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- Visual display terminals (VDTs)
Applications of vision tests in occupational medicine
Intérêt des "visiotests" en médecine du travail [en francés]
MD thesis. Considerations on: anatomy of the eye and physiology of vision; principal eye and vision disorders; study of working conditions of VDU operators; comparison between usual vision tests and recent developments in "visiotests" used in occupational medicine. "Visiotests" enable more accurate analysis of visual functions to be made than current methods. Information on the principle of "visiotests" and how they are conducted; analysis of results of clinical tests carried out over the last 2 years. Emphasis on the role of the company physician/oculist in screening for visual disorders (espacially VDU operators) and future possibililies of "visiotests".
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de Médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1982. 87p. 57 ref.
Work at VDUs and mental stress
Travail sur écran et charge mentale [en francés]
Example of data logging and correcting in the printing industry. This study conducted in 3 printing firms showed the influence of work organisation on the operator's workload and stress, and revealed a relation between the degree of complexity of the texts and the operator's perceptive and sensory activities, and the role of the large number of codes used (these caused perturbation of the perceptive processes). Consequential health damage; recommendations concerning working conditions, codification systems, training and apprenticeship.
Revue de la sécurité, July-Aug. 1982, Vol.18, No.192, p.6-12. Illus.
Facial rash in visual display unit operators
Description of a facial rash in 6 otherwise healthy female VDU operators. The cause has not been established, but circumstantial evidence strongly favours a link between the rash and working conditions.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1982, Vol.8, No.1, p.25-28. Illus. 10 ref.
Tisserand M., Saulnier H.
Workstation dimensions - Application to VDU keyboard terminal: 2. Workplace design
Dimensionnement des postes de travail - Application au poste terminal écran-clavier - 2. Conception du poste [en francés]
Sequel to a previous monograph (CIS 82-560). Data (methods, rules dimensions) necessary for the design or correction of VDU keyboard terminals; dimensional data relating to vision, bulk and functional anthropometry; delineation of functional areas; examples of workplace construction for stations with fixed-height and variable-height tables, and for one with a fixed viewing height; recommendations for furniture design (work surface, seat, footrest).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1982, No.108, Note No.1389-108-82, p.377-395. Illus. 12 ref.
Agreement between the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs and the Ministry's staff council on working conditions for the use of VDUs
Dienstvereinbarung des Bundesministers für Arbeit und Sozialordnung mit dem Hauptpersonalrat beim Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung über die Arbeitsbedingungen beim Einsatz von Bildschirmgeräten [en alemán]
As part of the legislation in force in the Federal Republic of Germany, this agreement regulates the working conditions of people using VDU screens in the course of their activity. Aspects covered: workplace design, installation and use of screens, mixed workplace, duration of use (maximum 4h per day), information and training, prevention of monotony, qualifications, prohibition on use of data to check employee performance, medical surveillance (above all eye tests), changes of occupation. Extracts of safety regulations ZH 1/618 (CIS 82-269) are appended: screen design and data display, keyboard, positioning of screen, keyboard and copy-holder, prevention of reflection from windows or lighting, area per work station, microclimate.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.46-47.
Carlsson L., Knave B., Voss M.
Visual ergonomic study of a new terminal system for computer-stored data (the "Ultrastrip")
En synergonomisk studie av ett nytt terminalsystem för datalagrad information, Ultrastrip [en sueco]
Study of a workstation comprising a CRT screen and a microreader. Evaluation of visual task by objective ergonometrics and a questionnaire (completed by operators accustomed to working with CRT screens): image, quality, visual distance, natural and artificial lighting, forms used, type face and size, workstation design and layout. Detailed recommendations and proposals for working environment optimalisation. Appended: models of the forms used at these workstations.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 50p. Illus. 8 ref.
Dreyer V., Jensen S., Saaby Johansen A., Pedersen V., Petersen E., Östberg O.
The working environment at visual display units
Les problèmes d'environnement dans le travail sur écran cathodique [en francés]
An overview of the problem areas associated with VDUs and the working environment, produced by means of an assessment of the published literature. In this way possible future areas of more detailed research are highlighted. Areas considered include: ergonomics; lighting conditions; environmental factors such as heat and noise; workplace design; mental aspects; and visual problems such as eye strain and fatigue.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1981. 58p. (English language version). Illus. 72 ref. Price: ECU 6.79.
