Fontana D., Neffa J.C.
Efectos de las nuevas tecnologías informatizadas sobre la salud de los trabajadores
Part I of this study discusses the influence of new computer technology on the working world (technical characteristics of new work tools: computer, visual display units; work tasks after the introduction of VDUs in the workplace; job classification and work reorganisation). Part II deals with associated health hazards: vision disturbances, musculo-skeletal problems, psychological problems, effects on the reproductive function; microclimate (temperature, humidity) and noise; other health problems (dermatitis, epilepsy due to light flickering); electric shock. Recommendations for a healthier workplace. In the appendix: questionnaire survey of VDU users; check list for VDU operators.
Humanitas-Credal, Carlos Calvo 644, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1990. 139p. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 91-1912 Brandt L.P.A., Nielsen C.V.
Congenital malformations among children of women working with video display terminals
In a case-base study among 214,108 commercial and clerical employees in Denmark the potential effect of the use of video display terminals on the risk of congenital malformations in pregnancy was investigated. The study base was defined by means of register linkage of the Medical Birth Register and the National Register of In-patients. In the source population 24,352 pregnancy outcomes were registered, 661 of which with congenital malformations formed the case group, and a base sample of 2,252 pregnancies was drawn. Data concerning the use of video display terminals, job stress, ergonomic factors, exposure to organic solvents, and life-style factors were obtained from postal questionnaires. The results of this study did not support the hypothesis that the use of video display terminals during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1990, Vol.16, No.5, p.329-333. 11 ref.

CIS 91-1911 Nielsen C.V., Brandt L.P.A.
Spontaneous abortion among women using video display terminals
This case-base study with a source population of 214,108 commercial and clerical workers investigated the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome among women working with a video display terminal (VDT) in Denmark. A subpopulation was obtained by register linkage between a trade union membership file, the Medical Birth Register, and the National Register of In-patients. In 2 years 24,352 pregnancy outcomes were registered, 2,248 spontaneous abortions were recorded, and a base sample of 2,252 pregnancies was randomly selected. Data on VDT use, job stress, ergonomic factors, and life-style factors were collected with questionnaires sent to 6,212 women and 426 employers. There was no increased risk of medically verified spontaneous abortion among women with VDT use. The relative risk for women exposed to any degree of use was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.77-1.14).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1990, Vol.16, No.5, p.323-328. 11 ref.

CIS 91-1726 Birgfeld H.
Lighting for office and display screens
Beleuchtung für Büro- und Bildschirmmix [en alemán]
Illumination levels and satisfaction of employees with the illumination in offices were investigated. In the offices studied, CRT display work and conventional office work were done. Based on the results of the investigation, recommendations for proper lighting are made: there should be individual halogen desk lamps with a light refraction grid in addition to ceiling lamps.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Sep. 1990, Vol.21, No.9, p.40-42. Illus.

CIS 91-1370 Nibel H., Gehm T.
Does the computer after all not cause illness?
Macht der Computer doch nicht krank? [en alemán]
Questionnaires on musculosceletal complaints filled out by 854 female bank employees and job descriptions of these employees were evaluated by non-parametric regression analyses. It was found that complaints were linked to qualification. Employees performing higher qualifed work such as programmers had little or no complaints while data entry personnel had a higher rate of musculoskeletal problems.
Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 1990, Vol.34, No.4. p.192-198. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 91-1192 Cail F., Floru R.
Work schedule of computer terminal operators
Organisation temporelle du travail sur terminal d'ordinateur [en francés]
Literature review covering: relationship of time spent on VDT work and appearance of visual, postural and neuropsychic symptoms; experiments involving the spacing of rest periods; recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.140, Note No.1790-140-90, p.563-568. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 91-1158 Windham G.C., Fenster L., Shanna H.S., Neutra R.R.
Use of video display terminals during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion, low birthweight, or growth retardation
Use of video display terminals (VDTs) during pregnancy among working women was examined using data from a large case-control study of spontaneous abortions (SAB) occurring in 1986-1987. The crude odds ratio for SAB and VDT use was 1.2 for use of less than 20 hours per week (95% CI = 0.88, 1.6) as well as for 20 hours or more (CI = 0.87, 1.5). Use of VDTs within specific occupational categories was examined, yielding adjusted odds ratios varying from 0.5 to 1.7. In addition, the risk for low birthweight (LBW) among the control group was not greatly elevated at either VDT use level, with adjusted ORs of 1.1 (0.52, 2.1) and 1.4 (0.75, 2.5) respectively. However, the risk for intrauterine growth retardation was somewhat elevated among women with greater VDT use.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1990, Vol.18, No.6, p.675-688. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 91-991 Pawlak U., Roll K.F.
Luminance levels of glare on visual displays
Reflexleuchtdichten auf Bildschirmen [en alemán]
Experiments with 50 randomly selected volunteers for determining the disturbance threshold of glare on visual displays are described. The thresholds obtained are used to characterise the quality of visual displays. Two classes of visual displays are distinguished: class A, with little glare protection suitable for light levels up to 200cd/m2, and class B, suitable for light levels up to 1000cd/m2, representing the latest state of the art.
Siemens-Zeitschrift, 1990, Vol.64, No.2, p.32-35. Illus.

