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- Visual display terminals (VDTs)
Wahlström R., Maas B., Petterson S., Adrup J., Göransson B.
Working conditions at VDUs
Conditions de travail devant les écrans de visualisation. [en francés]
Translation of a study made by the Swedish Insurance firm Skandia following a survey in 1976 of 45 employees of this firm. Aspects covered: description of workplace (working surface, lighting, terminal); ventilation and heating of premises; colours; physical fatigue (visual fatigue, headache, pain in neck, back, shoulders and wrists); recommended programme for improvement of working conditions (lower overall lighting levels, table lamp, change of electric light bulbs, positioning of terminal, choice of seating and workplace layout, cholice of colours).
Published by Luxo France, 11 rue Auguste-Lacroix, Lyon 69003, France, 1980. 62p. Illus.
OSH rules for workplaces at CRT display units in offices
Sicherheitsregeln für Bildschirm-Arbeitsplätze im Bürobereich [en alemán]
Review of various aspects of OSH rules currently adopted by the ad hoc committee of the German Standards Institute: visual display unit (VDU) dimensions of screen and lettering, contrast and luminance, possibility of positive displaying); keyboard (located away from screen, dimensions, brilliance and reflected light); document holder (dimensions, inclination, surface); desk or table (adjustable height, available surface, width, reflected light, leg room); office layout of VDUs; general lighting; preventive medicine (pre-employment eye examination); work organisation (information for operators, diversification of tasks, work breaks). Diagrammatic sketch illustrating ergonomic data.
Sicher ist Sicher, Mar. 1980, Vol.31, No.3, p.118-124. Illus.
Work stations with visual display units
Bildschirmarbeitsplätze [en alemán]
Record of proceedings of a conference organised by the German Federal Institute for Labour Protection and Accident Research (Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung), Dortmund, 1-2 Apr. 1980. Contents: use of CRT display terminals or visual display units (VDUs) - viewpoints of the social partners; eye strain; eye examinations and vision tests in relation to work at VDUs; aspects of data logging; practical experience in use of VDUs in an insurance company; present situation regarding standardisation and research; criteria for VDU workplace design and layout; ergonomic design of a keyboard; lighting problems; design of worksheets and coding sheets; reorganisation required when installing VDUs for text processing.
Nr.22, Schriftenreihe Arbeitsschutz. Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 178p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: DM.27.50.
Data processing and office work - Elements of ergonomics
Informatique usuelle et travail de bureau - Eléments d'ergonomie. [en francés]
Introduction (historical background; future trends); overview of some elements of data processing technology; detailed analysis of work at CRT visual display terminals (general aspects of the work, strain due to posture and repetitive movements, visual and mental strain, psycho-social variables); study of relation between work at visual display units and surrounding environment (visual, thermal and hearing comfort, material safety aspects). Recommendations concerning ergonomic aspects: psycho-social factors to be taken into consideration; choice and quality of equipment; workplace design, layout and organisation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1st quarter 1980, No.77, p.29-49. Illus. 27 ref.
Problems caused by the continuous use of visual display units.
The problems and appropriate remedial measures described are: eye strain (ocular, visual, systemic, and behavioural symptoms); operator fatigue; visual factors, postural factors, environmental factors (heat, noise); work design factors, personal factors. Visual factors (image quality, effects of illumination, glare, reflections, adaptation) are dealt with in some detail. Most of these problems can be overcome by ergonomic design.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1980, Vol.12, No.1, p.26-36. Ilus. 29 ref.
A guide to users of business equipment incorporating visual display units
No evidence has been found to suggest that operation of visual display units is in any way harmful. This booklet gives advice on avoidance of eye fatigue, preplacement eye testing, the working position, working environment (general surroundings, lighting), equipment, service and maintenance.
The Business Equipment Trade Association, 109 Kingsway, London WC2B 6PU, United Kingdom, 1980. 15p.
The health debate (visual display units).
The health hazards of visual display units are discussed. Health issues are illustrated, and the main points of a Swedish directive are cited. Aspects considered are: x-ray emission, electromagnetic emission, optical radiation (none of these phenomena are a problem), screen flicker, visual defects, and rest periods.
