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  • Visual display terminals (VDTs)

1984

CIS 84-1576 Krueger H.
Consequences of presbyopia for visual dynamics and work with visual display units
Folgen der Presbyopie für die Sehdynamik und die Arbeit am Bildschirm [en alemán]
Description of methods and results of examinations to determine the accommodation period of the eye, and the orientation and diameter of the pupil in 100 persons of different ages. Results are represented graphically for accommodation reaction time, accuracy of dynamic accommodation and maximum rate of accommodation as functions of age. The speed and amplitude of orientation of the eye did not depend on age, whereas a decrease in accommodative ability was seen in subjects ≥40yrs old. Subjects in this age group tend to maintain a fixed posture when working with visual display units, in order to keep their eyes at a constant distance from the screen.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, 1984, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.190-191. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 84-1271 Benoit F.M., LeBel G.L., Williams D.T.
Are video display terminals a source of increased PCB concentration in the working atmosphere? One answer
Emissions of 2.4-8.1ng/h polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a VDU terminal were detected in a building where the mean PCB level was 46ng/m3. In another building where no PCB was detected in the ambient air, no PCB emissions were measured; both the air and the VDU from this building were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The PCB did not appear to be emitted from the VDUs themselves.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.53, No.3, p.261-267. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 84-967 Swanston M.T., Walley C.E.
Factors affecting the speed of acquisition of tabulated information from visual displays
The task studied was that of reading tabulated information following a change in the focus of fixation. Subjects fixed a marked point on a VDU and then looked across to an entry in a table of three-digit numbers. This was read out, and the overall reaction time recorded. This time was found not to vary with the vertical position of the entry in the table, for viewing distances of 570, 885 and 1140mm. The horizontal angular separation was varied both within the display and by means of viewing distance. Reaction times increased with separation of the initial fixation point and the target for a fixed viewing distance. Changes in angular separation due to viewing distance had little effect. Eye movement recordings showed that the latency of eye movements was constant, but that the latency of response following a displacement of fixation varied in the same way as the overall reaction time.
Ergonomics, Mar. 1984, Vol.27, No.3, p.321-330. 18 ref.

CIS 84-964 Garron J., Fumery J.L.
Eye examination by the industrial physician during the pre-employment examination of VDU operators
L'examen visuel par le médecin du travail au cours de la visite d'embauchage pour le travail sur écran [en francés]
Description of eye examinations that an industrial physician can conduct by himself, with simple equipment, in order to obtain most of the needed information for a thorough pre-employment checkup (aptitude determination) for VDU work. The examination should concentrate on intermediate vision and on the possibility of correcting defects in binocular vision. This eye examination also serves as the basis for later eye examinations by a specialist.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.57-61.

CIS 84-678 Levin C.
VDUs - Glare and eyestrain
A discussion of eyestrain due to continuous VDU use. According to one survey, 75% of word processor operators suffer from eyestrain and 55% from headaches. The main reason is constant adjustment of the eyes to different lighting levels: 50-100lx of the VDU screen, 150-200lx of printed text and 400-500lx of office lighting. The usual green colour of VDU text also contributes to the strain, as does glare. Suggested remedies include lower lighting levels for offices with VDUs, the use of yellow colour in VDU text and the use of anti-glare filters.
Safety Practitioner, Feb. 1984, Vol.2, No.2, p.4-5. Illus. 1 ref.

1983

CIS 85-1586 Brokmann W.
Work with visual display units
Arbeiten mit Bildschirmgeräten [en alemán]
This pocket-size handbook deals with the practical aspects of VDU work. It contains contributions by several authors. Contents: nature of VDU work; planning and introduction of VDUs into the workplace; ergonomic layout of VDUs and the work station; work organisation (stress and work load, difficulty and quantity of work); health aspects (eyesight, locomotor system, exposure to radiation, regular medical checkups); social consequences; rights of workers' representatives (participation in the planning of work stations, participation in decisions with social and economic consequences); standardisation in the Federal Republic of Germany. An ergonomic checklist is given in the appendix.
Verlag J.P. Bachem, Ursulaplatz 1, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 182p. Illus. 200 ref.