CIS 91-870 Aronsson G., Åborg C.
Computer support and VDU work: development strategies and work environment consequences
Datorstöd och bildskärmsarbete: utvecklingsstrategier och arbetsmiljökonsekvenser [en sueco]
This paper deals with working conditions and organistional change in VDU work. Research findings on psychological, social and medical aspects are reviewed, particularly with respect to control, workload and social support. Data on sex differences and sickness absence are presented. The traditional method of computer system development is described and an alternative, user-oriented strategy is discussed. Results of interviews with persons responsible for organisational change and computerisation in 3 public agencies in Sweden are presented. The change process is described in terms of the actual process, internal and external conditions and results. Although increased productivity was the main purpose for the reorganisation process, positive effects were observed on work content and utilisation of skills.
ARbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 48p. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 91-445 Berg M., Axelson O.
Evaluation of a questionnaire for facial skin complaints related to work at visual display units
A questionnaire about facial skin problems was answered by 3745 office employees, with the aim of discovering whether VDU work causes skin disease. From this group, 809 randomly selected persons were examined and interviewed by a dermatologist. There was a relatively good correspondence (87%) between the results from the interviews and the questionnaires, but the questionnaire results corresponded to current status in only 46% of the cases. There was a relatively wide variation in the correlation between 2 responses to the same questions. In conclusion, the self-administered questionnaire seems to give reasonably adequate answers regarding the occurrence of more clear-cut symptoms over a period of time, rather than answers regarding the presence of signs at a particular point in time.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1990, Vol.22, No.2, p.71-77. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 91-333 Collins M., Brown B., Bowman K., Carkeet A.
Workstation variables and visual discomfort associated with VDTs
The effects of a range of workstation factors upon the visual symptoms experienced by a group of 92 visual display terminal (VDT) users were investigated. Subjects in the study kept a diary over 5 consecutive workdays in which they recorded the types of visual and postural symptoms which occurred and the types of work tasks being performed. Each subject's workstation was analysed for screen legibility and stability, discomfort and disability glare, and required head postures. By the use of multiple regression techniques the relative contribution of these factors to the symptoms reported by the users of these workstations was considered. Screen legibility significantly influenced the occurrence of symptoms of ocular discomfort and vertical head movements significantly affected the incidence of postural/headache symptoms.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1990, Vol.21, No.2, p.157-161. 14 ref.

CIS 91-331 Jaschinski-Kruza W.
On the preferred viewing distances to screen and document at VDU workplaces
Previous research has shown that during work at visual display units (VDUs) most subjects prefer viewing distances greater than 50cm. The present study investigates whether this is also true in those VDU tasks that require the subjects to shift their gaze frequently between the VDU screen and a paper document. In a laboratory 2 conditions were compared: 1 - both screen and document were located at 50cm (as recommended in most ergonomic guidelines); 2 - the document was at 50cm and the screen at 70cm. Gaze shifts between screen and document were made every 2s. Contrary to expectation, visual strain was not greater when the viewing distances to screen and document differed. Thus the dynamic load on accommodation and convergence due to the different viewing distances (50 and 70cm) did not produce stronger visual strain than the static load at identical viewing distances of 50cm. These results are evidence against the widespread ergonomic concept that viewing distances to both screen and document should generally be about 50cm. It is suggested that VDU users may select viewing distances that they find comfortable in the range of more than about 50cm.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1990, Vol.23, No.8, p.1055-1063. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-2090 Riesgos para la salud y la seguridad de los trabajadores no manuales
Gesundheits- und Sicherheitsgefahren für Angestellte [en alemán]
Risques pour la santé et la sécurité des travailleurs non manuels [en francés]
This issue of the bulletin published by the International Metalworkers' Federation (Geneva, Switzerland) is devoted to the undesirable effects of the introduction of new technologies in non-manual jobs: piece work, stress, monotony and isolated work.
IMF Bulletin on Occupational Health and Safety - Bulletin FIOM sur l'hygiène et la sécurité au travail, 1990, n°27, 10p.