Reprographics Quarterly, 1979, Vol.12, No.3, p.80-83. Illus.
Meyer J.J., Gramoni R., Korol S., Rey P.
Specific characteristics of eye strain from work at visual display units
Quelques aspects de la charge visuelle aux postes de travail impliquant un écran de visualisation. [en francés]
Criteria determining visual fitness and lighting standards for known situations in ordinary working conditions; detailed analysis of other visual stimulation factors involved in work at CRT display terminals, with criteria for the following cases: moving and flickering picture; size and quality of letters, spacing, lighting levels, luminance and contrast of surrounding visual field; spectrum characteristics of display terminal. Possible improvements are discussed.
Travail humain, 1979, Vol.42, No.2, p.275-301. Illus. 21 ref.
De Dobbeleer R., De Schryver M., Fumičre L., Hermans G., Martin J., Meers A., Tichon J., Vanderweyen J.P., Van Mulders J.
Work at computer terminals
Le travail aux terminaux d'ordinateurs. [en francés]
Contents of this monograph: ergonomic aspects (equipment, screen, keyboard, printer work posture, furniture, lighting, microclimate); mental stress and physical health status; eye strain and visual aptitude (eye anomalies; ophthalmological examinations and their frequency; prescription lenses for vision correction; terminal reading aids). Annex: methods for calculating luminance of characters and indoor lighting plans with regularly-spaced lighting sources.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Dec. 1979, Vol.14, No.4, p.3-62 (special issue). Illus. 43 ref.
Grundy J.W., Rosenthal S.G.
Vision and VDUs.
Four articles are compiled: visual display units - nightmare to the operator? (ocular defects, design limitation and improper use of equipment, conditions of work and surroundings, psychological factors, visual standards); visual display units in question (health hazards, eyestrain, rest periods, age of operators, bifocal and contact lenses, colour blindness, display colour, operator's eyesight, visual effects, epilepsy, tinted lenses, siting of VDUs, lighting); VDUs - their effect on eyes (comfort, eye development and function, eye coordination, lighting, vision screening, correction of eye defects); recommended procedure for eye examinations and suggested standard of vision for VDU operators.
Association of Optical Practitioners, Bridge House, 233-234 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8NW, United Kingdom, 1979. 13p. Illus.
Gunnarsson E., Söderberg I.
Visual display work in newspaper printing offices - Visual ergonomics inventory
Arbete vid textskärmar pĺ tidningsföretag - En synergonomisk inventering [en sueco]
Contents of this report: development of computer-assisted tasks and consequences of the introduction of this technology; work presenting eye strain; layout of workplaces and work organisation; visual stress and eye disturbances (legibility of characters); distance and angle of vision; work spectacles and vision tests (poor adaptation for bifocal lens wearers); duration of work at terminal and work breaks (recommendations of the Swedish Board for Occupational Safety and Health).
Undersökningsrapport 1979:21, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 39p. Illus. 34 ref.
Study of IBM 3741-3742 operator
Etude du poste d'opératrice sur IBM 3741-3742. [en francés]
The working conditions of 5 female computer operators were examinated in detail: work environment; theoretical tasks and actual work (identification and coding of documents, storage of data in memory, checking, corrections), sensory and motor activities required of operators; work load (visual and mental, postural constraints); analysis of operating mode (eye movements; illuminance). Conclusions and recommendations: improved presentation of documents, new workplace design, improved illuminance, reduced noise; ophthalmological surveillance; need for a certain autonomy of personnel in work organisation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1979, No.75, p.21-42. Illus. 93 ref.
Light and lighting conditions for work at CRT terminals in newspaper printing works
Ljus och belysningskrav vid arbete med textskärmar pĺ tidningsföretag [en sueco]
Report based on numerous workplace studies (composition and correction of texts and advertisements, editing at the terminal). Contents: definition of lighting terms; data concerning the workposts studied; problems linked to tasks, terminal workplace equipment, working environment and lighting; measurements taken (lighting distribution and location of luminaires, luminance measurement, subjective assessment of lighting conditions, tests to obtain optimum lighting of manuscript-holder); recommendations and proposals for daylight workplace lighting (vertical adjustable Venetian blinds), workplace design and layout (situation in relation to windows, choice of colours, etc.), general and local lighting (many examples); advice and checklists for new projects.