Video display terminals. An Alberta view
Tests were conducted on 130 video display terminals, including 50 different models, to determine the emission of X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared radiation, and microwaves. No radiation levels were observed which exceeded the minimum detectable levels for each of the monitoring instruments used. These results were consistent with those of investigations in other countries. The highest observed reading of 1800V/m was well below a proposed foreign exposure standard of 3000V/m for the frequency range <3MHz.
Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, Alberta, Canada, May 1981. 10p. 14 ref.
Kononenko A.A., Derkač V.V.
Changes in cardiovascular function and adaptive antihypoxic mechanisms in computer keyboard operators during a work shift
Nekotorye osobennosti funkcional'noj aktivnosti serdečno-sosudistoj sistemy i prisposobitel'nyh antigipoksičeskih mehanizmov u operatorov klavišnyh ėlektronno-vyčislitel'nyh mašin v dinamike rabočej smeny [en ruso]
Pulse rate, blood oxygenation, electroencephalogram and rheoencephalometric parameters of 23 computer operators were recorded at the beginning, middle and end of a shift. The dynamics of blood oxygenation during intake, holding and release of a breath, as measured by an oxyhaemograph sensor attached to a subject's ear lobe, was taken as a measure of the activity of antihypoxic mechanisms. This activity, as well as heart rate and rate of intracerebral circulation, declined over a working shift. This is probably a response to the sedentary and monotonous nature of the work.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1981, No.11, p.29-32. 11 ref.
Visual display terminals: A selected bibliography
A bibliography of selected literature reporting on work with visual display terminals is provided.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1981. 29p.
Supervision of workers employed on VDU terminals
A propos de la surveillance d'un personnel travaillant sur terminal à écran [en francés]
Survey of 750 persons, 105 of whom were employed on VDU terminals (52 men and 53 women). There was no significant distress in 57% of the persons in question (a majority of men). Ophthalmological examination was normal in 2/3 of cases, and 1 case in 5 showed evidence of minor anomalies. The disorders were primarily of a visual nature and affected mainly women working full time with a long history of this type of work. Special medical supervision seems justified.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1981, Vol.21, No.83, p.33-37.
Work at computer terminals
Le travail sur terminal à écran [en francés]
Description of the operator's tasks. Medical determination of ophthalmological fitness. Muscular comfort: seat, table, keyboard, screen. Visual comfort: legibility of characters on screen and keyboard, on documents; equal luminance distribution between screen, keyboard and documents to be consulted; equilibrium of luminance in time and space at the working level, in front of the operator (horizontal vision) and behind the operator (depending on reflection from the materials and equipment used).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1981, Vol.21, No.82, p.19-30. Illus.
Dainoff M.J., Happ A., Crane P.
Visual fatigue and occupational stress in VDT operators
A semi-structured interview technique was used to determine the attitudes of 121 visual display terminal operators (90 clerical and 31 data entry; 108 female and 13 male) toward their work and toward office automation. In the group of 31 data entry operators a more intensive examination including optical measurements and the administration of a mood-physical symptom check list was also carried out for 1 work week. A relatively high level of incidence of eye fatigue symptoms and of complaints regarding glare and lighting was found. The pattern of complaints was independent of job pressure and hostility towards office computerisation. No consistent pattern of optometric measurements was found to be related to subjective complaints.
Human Factors, Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.421-437. 20 ref.
Murray W.E., Moss C.E., Parr W.H., Cox C.
A radiation and industrial hygiene survey of video display terminal operations
Ionising, ultraviolet, visible and radiofrequency radiation emitted by 136 video display terminals of 530 in use at 3 different sites was measured. Samples of workroom air were also analysed for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, acetic acid, and formaldehyde; operators at these terminals were not exposed to hazardous levels of radiation or chemical agents.
Human Factors, Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.413-420. 13 ref.
Stammerjohn L.W., Smith M.J., Cohen B.G.F.