CIS 90-1742 Screen checker for checking computer terminals, word processors and personal computers
Le test-écran pour l'essai des terminaux à écran, des traitements de texte et des micro-ordinateurs [en francés]
The Screen Checker is intended to provide data on the screen and keyboard features most important for the working environment. It can be used to evaluate existing workstations and to help in the selection of new equipment. Twenty-two parameters are determined: screen size; flicker; positive/negative contrast; sharpness, colour and design of characters; interline distance; image persistance; reflection; screen framing; screen tilt and vertical adjustability; separability of keyboard; hand support; stability; keyboard height, angle, noise and reflectivity; key size and spacing. Nine additional questions for the supplier are given.
TCO, The Central Organisation of Salaried Employees in Sweden, Box 5252, 102 45 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 4p + plastic templates + report form. Price: SEK 15.00.

CIS 90-1069 Council Directive of 29 May 1990 on the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment [CEC]
Directive du Conseil du 29 mai 1990, concernant les prescriptions minimales de sécurité et de santé relatives au travail sur des équipements à écran de visualisation [CCE] [en francés]
Fifth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC (CIS 89-1401). After having defined the terms "display screen equipment and workstations", the directive specifies employers' obligations related to the analysis of workstations, to information for and the training of workers, daily work routines, consultation and participation of workers, and protection of workers' eyes and eyesight. Minimum requirements concerning the equipment, the environment and the operator/computer interface are given in the appendix.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 21 June 1990, Vol.33, No.L 156, p.14-18.

CIS 90-1387 Workplaces with visual display terminals - Information note from the Labour Inspectorate
Arbeidsplasser ved skjermterminal. En orientering fra Arbeidstilsynet [en noruego]
This information note sets basic requirements concerning equipment, workplace design, work organisation, training, supervision of employees, eye examinations and prevention of musculoskeletal diseases. Referring to research on the possible connection between miscarriage and visual display work, this guidance note does not advise against computer work during pregnancy. However, if a pregnant woman is worried about the risk of miscarriage, she should be transferred to another job.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 1990. 23p. Illus. 5 ref.

1989

CIS 95-324 Acústica - Medición del ruido de alta frecuencia emitido por los equipos informáticos y de oficina
Acoustics - Measurement of high-frequency noise emitted by computer and business equipment [en inglés]
Acoustique - Mesurage du bruit à haute fréquence émis par les matériels informatiques et de bureau [en francés]
Esta versión corregida de la norma ISO 9295 reemplaza a la edición de 1988 (ver CIS 89-1363). En ella se especifican cuatro métodos para determinar los niveles de intensidad acústica del ruido de alta frecuencia emitido por los equipos informáticos y de oficina en el rango de frecuencias cubierto por la banda de octava centrada en 16 KHz. Estos métodos son complementarios a los métodos descritos en ISO 7779
Organisation internationale de normalisation, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Suiza, edición corregida, 1 feb. 1989. 11p. Ilus.

CIS 91-2093 VDT workplace
Poste de travail avec TEV [en francés]
A series of 6 data sheets on different aspects of VDTs in the workplace. Topics covered: office environments; sample checklist to identify problems in a VDT workplace; VDT screens and keyboards; chair and work surfaces; the visual environment; job design, including relaxation exercises.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1 set. Illus. CAD 4.00 (Canada); USD 5.00 (USA); USD 6.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 91-1342
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Technical Report of the Study Group on Radiation and Visual Display Units
Report of an expert group on present-day knowledge concerning radiation hazards associated with visual display unit (VDU) work. Topics discussed: radiation from VDUs; standards relating to VDUs; measurements of radiation from VDUs; quality control of VDUs; installation and maintenance; VDUs and pregnancy outcome; in-service testing of VDUs.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1989. v, 18p. 7 ref.

CIS 91-1388 Aronsson G., Oxenburgh M., Wennberg A., Winkel J.
Optimising physical activity in VDU work - An intervention study
The study investigated the relation between physical activity and some physiological and psychological parameters. 16 healthy female data entry operators were studied at their workplace in an "active" and in an "inactive" situation (maximal and minimal allowable physical activity). The design of their workstations was in accordance with standard ergonomic principles. There was no difference between the conditions in orthostatic strain (foot swelling, loss of total PV) or discomfort in the lower extremities; no change in mood or vigilance, or in quantity (key strokes/hour) or quality of work (error rate); reduced discomfort in the shoulder-neck region in the "active" situation, probably due to 50 minutes less computer time. The results are discussed in relation to optimisation of physical activity and work organisation.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 36p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 91-873 Paulus J.
Radiation by visual display units
Strahlende Schirme [en alemán]
Sweden has set a stringent limit on the level of electromagnetic radiation emitted by visual display units (VDUs). Electromagnetic radiation by personal computers on the German market can be up to 40 times the level allowed by Swedish standards. A table provides information on the protection offered by various types of filters used on VDUs. Proof now exists that VDUs emit (even if in extremely small quantities) flame retardants such as dibenzofurans, which are highly toxic and particularly dangerous during manufacturing of the VDUs or in case of fire. An efficient ventilation is recommended until more restrictive standards are issued in Germany.
Öko-Test-Magazin, 1989, No.6, p.24-26. Illus.