Tidningarnas arbetsmiljökommitté, Box 45136, 103 25 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 75p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: Swe-cr.29.85.
Lighting and optical physiological problems of work with data display screens
Lichttechnische und physiologisch-optische Probleme bei der Arbeit an Datensichtgeräten [en alemán]
Rapid shifting of the field of vision from the screen to a brighter surface area (e.g. window or manuscript) gives rise to a visual adaptation problem. This adaptation can be facilitated by increasing the size of the characters on the screen and having a luminance ratio between the screen and the environment of 1:3 to 1:4. The possibility of improving screen luminance is examined. Glare and its suppression are very important. Problems of presbyopia can be resolved with corrective lenses suited to the various work distances. Other recommendations are made for the distance between the screen and manuscript, and visual fitness examinations.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Aug. 1979, Vol.14, No.8, p.182-186. Illus. 9 ref.
Elias R., Mayer A., Cail F., Christmann H., Barlier A.
Conditions of work at computer terminals
Conditions de travail devant les écrans cathodiques. [en francés]
Results of a survey which included a questionaire survey on the problem of eye strain in CRT terminal workers, workplace luminance measurements and recording of eye movements. The survey revealed a great many problems, as well as ways and means of improving workplace lighting and avoiding reflected light. Appended: text of the questionnaire.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1979, No.97, Notes No.1216-97-79 and 1217-97-79, p.577-592. Illus. 4 ref.
Glenville M., Wilkinson R.T.
Portable devices for measuring performance in the field: the effects of sleep deprivation and night shift on the performance of computer operators.
The performance of 12 computer operators was measured on the job, on 2 new portable tests of reaction time, during the first night of the night shift at 4 a.m. and at the beginning day shift (8 a.m.), over 3 successive 3-week comparisons. Results: mean reaction time increased significantly on the night shift as compared with the day; the adverse effect of the night shift was absent during the first comparison and became increasingly apparent on the second and third replications. Night shift performance was poorer than the day shift and previous studies of sleep deprivation in the laboratory are able to provide a good indication of what was to be expected in the field. The need for longitudinal studies in order to assess the true effects of stressors is emphasised.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1979, Vol.22, No.8, p.927-933. Illus. 9 ref.
CRT display terminals - Ergonomic aspects
Beeldschermstations - Ergonomische aspecten [en holandés]
Report of a study on CRT display terminal workplaces: choice of terminals (influence of design on workplace layout, legibility of wording, colour, noise, keyboard, X-rays (insignificant)); work posture (height of seat, correct adjustment of seat back, position of keyboard and screen in relation to operator); lighting (diffused lighting, reflection and its elimination, luminaires, windows with curtains or vertical blind slats); microclimate; work organisation (staff objections to introduction of CRT display terminals, work-rest schedules); visual acuity (staff ophthalmological examinations); software (influence on fatigue and vigilance).
AG 79/564, Rijks Geneeskundige Dienst, Noord West Buitensingel 15, Den Haag, Netherlands, Mar. 1979. 34p. Illus. 28 ref.
Weiss M.M., Petersen R.C.
Electromagnetic radiation emitted from video computer terminals.
Electromagnetic emissions were measured over the entire spectrum from low-frequency radiofrequency waves to X-rays, on 8 representative terminals. Radiation was detected at 1.5kHz-1,420MHz in the radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, and at 350-600nm in the ultraviolet and visible region. The levels were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than the most stringent national permissible exposure levels established in the world. There is no experimental or epidemiological evidence to indicate that these levels of radiofrequency radiation have any harmful effect on humans.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1979, Vol.40, No.4, p.300-309. Illus. 6 ref.
Problems of work at computer terminals
Problčmes posés par les terminaux d'ordinateur. [en francés]
Record of proceedings of the Meeting organised by CRESEPT (Brussels, 15-16 Sep. 1978). The 19 papers presented (16 in French, 1 in English, 2 in Dutch) by experts from Belgium, France, Sweden and Switzerland give a theoretical and practical overview of the problems created by electronic data processing in offices, and in particular by the introduction of CRT computer terminals (VDUs), proposing solutions to these problems. The following aspects are covered: mental strain and monotony (example of a data logging unit); ergonomic problems related to the man-work dialogue and ergonomic design of a data processing system; physical characteristics of VDUs and visual fatigue; advantages and disadvantages of electronic data processing as regards working conditions, submitted by employers' and workers' representatives; ergonomic aspects of computer terminals and recommendation for workplace improvement.