CIS 85-1585 Zelený A., Matoušek O., Hladký A.
Medical and ergonomic criteria of work at visual display terminals. I. Health aspects
Zdravotní a ergonomická hlediska práce u vizuálních displejových terminálů. I. Zdravotní aspekty [en checo]
Frequent complaints are back aches and pains in the locomotor system due to the adoption of unchanging and often forced postures. Optical difficulties are reversible and mostly due to fatigue or unsuitable corrective glasses. Other complaints about general fatigue, monotony and feelings of discomfort occur primarily in women operators at data input. These can be eliminated by good organisation of work, well chosen breaks and by a good social climate in the workplace.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1983, Vol.35, No.8, p.346-350.

CIS 85-998 Harvey S.M.
Analysis of operator exposure to electric fields from video display units
This research report describes the methodology and instrumentation used in evaluating VDT operator exposure to electrical fields (DC, 60Hz, 16-18kHz and radiofrequency fields). Aspects covered: general considerations; estimation of occupational exposure to VDT electric fields; remarks on internal body fields; comparison between VDT electric fields, ambient fields and occupational exposure guidelines.
Ontario Hydro Research Division, 800 Kipling Ave., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5S4, Canada, 13 Dec. 1984. 24p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 85-676 Crespy J., Rey P.
Work on visual display units: risks for health
Travail sur écrans de visualisation: Les risques pour la santé [en francés]
Contents of this document: general description of visual display units (VDUs) and of work involving them; potential risks due to the functioning of the VDU (photosensitive epilepsy, dermatological reactions, radiation exposure); risks connected with the working environment (noise, microclimate); identification and measurement of risks connected with reading VDUs (tiredness and inflammation of the eyes, blurred and double vision, headaches, nausea); risk factors; job-related factors; postural problems; stress; conclusions and recommendations.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1983. 30p. 111 ref.

CIS 85-374 Video display terminals
This data sheet covers all the hazards of work with VDTs and the appropriate preventive ergonomic measures.
Canada Safety Council, 1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3VA, Canada. 11p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 85-75 Hartmann E., Leibig J., Roll K.F.
Optimal visual conditions at CRT workstations
Optimale Sehbedingungen am Bildschirmarbeitsplatz [en alemán]
Factors contributing to optimal visual conditions of CRT work. Part 1 gives the ergonomic aspects of the work: posture, adjustment and adaptation, vertical and horizontal visual fields, characteristics and placement of the screen and keyboard. Part 2 deals with physiological and optical aspects: legibility of characters on the screen and optical adjustment, individual ability and glare. The aim of part 3 is to give advice on workstation planning: lighting (luminance limitation, illumination levels, contrast, lighting systems), screen angles important for good working conditions.
Licht, 1983, Vol.35, No.7/8, p.442-446, No.9, p.507-510, and No.10, p.564-570. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 85-72 Fichez R.
Work on CRTs
Le travail sur terminal à écran [en francés]
Continuation of the article abstracted under CIS 82-1891. Aim: methods of analysing the workplace by the industrial physician and suggested improvements in working conditions once the facts are known. Tools: knowledge of the appropriate literature (laws, standards, etc.), measuring instruments for lighting, luminance and for visual space. A research study of 600 CRT workstations in 65 enterprises has shown that in 50% of the cases an intervention by the occupational physician was followed by changes in the working environment of CRT operators, as well as by the disappearance of complaints, without necessarily establishing a cause-effect relation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th quarter 1983, Vol.23, No.92, p.5-15. Illus.

CIS 85-267 Kroemer K.H.E.
Design parameters for video display terminal workstations
Civilian body dimensions for men and women aged 20 to 60 years in the United States were analysed to determine minimum and maximum equipment dimensions or adjustment ranges for video display terminal workstations. Values are given for leg room height, width and depth, seat height, support surface height, and eye height above seat. The approach presented is generally useable but specific parameters are applicable only to American and European body dimensions.
Journal of Safety Research, 1983, Vol.14, No.3, p.131-136. 2 ref.