Evaluation of work station design factors in VDT operations
Visual display terminal (VDT) workstation designs were evaluated at 5 establishments and compared to design recommendations in literature reports. Design factors evaluated included keyboard height, screen height, workstation illumination, and glare. Illumination levels were in the 500-700lx range; questionnaire survey data for male and female operators confirmed that these levels were acceptable. Design problems found included excessive keyboard heights and screen positioning which required excessive inclination of the head and neck for screen viewing. Operator problems found in survey data included screen readability, reflected glare, screen brightness and flicker. Dissatisfaction parameters were related to levels of somatic health complaints.
Human Factors, Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.401-412. 25 ref.
Smith M.J., Cohen B.G.F., Stammerjohn L.W.
An investigation of health complaints and job stress in video display operations
Working conditions, job stress factors, health complaints and psychological mood state were investigated for 250 male and female video display terminal (VDT) operators and 150 non-operator control subjects at 5 participating work sites using a questionnaire survey. Clerical VDT operators reported higher levels of job stress and health complaints but little difference in psychological mood state than did professional VDT operators and the control subjects. The job stressors showing the greatest impact on the clerical operators were workload, workplace, lack of control over job activities, boredom, and concerns about career development. Health complaints showed that the greatest differences between the groups occurred for visual, musculoskeletal, and emotional health problems. Job content factors and VDT use interact to contribute to operator problems.
Human Factors, Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.4, p.387-400. 10 ref.
Work on VDU screens in the tertiary sector. Ergonomic aspect and implications for occupational medicine
Le travail sur terminal à écran dans le secteur tertiaire. Aspect ergonomique et implications en médecine du travail [en francés]
This medical thesis studies only CRT screens: job description (technological aspects and different work situations), visual, mental and postural stress in the job, material and psychological stress due to the environment; assessment of workload and proposals for workplace layout and design, the work environment and operator supervision. Emphasis is placed on the visual demands of screen work, the importance of good equipment design, arrangement of working hours (relaxation breaks) and work content (diversification, information, training).
Université de Nancy I, Faculté de médecine, Nancy, France, 1981. 143p. 51 ref.
Hünting W., Läubli T., Grandjean E.
Postural and visual loads at VDT workplaces - I. Constrained postures. II. Lighting conditions and visual impairments
A field study of 162 VDT and 133 control workplaces revealed that constrained postures of VDT workplaces and in full-time typists were sometimes associated with physical impairments in the hands, arms, shoulders and neck. The reported complaints were confirmed by medical findings on muscles, tendons and joints. Conditions leading to an increased incidence of impairment are described and recommendations are made for optimum design of VDT workplaces. Eye impairments were also observed on all workers studied but were more frequent in VDT operators. High luminance contrast between the screen and surrounding space and luminance oscillation of characters on the screen contributed to eye strain.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1981, Vol.24, No.12, p.917-944. Illus. 34 ref.
Gunnarsson E., Söderberg I., Elfosson S.
Statstjänstemannaförbundet (Union of Government Employees)
Field study on the use of visual display units in PTT services
Fältexperiment vid bildskärmsrutiner på televerket [en sueco]
The object of this study was to gather basic data for developing recommendations on the permissible duration of work with computer terminals, and to devise a method of measuring visual stress during this work. Sections cover: description of work stations and jobs; data on the workers observed and examined; method used (interviews, questionnaire, measurement of visual accomodation - near point and point of convergence, statistical analysis); results (eye disorders and visual stress during normal work and during the observation period, relation between accommodation changes (near point) and visual disorders occuring during the observation period); personal testimonials by workers on the introduction of computer terminal working. Lesson to be drawn: if computerisation is to succeed, the work must be organised so that visually stressing tasks alternate with less demanding tasks.
Rapport 278/A. Arbetarskyddsfonden, Sveavägen 166, 113 46 Stickholm, Sweden, 1981. 52p. Illus. 17 ref.
Health, safety and ergonomic aspects of visual display units
The basic functions of visual display units (VDUs) are outlined, and available evidence regarding possible health hazards is reviewed. The amount of radiation, both actual and potential, emitted by VDUs is minimal and does not constitute a health hazard. There is no substantial evidence of any short or long-term hazard to vision. Ergonomic factors are important in reducing fatigue and avoiding discomfort during sustained VDU operation.