Centre de recherche et d'études sur la sécurité, l'ergonomie et la promotion des conditions de travail (CRESEPT), 9 rue de Pascale, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, no date. 173p. Illus. 50 ref.
Work at visual display units: Who needs special glasses for work at cathode ray terminals?
Arbete vid bildskärm: Vem behöver särskilda terminalglasögon? [en sueco]
The survey used as a basis for drafting Directives No.136 of the Swedish National Board for Occupational Safety and Health concerning the prevention of visual disturbances in cathode ray terminal work (CIS 79-554) showed that 54.8% of CRT display terminal operators complained of these disturbances. This article gives advice on the recruitment of CRT operators, with early screening for refractory disorders and complete eye examination. Adaptation of prescription lenses presupposes the precise determination of the distance between the eyes and the distance between the lense and the pupil. When adapting the frame, the angle of vision should be taken into account, because selecting the wrong angle would result in prismatic deformation of the image, usually causing headache. The advantages and disadvantages of multifocal and progressive lenses are considered, and the importance of close collaboration between the ophthalmologist, the optician and the health and safety officer.
Arbetsmiljö, 22 Jan. 1979, No.1, p.15-20. Illus. 13 ref.
International symposium on vision and work
Colloque international vision-travail. [en francés]
Record of proceedings of the symposium (Rodez-Toulouse, France, 23-25 Nov. 1978). Themes discussed by the 10 working groups (physicians, ergonomists, lighting experts, opticians, etc.); visual functions, aptitudes and fatigue; lighting; eye injuries due to accidents; eye disorders of occupational origin; early screening of visual disorders; vision correction; visual handicaps; work at VDUs (a major theme of the symposium).
Institut de recherche pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 37 Allées J. Guesde, 31000 Toulouse, France, 1980. 500p. Illus.
Cakir A., Reuter H.J., Von Schmude L., Armbruster A.
Adaptation to human physical and psychic functions of operators' posts at CRT terminals
Anpassung von Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen an die physische und psychische Funktionsweise des Menschen [en alemán]
Report of research in 30 firms employing over 1,000 workers. Description of research methods, analysis of data display problems (technical data concerning CRT terminals, subjective evaluation, eye strain). Most of the report is devoted to a description of the existing situation and targets for improvement: anthropometric aspects, interaction between vision and posture, keyboard, lighting, air conditioning, noise. Description of an ideally designed workplace. Chapters on methods used to measure mental stress, including the special case of creative work at the keyboard by journalists and editors (use of the CRT teminal for a varied and interesting task without monotony). Review of problems which arise when equipment of this kind is introduced in plants and offices.
Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Referat Presse und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Postfach 14 02 80, 5300 Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, 1978. 455p. Illus. 86 ref.
Workposts for operators of visual display screens
Arbeitsplätze an Bildschirmgeräten [en alemán]
Based on the possibilities of accommodation and adaptation of the human eye, this article reviews the ergonomic aspects to be borne in mind in designing these workposts. To avoid having reflections on the screen, the optimum location of CRT display terminals , microfilm readers and similar equipment depends on the lighting sources in the workplace. General lighting conditions and choice of luminaires depends on the type of work involved. Lighting can be reduced by rheostat, curtains or blinds. Advice is given on workpost design and location (the unit should not be placed facing a window; the screen and the keyboard should be located separately for certain types of work; screen level; elimination of reflections; adjustable table and chair; screen surface) and on operator's clothing, prescription lenses if worn, and workpace environment. A summary of the rules to be observed concludes the article.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Sep. 1978, Vol.28, No.9, p.258-262. Illus. 8 ref.
Von Conrads H.