CIS 84-1883 Duchnicky R.L., Kolers P.A.
Readability of text scrolled on visual display terminals as a function of window size
10 student subjects were tested to evaluate the readability of text as a function of 3 different line lengths, 2 different character densities and window heights of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 20 lines. Lines of full and two-thirds screen width were read 25% faster than lines of one-third screen width. Text of density 80 characters/line was read 30% faster than text in a format of 40 characters/line. Text in windows 4 lines high was read as efficiently as text in 20-line windows, and text in 1- or 2-line windows was read 9% more slowly than text in 20-line windows. Comprehension of the passages did not vary as a function of window size. Implications of the results for mixed text and graphics and for limited-capacity electronic displays are discussed.
Human Factors, Dec. 1983, Vol.25, No.6, p.683-692. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 84-1880
Committee on Vision, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council
Video displays, work, and vision
This report of a US National Research Council panel on the impact of video viewing on the vision of workers summarises the latest information from ergonomics, illuminating engineering and industrial and organisational psychology and provides detailed advice on optimal lighting, display characteristics, and job and workstation design to improve the comfort, performance and job satisfaction of VDT users. No scientifically valid evidence was found that occupational use of VDTs is associated with increased risk of ocular diseases, abnormalities or cataracts or causes anatomical or physiological damage to the visual system. Radiation emitted by VDTs was below existing occupational radiation exposure standards.
National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418, USA, 1983. 273p. Illus. 449 ref. Price: US$14.50.

CIS 84-1573 Grandjean E., Guyer W., Laur E.M.
VDU work
Bildschirmarbeit [en alemán]
Le travail à l'écran [en francés]
This whole issue is devoted to work with VDUs, covering: body posture before the screen, visual workload, retrospective look at 10 years on line, experience gained with VDU work in the graphic arts, recommendations for the planning of VDU workstations.
Schweizerische Arbeitgeber-Zeitung - Journal des associations patronales, 1983, Vol.78, No.20, p.347-374. Illus.

CIS 84-1270 Kurimoto S., Iwasaki T., Nomura T., Noro K., Yamamoto S.
Accommodation in VDT operators and clerical workers
13 bank clerks whose jobs required the use of visual display terminals (VDT work group) and 20 whose jobs required the use of adding machines (clerical work group) underwent examination for accommodative function by an Accommodo polyrecorder. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in mean values of near point and accommodation time. A low correlation (r=0.45, 0.2>p>0.1) existed between individuals' near point distances and their lengths of service at VDT work. Analysis of "Accommodogram" patterns indicated that there were many persons with disorders of accommodative function in the VDT work group; the incidence was higher than in the clerical work group.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.27, No.9, p. 530-532. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 84-1268 Giannini M., Molteni G., Piccoli B., Grieco A.
The VDT workplace - health aspects
Il posto di lavoro al terminale video - Aspetti sanitari [en italiano]
A literature survey of the health problems associated with the use of CRTs: musculoskeletal disorders, eyestrain, microclimate, electromagnetic radiation, psychological and sociological problems.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1983, Vol.74, No.6, p.453-463. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 84-965 Health and VDTs in perspective
Proceedings of a symposium held in Toronto, Canada, on 24 Feb. 1983. Papers presented discuss the problems related to VDTs as seen from the perspectives of the manufacturer, the psychologist, the health physicist, the physician, the optometrist, the illuminating engineer, the ergonomist and the operator. Questions and answers and results of an attitudinal survey are appended.
Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario, P.O. Box 1232, Station Q, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2P4, Nov. 1983. 95p. Illus.