CIS 91-522 Söderberg I.
Change in course - About reorganisation and computerisation at a local government authority
Ändrad kurs - Om organisationsförändring och datorisering i en kommunal förvaltning [en sueco]
Study of organisational change and computerisation in a local government administration in order to determine how the personnel reacted to the changes and to provide a basis for development of methods for influencing change processes. The transition represented a major adjustment for most of the personnel. Many considered their work more interesting but the workload, time pressure and stress had increased considerably. Three sources of stress could be identified: uncertainty, adaptation and pressure. The computer system met with some resistance during the first year. Changes in work tasks were experienced positively on the condition that the person involved could influence the changes.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 83p. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 91-499 Aronsson G., Tönnes M., Pettersson P.
Sickness in different types of VDT work - A register study of 8,400 VDT users at the Swedish Telecommunications Administration
Sjukfrånvaro i olika typer av bildskärmsarbete - En registerstudie av 8.400 bildskärmsanvändare vid Televerket [en sueco]
Comparison of recorded sickness absenteeism for 1985 and 1987 concerning various types of VDT users (8,400 persons) and non-users (34,000) at the Swedish Telecommunications Administration. Relative risk ratios and volume measures were used in the comparison. The groups working with data entry, data acquisition and interactive work were found to have a considerably higher volume of sickness absenteeism that the comparison group whereas programmers and the CAD/CAM group displayed a lower level (unadjusted for age and sex). In addition to the type of VDT work the nomenclature qualification level was a strong predictor of the magnitude of sickness absenteeism. The relative risk ratios for women performing more repetitive types of VDT work were similar to other women in the company, but the risk ratios of men were often significantly higher than was the case for their male comparison counterparts.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 37p. 14 ref.

CIS 91-332 Itani T., Otani T., Takahara M., Takeuchi K., Ono H., Miura M., Koda S., Aoyama H.
A study on operating time and workload in different types of visual display terminal work
VDT sagyō-jikan bunpu to sagyō-futan ni kansuru kenkyū [en japonés]
Visual display terminal (VDT) operating time was recorded automatically, and a questionnaire study concerning the working conditions and health of the operators was carried out in different sections of an electronics company: purchasing and selling, drawing, and production administration. The operating time varied among the different types of VDT work and also among the operators of a given section. The operating time estimated by the operators in their questionnaire replies was slightly longer than that shown by the recorded data; however, the distribution patterns of operating time established by the 2 methods were very similar. The operators of the purchasing and selling section and the drawing section complained of problems with respect to their workload. The operators of these 2 sections complained of related health problems more frequently than the operators of the product administration section. This suggests that it is important to estimate the VDT operating time in individual jobs, as it can be a crucial factor in preventing occupational health hazards related to VDT work.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, June 1989, Vol.65, No.6, p.356-364. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 91-339 Stones I.
Ergonomics for workplaces with visual display terminals
Principes ergonomiques applicables au poste de travail avec terminal à écran de visualisation [en francés]
Health problems associated with the use of visual display terminals (VDTs) are chiefly muscular (sore wrists, hand cramps, pains in neck and shoulders) and visual (eye-strain, blurred vision, dizziness). These effects may be caused by incorrect work station design, repetitive hand movements, poor lighting and repeated focussing of the eyes. Problems may be avoided by providing work stations which may be adjusted to suit the size of the worker, the task performed and individual preferences. Sources of glare should be reduced and work/rest schedules implemented. Detailed guidance is given on the setting up and use of a VDT work station.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 11p. Illus.