An ophthalmologist's evaluation of work at visual display units
Die Beurteilung der Arbeit an Datensichtgeräten aus augenärztlicher Sicht [en alemán]
Work at CRT display terminals may cause organic and functional eye disorders, and the damage may occur without the operator being aware of the fact. This article contains recommendations to be followed when visual display unit (VDU) operators' eyesight is to be tested: workpost inspection, job description, roundup of technical data concerning the workpost, working conditions, complete eye examination. When inspecting the workpost the ophthalmologist should be accompanied by a member of the staff delegates' council. The author stresses the importance of eliminating reflected light by correct placing of the VDU, shielding the VDU from ambient light, or placing a screen behind the operator. Other factors to be taken into consideration include inclination of the CRT screen in relation to the natural angle of vision, ambient lighting and legibility. The characters of the text displayed on the screen should be clearly legible, not too small and pale or soft yellow in colour. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Sep. 1978, Vol.28, No.9, p.256-258.
Ergonomics of visual and muscular work at CRT terminals
Syn- och muskelergonomi vid bildskärmsarbete [en sueco]
This article gives the results of several surveys carried out in the United Kingdom and in other European countries concerning the hazard of eye strain and other eye disorders associated with work at CRT terminals. A survey was carried out in Sweden to ascertain the factors in this work which cause visual and muscular fatigue. Environmental conditions which increase visual effort and may result in muscular fatigue (eyes, nape of the neck, shoulders, back) are set out in synoptic tables indicating suggested solutions: problems linked to the way in which the information is displayed on the screen, keyboard layout and design, condition of MSS to be keyed in, uncorrected defective vision, lighting, layout, design and microclimate of work premises, workplace layout and design (operator's seat, desk or table, dimensions etc.). Medium-term future trends in the use of CRT terminals, showing the importance of the ergonomic design of these workposts.
Arbetsmiljö, 27 Nov. 1978, No.14, p.19-21. Illus. 1 ref.
Visual display units - are they safe?
This article, by the Principal Medical Officer of the Occupational Health Service, British Post Office Telecommunications, gives background information on the design and development of visual display units (VDUs), followed by considerations on: real and doubtful health problems (possibility of ionising or non-ionising radiation from defective equipment; visual fatigue; subjective symptoms such as headache, irritability, nausea, anxiety, depression, etc.); eye strain due to wearing spectacles of focal length unsuited to the distance from the screen; ergonomic aspects; current research (including a 5-year investigation commenced in 1977 by the British Post Office). Immediately following the article (on p.363) is a commentary by a VDU operator, which endorses the guidelines for VDU operators issued by the Printing Industries Committee of the Trades Union Congress, recommending as a minimum at least a 30min break after every period of 2h work at a VDU.
Occupational Health, Aug. 1978, Vol.30, No.8, p.357-362. Illus. 8 ref.
Recommendations for work at cathode ray terminals
Aanbevelingen voor het werken aan beeldschermen [en holandés]
These are official recommendations from the Dutch Cathode Ray Terminal Work Study Commission (Central Bureau-Studiecommissie Bediening Beeldschermaparatur), concerning: exposure to ionising radiation (which is within international exposure limits for terminals used in the Dutch graphic industry); work posture and ergonomic terminal design (table and seat height, forearm angle, angle of vision, etc.); lighting and measures against reflective glare; legibility of displayed texts and those to be copied, screen luminance (optimum values for good contrast); periodic examinations of operators' visual function; rational work layout to prevent visual fatigue (limitation to 2h continuous work at terminal, etc.); functional lighting of colour of workplace; ergonomic keyboard design, etc.
Grafia, 5 Oct. 1978, Vol.24, No.19, p.469-470. Illus.
Directives on prevention of visual disturbances in cathode ray terminal work (Sweden), 1978
Anvisningar om ĺtgärder till förebyggande av synbesvär vid avläsning av bildskärmar [en sueco]
These directives (effective 1 Jan. 1979) deal with general lighting, which must be adapted to workplaces where work at terminals plays a predominant role (200-300lx), supplementary lighting for workplaces close to the terminal where other work must be performed, elimination of all sources of glare from the visual fields, possibility of adjusting the viewing distance and angle of inclination of the screen to individual requirements, visual comfort for spectacle wearers, and organisation of work.