Medical Bulletin, 1st quarter 1981, Vol.41, No.1, p.79-112. Illus. 12 ref.
Zabel L., Bouma H., Mélotte H.E.M.
Investigation of the use of the TV magnifier for VDUs in the Netherlands
Onderzoek naar het gebruik van de TV-loep in Nederland [en holandés]
Operators with poor vision (visual acuity 0.15-0.015) can read displayed texts with a VDU screen magnifier. A survey of 400 magnifier users showed that 98% of them found it a useful aid, and 75% of them use their magnifier at least once a day. The survey identified potential improvements of this equipment such as: adaptation for other uses, e.g. with typewriter; further adaptation of its ergonomic design to reading posture; portability of the equipment. Recommendations for directions for use, with initial guidance for operators.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 27 May 1981, Vol.59, No.11, p.384-388. Illus. 16 ref.
CRT viewing II.
This special issue is devoted to parameters of the information displayed on CRT screens and to the effects of visual display units on the eyes. The articles deal with: eye movement measurement of readability of CRT displays; visual fatigue and cathode ray tube display terminals; evaluation of alphanumeric, graphic, and colour information displays; format arrangement, message load, sequencing method, and presentation rate for computer-generated displays. Bibliography of 174 references on effects of visual display units on the eyes (1972-1980).
Human Factors, Oct. 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.515-586. Illus. 214 ref.
National Joint Technical Committee for the Publishing Industry, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des industries du livre, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Work with cathode-ray tube screens
Travaux devant écran cathodique [en francés]
This recommendation, adopted on 16 June 1981, covers ophthalmological examination of operators; suitable lighting levels; ergonomic layout of workstations; selection of terminals with utilisation characteristics; installation in premises with a low background noise level and suitable temperature and relative humidity; alternation of screen use and other types of work.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1981, No.105, Note No.1359-105-81 (Recommendation No.198), p.619-620.
Tisserand M., Schouller J.F.
Workstation dimensions. Application to a VDU/keyboard terminal: - 1. Diagnosis
Dimensionnement des postes de travail - Application au poste sur terminal écran-clavier - 1. Le diagnostic [en francés]
Workstations of VDU/keyboard operators, self-service store check-out cashiers and sewing machinists in the clothing industry were studied. Description of physiopathological effects of incorrect work postures and a procedure for diagnosing faults and developing adequate solutions: work analysis; questionnaire survey of postural complaints; field observation of work postures; critical examination of workstation dimensions. Each phase of this approach is illustrated by examples. An appendix contains the questionnaire used.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1981, No.105, Note No.1347-105-81, p.535-537. Illus. 53 ref.
Bräuninger U., Fellmann T., Läubi T., Gierer R., Grandjean E.
Flickering light from VDU screens
Das oszillierende Licht von Bildschirmzeichen [en alemán]
Study of 109 operator's posts equipped with 2 types of CRT display terminals, revealing a wide range of differences as regards the intensity of flickering and the sharpness of the displayed text. The study covered not only flickering, sharpness and stability of the characters, but also contrast of luminance in the field of vision. Definition of the parameters considered and description of measurement apparatus. Considerable differences were observed from the ergonomic point of view, which leads to the presumption that manufacturers give priority to the technical requirements of data processing rather than to human factors. (English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street E., Hamilton, Ont. L8N 1H6, Canada. (CCOHS translation series No.157)).
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, Oct. 1981, Vol.26, No.5, p.320-321. Illus. 1 ref.
Lindén V., Rolfsen S.
Video computer terminals and occupational dermatitis
Case studies have shown that a pricking sensation, itching and dermatitis on the face, after prolonged exposure to video display terminals, are probably due to electrostatic discharge between the skin of the worker and the screen. The effect is more pronounced in some individuals than others. The symptoms were reduced by using carpeting with antistatic qualities, increased air humidity, and grounded water or metal thread screens.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.62-64. 2 ref.
Mayer A., Barlier A.