CIS 84-963 Yamamura K., Kishi R., Sadamoto T., Kiyosawa H., Miyake H., Takekawa T., Sukegawa H., Iwadate Y.
An investigation of the medical data index (MDI) health questionnaire given to women VDT workers involved in advanced office automation - 924 women clerks in a city bank with head and branch offices
The questionnaire was administered to 924 bank clerks working with visual display units. The 34 main complaints that emerged were analysed. Many complaints considered to be related to mental strain and visual impairment dominated the picture: eye complaints, gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic fatigue, irritability and mental imbalance.
Industrial Health, 1983, Vol.21, No.3, p.199-207. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 84-675 de Groot J.P., Kamphuis A.
Eyestrain in VDU users: physical correlates and long-term effects
43 female subjects at a telephone enquiry service were studied shortly before and after, and 2 years after, introduction of visual display units (the first 2 phases of the study covered 73 and 65 women respectively). The number, type, and severity of complaints did not change over time. Optometric measurements were not useful for predicting complaints and showed no deterioration other than aging effects.
Human Factors, Aug. 1983, Vol.25, No.4, p.409-413. 11 ref.

CIS 84-883 Miller W., Suther III T.W.
Display station anthropometrics: preferred height and angle settings of CRT and keyboard
37 subjects (17 US men, 12 US women, 5 oriental men, 3 oriental women) representing extreme differences in height were asked to indicate their preferred seat height, keyboard height and slope angle, and CRT height and tilt angle. Flat (low slope angle) keyboards are inappropriate for short operators who select low seat heights. The keyboard angle adjustments preferred by most operators substantially exceed a current German ergonomic display station requirement. Recommendations are made for keyboards and display screens.
Human Factors, Aug. 1983, Vol.25, No.4, p.401-408. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 84-672 Isensee S.H., Bennett C.A.
The perception of flicker and glare on computer CRT displays
21 volunteers rated their discomfort due to direct glare, reflected glare and flicker under various conditions of ambient illuminance, video screen luminance, and video polarity. The viewing angle at which flicker was first noted was measured. Video luminance had the greatest impact on comfort: low to moderate levels of ambient illuminance minimise discomfort. Methods of reducing luminance without decreasing the legibility of the display are discussed.
Human Factors, Apr. 1983, Vol.25, No.2, p.177-184. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 84-671 Grandjean E., Hünting W., Piderman M.
VDT workstation design: Preferred settings and their effects
The means and ranges for preferred seat height, keyboard height above floor, screen height above floor, screen distance to table edge, screen inclination, eye levels and viewing angle, and screen and visual distance, were determined in 68 subjects (48 female, 20 male) from 4 companies. Preferred body postures differed distinctly from those recommended in the literature, and were based on the subjects' feelings of postural relaxation. In particular, there was a clear tendency for operators to lean backwards, in contrast to the upright position recommended in brochures and standards. Adjustable VDT stations can substantially contribute to comfortable and suitable work postures.
Human Factors, Apr. 1983, Vol.25, No.2, p.161-175. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 84-379
Health and Safety Executive
Visual display units
Contents of this information booklet: introduction and general considerations; possible health effects (no evidence of connection between VDUs and radiation exposure, cataracts, photosensitive epilepsy, or facial dermatitis; complaints of visual and body fatigue are traceable to bad workstation design); introduction of VDUs (general considerations; planning; communication and consultation; user involvement; job design; training; technical constraints; rest pauses; text format; source documents; the visual display unit screen and keyboard; workplace design; personal factors); appendices (bibliography and description of typical tasks).
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1983. 29p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: £5.00.

CIS 84-87 Investigation of radiation emissions from video display terminals
Etude sur les rayonnements émis par les terminaux à écran cathodique [en francés]
The studies summarised were carried out between 1975 and 1983. Description of VDT's and their potential sources of radiation; review of studies conducted inside and outside Canada; responsibilities of the Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare (occupational health and safety regulations); results of the Canadian Radiation Protection Bureau Study (ionising and non-ionising radiation measurements). The radiation levels detected by all the surveys are too low to present a significant biological risk.
Public Affairs Directorate, Department of National Health and Welfare, Brooke Claxton Bldg., Ottawa K1A OK9, Ontario, Canada, 1983. 43p. Bibl.