Anvisningar nr 136, National Board for Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1978. 4p.
Take a break and make good use of it!
Ta paus och ta vara pĺ pausen] [en sueco]
This article gives practical advice to CRT display terminal operators: questions every sedentary worker should ask about posture, and replies concerning correct sitting posture (adjustment of back rest, correct distances from desk and terminal screen, optimum angle of vision, posture for writing); breaks for relaxation (mini-breaks, best posture and breathing for relaxation, resting the eyes and exercises for the eye muscles, midday lunch break, short work breaks for relaxation, breaks for gymnastics).
Arbetsmiljö, 1978, No.9, p.31-33. Illus.
Gilet A., Grall Y., Keller J., Viénot P.A.
Work at computer terminals - Medical and ergonomic aspects - A study of critical frequency of fusion and evoked visual potentials
Le travail sur terminal ŕ écran - Aspects médicaux et ergonomiques - A propos d'une étude sur la fréquence critique de fusion et les potentiels évoqués visuels. [en francés]
Considerations on ergonomic aspects of a computer terminal operator's desk (design, layout, furnishings, suitable floor surface for ease and freedom of movement in sitting posture and when changing place, environmental lighting conditions and visual comfort) are followed by a report on a survey of 10 visual display unit (VDU) operators and 9 controls, to quantify visual strain, using the following parameters: evoked visual potentials (EVP) and critical central retinal frequency of fusion (CCRFF), measured before and after work on VDU. The results obtained were not conclusive, mainly due to lack of correlation between EVP recordings and time worked and the observance of increased CCRFF in VDU operators at the end of the day (whereas, clinically, visual fatigue usually results in lowered CCRFF). However, the concordance between observed asthenopia and the presence of oculomotor disturbance indicates the necessity for the occupational practioner to prescribe opthalmological screening tests and regular check-ups.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1978, Vol.39, No.6, p.357-373. Illus. 19 ref.
Van Berkel P.L.M., Scholtens S., Den Buurman R., Leebeek H.J., Lenoir T.M.J.
Work at display terminals from the ergonomic viewpoint
Het werken met beeldschermterminals ergonomisch bezien [en holandés]
Proceedings of a conference organised by the Dutch Ergonomics Association (Utrecht, Netherlands, 15 Nov. 1977 and 11 Jan. 1978). Contents: reviews of technical possibilities and fields of application of cathode ray terminals; relations between use of the terminal and execution of tasks; readability and clarity of information display (dimensions, presentation, etc.); adaptation of the workplace and working environment to man (work posture, arrangement of keyboard and terminal, luminance and contrast of display; lighting and glare; luminaires, windows, etc.); psychological aspects of terminal work (mental work, constant attention, mental fatigue, etc.).
Nederlandse Vereniging voor Ergonomie, ing. H.H. Brand, p/a Technische Hogeschool, Postbus 513, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 1978. 126p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: Glds.40.00.
Moss C.E., Murray W.E., Parr W.H., Messite J., Karches G.J.
A report on electromagnetic radiation surveys of video display terminals.
This survey of a newspaper printing plant was undertaken to evaluate the hazards of the different types and models of CRT display terminals. Low energy X-rays, gamma, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radiofrequency and microwave radiation are produced. The instruments used for the measurements, including luminance, and the terminals are described. A literature review and findings of a previous survey are given to complete the information on the subject. All results agree that the radiation levels produced do not appear capable of presenting an ocular radiation hazard. Cataract and eyestrain causes are in doubt.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-129, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1977. 20p. Illus. 14 ref.
Gunnarsson E., Östberg O.
Physical and psychological working environment within a terminal based computer storage and retrieval system
Fysisk och psykisk arbetsmiljö i ett terminalbaserat datasystem [en sueco]
Complaints by terminal operators are generally in references to changes in the work routines and work content which are consequences of computerisation. Physical complaints are visual strain and pain in the back, neck and wrists during long working periods at the terminal. Extensive interviews and a photographic study were used to determine the need for reducing the work periods and the need for work spectacles. Continuous intense terminal work during an 8h-day led to different types of visual strain for 75% of the operators, but further research is needed before recommendations can be made.
Undersökningsrapport 1977:35, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1977. 46p. Illus. 20 ref.