Working conditions at CRT visual display units - Study of lighting environment
Conditions de travail devant les écrans cathodiques - Etude de l'environnement lumineux [en francés]
Result of lighting measurements made on industrial and office premises. Two aspects of lighting levels were studied: visual performance with evaluation of visibility of the screen, keyboard and documents, and comfort, with evaluation of the glare hazard (due to daylight, lighting fittings and localised lighting systems), the hazards of unbalanced luminance conditions and discomfort due to reflection. Recommendations cover the arrangement of the premises, workplace layout and the selection of terminals. (English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street E, Hamilton, Ont. L8N 1H6, Canada. (CCOHS translation series No.124)).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1981, No.104, Note No.1332-104-81, p.373-386. Illus. 9 ref.
Health hazards of VDUs? 3
Proceedings of the third of 3 conferences on this subject (Loughborough, United Kingdom, 2 July 1981). Papers read: improvements to the environment - the possible benefit of negative ion generators; trade union demands - the changing pattern; humanised computers: the necessity and the payoff; measures of user acceptability; job design and VDU operation; improvements in technology - optimal presentation mode and colours of symbols on VDUs - experimental results and practical experiences.
Husat Research Group, Lougborough University of Technology, The Elms, Elms Grove, Loughborough, Leics. LE11 1RG, United Kingdom, July 1981. 105p. Illus. 42 ref.
Health hazards of VDUs? 2
Proceedings of the second of 3 conferences on this subject (Loughborough, United Kingdom, 19 Mar. 1981). Papers read: issues in vision and lighting for users of VDUs; more practical experiences in solving VDU ergonomics problems; trades unions and ergonomic problems; postural loads at VDT workstations; occupational stress associated with visual display unit operation.
Husat Research Group, Loughborough University of Technology, The Elms, Elms Grove, Loughborough, Leics. LE11 1RG, United Kingdom, Mar. 1981. 98p. Illus. 71 ref.
Basic principles of preventive occupational medical examinations - Work at VDUs
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Grundsätze für arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen - Bildschirm-Arbeitsplätze [en alemán]
Introduction: work at VDUs does not necessarily lead to impaired vision, but it may cause increased eye strain in the case of pre-existing defective vision. Review of the basic principles for preventive eye examinations for early screening of vision disorders. List of tests for pre-employment examinations and periodic check-ups, and aptitude criteria. Additional information: definition of VDUs and operator's workplace (including microfiche readers), approval by plant physician, sight-correction, taking into account eye distances from screen and text.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Apr. 1981, Vol.16, No.4, p.103-108. 8 ref.
A review of the literature on health hazards of video display terminals
The literature documenting the levels of ionising and non-ionising radiation emitted from video display terminals, the potential for cataract formation and other vision problems and symptoms reported by operators, and the factors contributing to the reported symptoms and solutions suggested for documented problems, is reviewed.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Oct. 1980. 18p. 18 ref.
Cataracts following use of cathode ray tube displays (in: VDUs and ill-health - The evidence)
The political and technical aspects of this question are discussed in Part 3 of this document. A questionnaire investigation indicated a pronounced cumulative and exponential effect of non-ionising radiation when VDU operators working full shifts for 2 or 3 years were compared with those working for shorter periods. The main symptoms were headache and pain in the eyes, fatigue, overall tiredness, dizziness, muscle pain, heart pain, irregular heart beat, breathlessness, memory loss, miscarriage. Part 2 reproduces a paper presented to M.M. Zaret to the International Symposium of Electromagnetic Waves and Biology, "Cataracts following use of cathode ray tube displays", which describes a methodology for investigating incidents, discusses some of the major obstacles encountered, provides an opinion on the existence of a radiation hazard associated with word-processing technology, and offers a method of epidemiological investigation with minimal risk to VDU operators.
Australian Postal and Telecommunications Union, P.O. Box 208, Carlton South, Victoria 3053, Australia, 1980. 49p. 130 ref.
Meyer J.J., Crespy J., Rey P.