CIS 84-75 de Visme M.
Work with VDTs: ergonomic evaluation of the lighting of CRT display workstations
Travail sur terminaux à écran: évaluation ergonomique de l'éclairage des postes de travail devant écran cathodique [en francés]
Description of techniques for the ergonomic evaluation and the installation of adequate lighting systems for CRT display terminals. Definition of the workstation and the associated vision problems: screen, keyboard, working document, glare hazards, flicker. Measurement and evaluation of lighting at the workstation: contrast between characters and the screen, the working document and the keyboard, luminance balance, illumination level. Listing of possible actions with regard to artificial and natural lighting, terminal installation and the terminals themselves.
Revue de la sécurité, Sep. 1983, Vol.19, No.204, p.5-16. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 83-1878 Kurimoto S.
Influence of VDT work on visual function
Experiments using an infrared optometer showed that VDT work might induce temporary effects in the visual accomodation system. The low frequency component of the small fluctuations of accomodation increased after VDT work. The inhibition of accommodation caused by VDT work was more severe than that caused by conventional hard-copy work, and it was more marked in the case of work with smaller-size characters than in that with large-size characters. The inhibition was more evident in the elderly and middle age groups than in the young age group.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Apr. 1983, Vol.19, No.2, p.87-90. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 83-1877 Noda K.
Health control of visual display operations
Observations in an office where visual display terminals are used for airline reservations indicate the importance of both correct posture and suitable equipment design, with special emphasis on the need of appropriate height of desks for the terminal and adjustable chairs. Complaints of visual problems resulted from lack of treatment or correction of devices. When these problems were corrected, complaints of such nature were reduced to the level considered normal in general offices.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Apr. 1983, Vol.19, No.2, p.75-80. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 83-2078 Arndt R.
Working posture and musculoskeletal problems of video display terminal operators - Review and reappraisal
Identification of the problems, their causes and possible solutions. Items reviewed are: working posture and workstation design (keyboard location, chair design, display screen position, document location, display considerations); working postures and work tasks; working posture and personal attributes; repetitive motion injuries; stress reactions. Solutions should be based on a problem-solving approach relying on information gathering, input from operators and flexibility in implementing corrective measures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1983, Vol.44, No.6, p.437-446. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 83-1874 Study of a word-processing workstation at the Belgian National Association for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents
Etude d'un poste de travail "traitement de texte" à l'A.N.P.A.T. [en francés]
Description of the application of ergonomic principles in the installation of a word-processing workstation. The system consisted of a video display, a keyboard and a printer. Solutions to problems with operator position, lighting, climate and noise are described.
Promosafe, Nov. 1983, Vol.10, No.72, p.12-14. Illus.