Fatigue at the computer terminal workplace
A propos de la fatigue au poste de terminal d'ordinateur. [en francés]
MD thesis. Study of the workplace of terminal operators (environmental factors, description of work, posture, muscular work and operator's seat). The possible hazards are examined: implosion/explosion; ionising radiation; visual fatigue, to which most space is devoted. An ergonomic approach to these workplaces includes medical surveillance of operators, especially as concerns their vision, ergonomic design of the screen and terminal in a single unit, and organisation of the work, especially as concerns the workshift duration (approx. 90min) and daily working time (6h). Gymnastics during work pauses and eye relaxation are advocated for prevention of visual fatigue.
Université de Paris XI, Faculté de médecine de Kremlin-Bicętre, Paris, France, 1976. 76p. 80 ref.
Jansson T., Östberg O.
Design of computer terminal workposts - Handbook
Att utforma terminalarbetsplatser - en handbok [en sueco]
Recommendations for the ergonomic design of workposts at computer terminals: stress factors of computer terminal work (eye strain, immobile posture, etc.); visual task and lighting; work posture; required working space; design and layout principles (adjustable seat, table, keyboard, screen, printer, disadvantages of bifocal lenses, lighting levels and contrast, etc.); model workpost (job analysis, choice of location, position of screen in relation to keyboard, to printer, to telephone, etc.). Check-list for setting up these workposts.
Rapport 1976:11, Statskontoret, Stockholm, 1976. 64p. Illus. 14 ref. Liber Förlag, 16289 Vällingby, Sweden. Price: Swe-cr.25.00.
CRTs pose health problems for operators.
Review and broad literature analysis of the fatigue factors associated with work at display terminals: wearing of bifocal lenses, defective eye functions, motivation of operators, light level, work area, glare, effect of contrast, flicker effect, colour choice for the screen and for the lettering, readability. Description of symptoms (ocular, visual, systemic, behavioural). While not proposing definitive remedies the author resumes the lessons to be learned from earlier studies in several countries, pointing to the problems still confronting research. A French translation is published in Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, Paris, France, 1st quarter 1977, No.86, Note No.1049-86-77, p.55-63.
International Journal of Occupational Health and Safety, Nov.-Dec. 1975, Vol.44, No.6, p.24-26, 46, 50 and 52. 62 ref.
Haider M., Slezak H.
Occupational stress and eye strain at visual display screens
Arbeitsbeanspruchung und Augenbelastung an Bildschirmgeräten [en alemán]
Report on a work physiology study investigating symptoms reported by people working at computer terminals (headache and soreness of eyes, flickering vision, loss of visual acuity and disturbance of colour perception). Analysis of these disorders in the light of earlier studies and description of the apparatus used and the study design. Work on computer terminals, especially when prolonged, produces functional disturbances of the optic system and the symptoms referred to, but none of these are permanent. Such effects are considered to have a physiological, not a pathological, basis, but they do show the existence of unusual stresses. It is recommended that continuous periods of work be shortened and that breaks be intercalated during work at cathode-ray screens.
Verlag des Österreichischen Gewerkschaftsbundes, Altmannsdorfer Strasse 154-156, 1232 Wien, Austria, May 1975. 46p. Illus. 32 ref.
Unsatisfactory work posture and psychic strain affecting cathode ray terminal operators
Fel arbetsställning och psykisk överbelastning för bildskärmsoperatörer [en sueco]
This article examines the health problems of women workers operating these terminals (headache, pain at nape of neck and in the shoulders), caused by poor posture (most frequently due to the lighting conditions), psychic strain and excessive demand on certain muscles. Remedial suggestions: flexible layout of workplace for easy rearrangement to suit individual requirements; improvement of visibility and lighting conditions; work table of adequate dimensions, adjustable for height; screen adjustable according to operator's vision and other anthropometric parameters; ophthalmological examination; adjustable seat; work breaks and exercises for relaxation.
Arbetsmiljö, 1975, No.1, p.10-11. Illus.