Ergonomic analysis of CRT-terminal work stations
L'analyse ergonomique des postes de travail avec écrans de visualisation [en francés]
Booklet published by the University of Geneva, intended for ergonomists, company physicians, ophthalmologists, engineers, architects, computer experts, etc. Aspects covered by this in-depth analysis: Part 1. Workload at VDUs; job analysis (terminal equipment, office equipment, environmental parameters); examination of operators' visual adaptation. Part 2. Detailed recommendations for VDU screen and keyboard, posture, workplace design and layout, working hours, regular eyesight tests.
Publications IMSP n°214, Ecotra, 10 rue Jules-Crosnier, 1206 Genève, Switzerland, 1980. 49p. Price: SF.10.00.
Tables for VDU-screen work stations
Tische für Bildschirm-Arbeitsplätze [en alemán]
The trends in the development of tables for VDU screen work stations are reviewed, and the ergonomic characteristics required of tables and seats are defined: low table top (addition of keyboard), free space for legs, adjustable seat height, foot support, adequate table top surface area. Criteria for VDU positioning. Tables give optimal dimensions for men and women.
Bürotechnik, 1980, Vol.28, No.11, p.1179-1180, and No.12, p.1301-1302, 1307-1308. Illus. 13 ref.
Psychological stress in work with VDUs
Näyttöpäätetyön psyykkinen kuormittavuus [en finlandés]
A review of the psychological stress factors in the use of VDUs for data processing equipment: fear of new technology; stress due to the monotony of work or to demands for increased performance; text legibility; software suitability. Designers planning VDU work should pay attention not only to the equipment but also to creating working methods and jobs in which the operator can influence and control his own work, and where the meaning and content of the work are sufficiently varied and demanding.
Työterveyslaitos, Fysiologian osasto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1980. 36p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: Fmk.12.00.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for office visual display units
Sicherheitsregeln für Bildschirm-Arbeitsplätze im Bürobereich [en alemán]
These rules lay down safety, health and ergonomic requirements for visual display units (VDU) and apply to cathode-ray and plasma-tube screens and microfiche readers. A list of the relevant standards in the Federal Republic of Germany is followed by regulations for the design and equipment of VDU installations and workstations (character display, contrast, sharpness, colours, flicker, reflection, keyboard, table, chair, anthropometric layout of components, lighting), and regulations for periodic visual acuity testing, and the safe use and maintenance of VDU workposts.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-22, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 1980. 30p. Illus. Price: DM.3.50.
Copyholder for large-format documents (computer printouts) for VDU work stations
Beleghalter für grosse Belege (Computerausdrucke) am Bildschirm-Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Study of the problem of the optimum presentation of documents (lettering, paper, contrast, angle of inclination, angle of vision, distance) used in work at VDUs - in this particular case, large-format computer printouts on continuous paper. A calculation of angles and distances of vision corresponding to a horizontal positioning of computer printouts enables the criteria to be met by a copyholder to be determined, and optimum layout to be achieved. Comparison of conditions of vision with and without the copyholder.
Bürotechnik, 1980, Vol.28, No.10, p.941-943. Illus.
Flickering - A stress factor in work at VDUs
Flimmern als Stressfaktor bei der Bildschirmarbeit [en alemán]
Detailed study of the reasons for the phenomenon of flickering characters on CRT screens: structure of a cathode-ray tube, operator's eye movements, variations in position of the image, pattern of image, technical faults. Description of a technical cause of flickering: defective cathode-ray tube (thermal instability of the electron gun).
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1980, Vol.2, No.9, p.14-16. Illus. 5 ref.
Cathode-ray-tube terminals - A medical and ergonomic study of work with display screens
Terminaux à écran cathodique - Etude médico-ergonomique du travail sur écrans de visualisation. [en francés]
MD Thesis. Ergonomic requirements to be met: physical environment; physical, mental and psychosociological stress; working hours and work tempo. Results of field studies. Review of the role of the occupational physician in computerisation, design of workplaces and jobs, medical supervision of workers. The thesis is illustrated by the study of a specific case: pathological features of the case, and proposals for ergonomic improvement of the work station.
Université de Franche-Comté, Faculté de médecine et de pharmacie, Besançon, France, 1980. 108p. 33 réf.
Guérin F., Pavard B., Duraffourg J.