CIS 83-1905 Stuchly M.A., Repacholi M.H., Lecuyer D.W., Mann R.D.
Radiofrequency emissions from video display terminals
Measurements of radiofrequency emissions (RF) in the frequency range of 10-200kHz were carried out on 86 VDTs of different model and brand. Measurements were taken 30cm from the screen (front centre, equivalent to an operator's working position), at the screen and at the top, sides and back of each unit. A total of 15 models (26%) showed strong but highly localised fields. For 3 models, the maximum field intensity was at the screen but dropped to <70V/m at 10cm from the screen. The data are also used to estimate the interactions of RF emissions from VDTs with biological bodies.
Health Physics, Sep. 1983, Vol.45, No.3, p.772-775. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 83-1904 Stuchly M.A., Lecuyer D.W., Mann R.D.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic emissions from video display terminals and other devices
The frequency spectrum and the magnetic field intensity were measured in the range of 5-500Hz. The magnetic field density at extremely low frequency (ELF) is given in A/m for several VDTs, for locations such as fluorescent lights in offices and laboratories, and for devices such as typewriters, electric kettles, transformers, etc. Biological effects of ELF magnetic fields are described in a separate table. The only significant emission occurs at the power frequency of 60Hz and its harmonics. ELF emissions from VDTs are at least 1000 times less than the magnetic flux densities that were shown to cause potentially hazardous biological effects.
Health Physics, Sep. 1983, Vol.45, No.3, p.713-722. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 83-1583 Greuter J., Marti B., Schlegel H.
Work at video terminals
Die Arbeit am Bildschirm [en alemán]
Il lavoro al videoterminale [en italiano]
Le travail à l'écran de visualisation [en francés]
A booklet showing how to prevent the complaints of persons working with video display terminals. A brief introduction to illumination and visual perception is followed by the ergonomic characteristics required of a terminal, its associated furniture, area lighting and the layout of the workplace. Medical, psychological and health aspects are discussed (radiation, noise, ophthalmic factors, stress, monotony). The absence of any evidence to date that video display terminals produce irreversible ocular lesions is discussed. A check list for terminals, furniture, lighting and personnel is included.
Feuillet 11037, Sécurité au travail, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, 6002 Lucerne, Switzerland, no date. 46p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 83-1286 Matoušek O., Hladký A., Zelený A.
Ergonomic requirements to be met by computer terminal workstations
Ergonomické požadavky na pracoviště s počitačovými terminály [en checo]
On the basis of studies in Czechoslovakia and the results of research in other countries, recommendations are made on: work load and tempo (stress factors and catecholamine excretion); working environment (lighting; microclimate; maximum noise level for computer dialogue work: 55dB(A), and for routine work: 65dB(A); ergonomic parameters for workstations (tables, seats, keyboards and screens, working documents); ergonomic requirements to be met by these workstations (layout and equipment, anthropometric data).
Bezpečná práca, May-June 1983, Vol.14, No.3, p.101-104. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 83-1284 Lighting for zones containing visual display units
Eclairage des zones comportant des écrans de visualisation [en francés]
Analysis of vision problems of a visual display unit operator. Examples of lighting arrangements to facilitate the operator's task: elimination of annoying reflections, lighting levels, direct and indirect lighting.
Revue internationale de l'éclairage, 1983, Vol.34, No.1, p.6-8 and 14-15. Illus.

CIS 83-1160 Walters C.R.
Just when you thought it was safe to go back in the office
The health problems which have resulted from the relatively unplanned and widespread introduction of equipment incorporating video display terminals and cathode-ray tubes into modern offices are reviewed. Ergonomic design of work stations and lighting studies are recommended to relieve back and neck pain and eye strain.
Inc., Jan. 1983, Vol.5, No.1, p.69-74. Illus.

CIS 83-691 Nonionizing radiations - Current issues and controversies: A minisymposium
Proceedings of a minisymposium on nonionising radiations held as part of the Joint Conference on Occupational Health, Nashville, USA, Oct. 1981. The texts of 4 papers read at the minisymposium are reproduced. They cover: a study of video display terminal workers; the video display terminals - is there a radiation hazard? (levels and effects of electromagnetic emissions); ocular hazards of light sources: review of current knowledge (retinal damage due to exposure to blue light and near ultraviolet light); bioeffects of microwaves - a review of current knowledge (fundamental properties of microwave energy, tissue interaction mechanisms and bioeffects). A summary of the points of view expressed at the panel discussion following presentation of the papers is given.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1983, Vol.25, No.2, p.95-111. Illus. 61 ref.

1982

CIS 85-997 Harvey S.M.
Characteristics of low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic fields produced by video display terminals
This research report describes the methodology and instrumentation used to measure electrostatic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0 to 10MHz produced by 4 different brands of VDTs. None of the fields detected and measured were at levels which could be hazardous to an operator according to any known occupational health and safety guideline.
Ontario Hydro Research Division, 800 Kipling Ave., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5S4, Canada, 15 Dec. 1982. 33p. Illus. Appendices.