Computer terminals considered from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and ergonomics
Datenterminalarbeitsplätze aus arbeitsmedizinisch-ergonomischer Sicht [en alemán]
An introduction concerning the design and equipment of computer terminals is followed by information on the dimensions of the table and the location of the cathode ray screen. The luminance of the information displayed on the screen should be 8 to 10 times higher than the background luminance.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Oct. 1975, Vol.10, No.10, p.193-196. Illus. 23 ref.
Stewart T.F.M., Östberg O., Mackay C.J.
Computer terminal ergonomics - A review of recent human factors literature.
Recommendations for the design of computer input devices (keyboards, display units) based on the findings of a literature survey. The survey covered data entry, keyboards, visual presentation of information, visual display units, workspace aspects of terminals and system factors. The bibliography lists the publications analysed in the survey.
Report Dnr 170/72-5, Statskontoret, Box 2106, S-103 13 Stockholm, Sweden, 1974, 2nd edition. 100p. Illus. 178 ref.
Work stations with data terminals.
This booklet contains guidelines for design of these work stations. Discussed are: office lighting, lighting evaluation, work stations with data terminals (visual display units, data printers, environmental effects), ergonomics of office environment, and check list.
Stansaab AE206-410, Stansaab Elektronik AB, Veddestavägen 13, S-175 62 Järfälla, Sweden, 1974. 35p. Illus. 14 ref.
Hultgren G.V., Knave B.
Discomfort glare and disturbances from light reflections in an office landscape with CRT display terminals.
Detailed analysis of lighting conditions in a landscaped office following complaints by computer terminal operators of sore eyes, eye strain and headaches from glare and light reflections on the 17 variously situated terminal display screens. Describes the methodology and examines the levels of illumination and the luminance at the various workplaces, their relation to the positions and backgrounds of the terminals, and the respective effects of daylight and artificial light. Measures suggested to eliminate reflections include placing of screens around workplaces; artificial lighting might best solve the problem of discomfort glare.
Applied Ergonomics, United Kingdom, Mar. 1974, Vol.5, No.1, p.2-8. Illus. 6 ref.
Gorškov S.I., Šardakova Ė.F., Žahmetov E.G.
Study of the time lag of tendon reflexes among computer keyboard operators
Issledovanie skrytogo vremeni suhožil'nyh refleksov operatorov-vyčislitelej klavišnyh ėlektronno-vyčislitel'nyh mašin [en ruso]
The authors examined, before and after the work shift, the palmar and knee reflexes of 10 young computer keyboard operators. They observed a lengthening of the time lag of these reflexes, due to nervous stress and the heavy workload borne by the neuromuscular system. The left hand was much more affected than the right.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1973, No.7, p.33-36. Illus. 16 ref.
Environmental factors at a computer terminal work post
A propos des facteurs d'ambiance au poste de terminal d'ordinateur. [en francés]
This MD thesis describes an investigation carried out as a result of complaints from staff of a large mail order firm who worked at a computer terminal. The complaints concerned lighting conditions at the workplace. The inquiry took into account the principal factors affecting the working conditions of 245 women keyboard operators. The workplace, the premises and the influence of various environmental factors (ventilation, temperature, noise, lighting) were studied successively. In conclusion the author emphasises the repetitive nature of the work, the high noise level (around 70dB) and the poor lighting arrangements. He reviews the improvements already made (especially as regards lighting) and makes suggestions for further improvement of the working conditions.
Université de Lille, Faculté de médecine, Lille, France, 1973. 88p. Illus. 21 ref.
Hultgren G.V., Knave B.
Discomfort glare and disturbances from light reflection in an office environment with CRT display terminals
Kontrastbländning och reflexstörningar i kontorslandskap med bildterminaler [en sueco]
The authors studied the lighting of an office equipped with 17 CRT display terminals and analysed complaints from the staff. Discomfort glare and reflections on the terminal screens were found to be the main causes of the complaints. Discomfort glare resulted from difference in luminance between the dark screen and other lit surfaces in the room. Reflections from windows and ceiling lighting appearing on the glossy screen were often found to have higher luminance values than the text on the screen. On the basis of these results, guiding principles are suggested for the design of lighting in similar workplaces.
Arbete och hälsa - vetenskaplig skriftserie, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 10026 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1973:1, 16p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: Swe-cr.6.00.
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