CIS 90-2044 Schwaninger U., Thomas C., Nibel H., Menozzi M., Läubli T., Krueger H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitschutz
Long-term effects of work with VDU's on the eye and the musculoskeletal system
Auswirkungen der Bildschirmarbeit auf Augen sowie Stütz- und Bewegungsapparat [en alemán]
The long-term health effects of VDU work are analysed according to four different approaches: 1 - The results of outstanding international epidemiologic studies are reviewed. 2 - The results of a questionnaire survey carried out on 2722 VDU workers for a cross-sectional study are supplemented by interviews with occupational physicians, providing a thorough survey of the health status of VDU workers in large entreprises. 3 - In order to evaluate the effects on the eyes, the results of eye-tests done by in-plant health services were investigated. 4 - Special groups of workers, such as expectant mothers, presbyopic and disabled workers are given particular attention.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 (W) Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1989. 202p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-2051 Läubli T., Fleischer A.G., Krueger H.
Research results for practical use - VDU workplaces - Design of VDU work
Forschungsergebnisse für die Praxis - Bildschirmarbeitsplätze - Gestaltung von Bildschirmarbeit [en alemán]
Aspects covered: strain and stress at the workplace, (on the musculoskeletal system, on the eyes, mental stress); ergonomic design of the workplace; structure of the information and dialogue; work design and organisation.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 1, Germany, 1989. 19p. 28 ref.

CIS 90-2079 Itoh K., Enkawa T., Akiba M.
Measurement method for general fatigue based on attenuation of channel capacity in visually cognitive work
Shikaku-ninchi-sagyō ni okeru "channel capacity" no gensui ni motozuita seishinhirō sokuteihō [en japonés]
As measurement methods for fatigue due to video display terminal (VDT) use, eye accommodation time, CFF (critical flicker fusion frequency) and subjective ratings are frequently used. However, these methods have limitations. This research focuses on general fatigue, rather than visual fatigue. A measurement method for general fatigue in visual cognitive work with VDT's is proposed. The proposed method is to measure the decrease of the channel capacity of the central nervous system. The method was applied to various tasks and work environments in 3 experiments. It was able to detect differing degrees of fatigue among various work environments. It seems to be appropriate as a measurement method for general fatigue in actual VDT work.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Apr. 1989, Vol.25, No.2, p.87-100. 27 ref.

CIS 90-2043 Knave B., Bergqvist U., Wibom R., Nilén H.
Symptoms and subjective discomforts in "hypersensitivity to electricity"
Symptom och subjektiva besvär vid "överkänslighet mot elektricitet" [en sueco]
Report on "hypersensitivity to electricity", based on anamneses for 32 patients. A diversity of symptoms and subjective discomforts were reported. 31 of the 32 subjects (97%) indicated diffuse skin disorders such as patchiness, rosacea, heat, prickly sensations, stiffness, itching etc. 20 persons (63%) presented symptoms of the nervous system, such as giddiness, tiredness and lack of energy, headache, difficulty remembering things etc. 17 persons (53%) also reported eye symptoms and disturbances of vision. The pathological symptoms were often pronounced and in 25% of the cases they resulted in sick leave. Symptoms affecting the nervous system were more persistent than were dermatological symptoms. 29 subjects (91%) referred to the display screen as the triggering factor, but other factors were also referred to: fluorescent light tubes, sunlight, electrical appliances, ventilation devices etc. Discontinuation of VDU work was the most effective countermeasure, especially for dermatological symptoms.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 34p. 5 ref.

CIS 90-1682 Romon-Rousseaux M., Puppinck-Talpaert P., Hache J.C., François-Druez S., François E., Boulengez C., Duwelz M.., Frimat P., Furon D.
Usefulness of screen filters for use with visual display terminals
Etude de l'efficacité des filtres anti-reflets lors du travail sur écran [en francés]
To evaluate screen filters under normal working conditions, 3 kinds of filters were tested at random for 4 hours a day: glass filters, micromesh filters and, as controls, altuglas filters. The effectiveness of the filters was assessed by a questionnaire on visual fatigue and visual quality of the characters, and by visual testing in the workplace. The comparison between micromesh and glass filters showed that the display is more pleasant to look at when micromesh filters are used, but contrast vision is better when glass filters are used.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1989, Vol.50, No.7, p.665-669. 12 ref.

CIS 90-1355 Working with visual display units
Santé et sécurité dans le travail sur écran de visualisation [en francés]
This practical review provides information and guidance on safety and health aspects related to the use of VDUs. Contents: safety and health issues in VDU work; special rules and regulations at government and enterprise levels; ergonomic aspects of work station and environmental design; job design and the organisation of work - job content, performance monitoring, working time, training; role of occupational health services - health surveillance, pre-assignment assessment, periodic assessment, examination on request; main findings and conclusions. The annex consists of 3 tables that include examples of regulations and guide-lines governing the use of VDUs in the workplace, representative clauses regarding work with VDUs from collective agreements at the enterprise level and recommended features of VDUs.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 57p. 72 ref. Annex. Price: CHF 12.50.

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