Work at VDUs in newspaper printing works
Le travail sur terminal à écran dans les imprimeries de presse. [en francés]
Synthesis of results of a study carried out in regional newspaper printing shops (3 of which were retained) and under laboratory conditions. Introduction (historical background); review of working conditions encountered (work organisation methods, regional characteristics of newspapers, occupational background and age of operators, hours of work and work schedules); review of psycho-physiological aspects of vision. The greater part of this book is devoted to ocular activity (duration and changes in direction of eye movements) and associated workload depending on distribution of tasks of data logging and making corrections, type of text and synthetical characteristics, way in which the keyboard is used in making corrections, length of service and professional background, codification. A chapter is devoted to physical measurements of lighting environment.
Coll. de phys. du trav. et d'erg. du CNAM, No.61. Laboratoire de physiologie du travail et d'ergonomie du C.N.A.M., 41 rue Gay-Lussac, 75005 Paris, France, no date. 219p. Illus. 61 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Human factors aspects of visual display unit operation.
Covered are: potential epileptogenic effect of work at VDUs, due to intermittent photic stimulation and pattern (screening out of operators suffering from photo-sensitive epilepsy); ergonomic factors; display should be clearly legible and stable; workplace layout and design; local lighting (avoidance of harsh contrasts and glare); ergonomic aspects of keyboard and document holder design; postural factors; noise; visual fatigue and eye examinations; repetitive work factors.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1980. 12p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: £1.50.
Grandjean E., Vigliani E.
Ergonomic aspects of visual display terminals.
Proceedings of an international workshop (Milan, Italy, Mar. 1980). 40 papers were read under the heads: physical characteristics of VDTs (radiations, contrast, person/machine interface); visual functions; visual impairments; performance at VDTs; postural problems; psychosocial aspects; practical experience; ergonomic design and guidelines.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., 4 John Street, London WC1N 2E, United Kingdom, 1980. 310p. Illus. Bibl. Price: £18.00.
Guidance for safe working with visual display units.
Contents of this booklet: potential health hazards (ionising radiation, cathode ray tube implosion, electric shock); potential nuisance aspects (visual aspects, noise, heat); ergonomic aspects (screens, room lighting and glare, work station layout); work organisation; recommendations.
Chemical Industries Association Limited, Alembic House, 93 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7TU, United Kingdom, Dec. 1980. 12p. 12 ref.
Crespy J., Meyer J.J., Rey P.
Ergonomic and medical aspects of work at CRT display terminals
Aspects ergonomiques et médicaux du travail sur écran. [en francés]
Analysis of visual, postural (strain) and mental load components of work at CRT display terminals. Health damage is considered under the 2 broad aspects of general (cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory and psychosomatic disorders) and specific hazards (especially visual disorders). The necessity for research into abnormal and premature physiological aging of the human faculties due to work with computers is stressed.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, Dec. 1980, Vol.25, No.6, p.387-391. 16 ref.
Elias R., Cail F.
Task content of data processing work and disturbances affecting normal life
Contenu des tâches et troubles de la vie au travail en informatique. [en francés]
The industrial organisational model of repetitive work (Taylor-type rationalisation) is also found in work at computer terminals, particularly in data logging, and with the same effects: anxiety due to timing pressure, monotony, job dissatisfaction. The work of a group of female computer-terminal operators engaged in data entry was compared to the more complex tasks of a group of women engaged in information retrieval ("computer dialogue"). Results of recordings of eye movements and a questionnaire survey showed the negative effects of data logging tasks on physical and mental well-being. Interpretation of the results in the light of work by other authors.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, Dec. 1980, Vol.25, No.6, p.381-386. Illus. 19 ref.
Health hazards of VDUs? 1.
Proceedings of the first of 3 conferences on this subject (Loughborough, United Kingdom, 11 Dec. 1980). Papers read: health hazards in perspective; facial rashes among VDU operators; report of facial rashes among VDU operators in Norway; radiation emissions from VDUs; VDU ergonomics - a review of the last two years; cataracts and visual display units.
HUSAT Research Group, Loughborough University of Technology, The Elms, Elms Grove, Loughborough LE11 1RG, United Kingdom, 1980. 60p. Bibl. Price: £5.00.
Symposium on workplace lighting for CRT display terminals
Symposium "Beleuchtung von Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
Communications presented at a symposium organised by the illuminating engineering societies of Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland (Vienna, 22 May 1980), where the following themes were discussed: prevention of reflections on the screen; improvement of conditions of visibility by contrast; suppression of reflections on the screen by filters; design and layout of, and technical data concerning, luminescent surfaces in VDU workplaces; luminaires to be employed in premises of this kind; experience with, and practical examples of, lighting in offices equipped with VDUs; standardisation in Austria; measurement of illumination levels in workplaces equipped with VDUs.
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Elektrizitätswirtschaft, Sep. 1980, Vol.33, No.9, Beilage "Licht und Beleuchtung", p.9-29. Illus.
Guide to health hazards of visual display units.
This trade union document reviews standards for VDU equipment and makes recommendations for its specifications and use. Contents: work organisation; VDU equipment standards (luminance of display, colour, flicker/character generation, radiation, heat, noise, general machine design, maintenance of machines); keyboard equipment standards (movement, design); environmental standards (glare; paperwork; static electricity; positioning of screen, keyboard, and paper; posture; workspace); operators (eye tests; epilepsy; migraine sufferers; effect of drugs). Appendices: protocol for surveys of VDUs made on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive; list of manufacturers/distributors in the UK.
Association of Scientific, Technical and Managerial Staffs, 10-26a Jamestown Road, London NW1 7DT, United Kingdom, 29p. No date. 81 ref.
Elias R., Cail F., Christmann H., Tisserand M., Horvat F.
Conditions of work at CRT display units - Work organisation and strain
Conditions de travail devant les écrans cathodiques - Organisation des tâches et astreintes de l'organisme. [en francés]
Comparative study of strain due to data entry and computer dialogue. Methodology: recording of eye movements; visual tests; questionnaire. Results: although the female employees engaged in computer dialogue operations had to look at the screen much more than the group doing data entry (60-80% of the time as compared to 10-30%), those engaged in data entry had to look more often from the document to the screen, so that symptoms of visual strain, distance adjustment of the punctum proximum and heterophoria of the right eye were more accentuated in this group, in which a higher incidence of postural and neuropsychic disorders and a lesser degree of work satisfaction were also observed. Recommended preventive measures: task diversification, work breaks, elimination of payment by results or similar incentive schemes. (English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street E., Hamilton, Ont. L8N 1H6, Canada. (CCOHS translation series No.122)).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1282-101-80, p.499-504. 9 ref.
Cakir A., Hart D.J., Stewart T.F.M.
Visual display terminals - Design, ergonomics, work organisation.
Les terminaux à écran - Agencement, ergonomie, organisation. [en francés]
This book provides designers, planners and users of computer systems with a guide to the human aspects of visual display terminal (VDT) design. Chapters deal with the fundamentals of VDTs; light, vision and optical characteristics of visual display; ergonomics of VDTs (display, legibility, ergonomics of keyboards); ergonomic requirements for VDT workplaces; environmental issues (lighting, heating, air conditioning, noise); health, safty, and organisational aspects of working with VDTs.
Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, Sussex PO19 IUD, United Kingdom, 1980. 336p. Illus. 369 ref. Price: £17.50. - Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, 1980. 313p. Illus. Price: DM.64.00; US$37.80.
Wahlström R., Maas B., Petterson S., Adrup J., Göransson B.
Working conditions at VDUs
Conditions de travail devant les écrans de visualisation. [en francés]
Translation of a study made by the Swedish Insurance firm Skandia following a survey in 1976 of 45 employees of this firm. Aspects covered: description of workplace (working surface, lighting, terminal); ventilation and heating of premises; colours; physical fatigue (visual fatigue, headache, pain in neck, back, shoulders and wrists); recommended programme for improvement of working conditions (lower overall lighting levels, table lamp, change of electric light bulbs, positioning of terminal, choice of seating and workplace layout, cholice of colours).
Published by Luxo France, 11 rue Auguste-Lacroix, Lyon 69003, France, 1980. 62p. Illus.
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