CIS 84-2090 Rights of shop stewards' committees to participate in the introduction of visual display workstations - A review of legislation
Beteiligungsrechte des Betriebsrates bei Einführung von Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen - Eine Rechtsprechungsübersicht [en alemán]
There is dissension over the rights of shop stewards' committees when new technology, such as microelectronics, is introduced into the workplace. This booklet collects the most important legal decisions concerning workstations with video display terminals which have been handed down in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1980 to 1982. The decisions are grouped according to the articles of the relevant legislation: the law on the status of enterprises, the law on the protection of computerised data, the law regulating the exercise of professions, the ordinance on workplaces, and safety regulations and rules (VBG and ZH). In each case, a short description of the situation is followed by the decision and its bases.
Deutsche Angestellten-Gewerkschaft, Ressort Wirtschaftspolitik, DAG-Hochhaus, 2000 Hamburg 36, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 39p.

CIS 84-673 Desnoyers L., Le Borgne D.
Vision and work. 2: Visual tasks
Vision et travail - 2. Les tâches visuelles [en francés]
Document on the use of vision at work, its importance and the problems involved in it. Contents: visual activities in the wood industry, education, textile and service industries (visual sorting of timber, reading tasks, tasks requiring high visual acuity); physiology of the eye, visual, nervous and postural work, visual fatigue, age-induced vision changes; eye examinations, work glasses, resolution; lighting, properties of light, measures, sources, choice of light fittings; regulations and standards; improving the level and quality of lighting, optical properties of the work environment; workload (contrast, glare, handling of small objects), postural loads, high work speeds, moving objects; study of video display terminals.
Institut de recherche appliquée sur le travail (IRAT), 1290 rue St.Denis, suite 800, Montreal, Quebec H2X 3J7, Canada, Dec. 1982, No.21, 88p. Illus. Bibl. Price: Can.$4.00.

CIS 84-381 Starr S.J., Thompson C.R., Shute S.J.
Effects of video display terminals on telephone operators
145 operators using a video display terminal (VDT) to give telephone listings, and 105 controls doing the same work from printed paper records were studied by questionnaire. There were few differences in work-related physical discomfort, job satisfaction, and job security concerns. Both groups used contact lenses and eye glasses to the same extent. VDT operators did not obtain special corrective lenses for work. Replacement of paper documents with VDTs did not adversely affect the comfort and morale of office workers.
Human Factors, Dec. 1982, Vol.24, No.6, p.699-711. 19 ref.

CIS 83-1873 Knabe K.P.
Evaluation of present knowledge of the ergonomics of work at video display terminals
Bilanzierung der ergonomischen Erkenntnisse über die Arbeit am Bildschirmarbeitsplatz [en alemán]
This report is an analysis of about 200 documents (ergonomic studies, reports, manuals, conventions, safety rules, standards). The introduction examines the effects of new information technology, the influence of trends in the humanisation of work and its support in law (in the Federal Republic of Germany), the man-machine system, and the various types of video terminal workstations. Present ergonomic knowledge concerning workplace design covers: the screen, output formatting, the keyboard, the keys, the table and chair used with the terminal, copy-holders and footrests, the location and environment of the workstation within the office. Other aspects treated: physical, visual and psychic stress, work organisation, length of work periods and breaks, medical examinations. A glossary, list of relevant safety rules and standards and a summary of ergonomic data are appended.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 37p. Illus. 210 ref. Price: DM.42.50.

CIS 83-1607 Hirning C.R., Aitken J.H.
Cathode-ray tube X-ray emission standard for video display terminals
Hypothetical maximum x-ray radiation doses to various organs (skin, breast, thyroid, eye) and the f¿tus from VDTs operating at or near the current manufacturing emission standard of 0.5mR/h at 5cm have been calculated. Only the female breast (85mrad) and the thyroid (190mrad) would receive significant annual doses comparable to background radiation doses. However, most of the VDTs tested by various agencies have been found to emit no detectable x-radiation (0.05mR/h upper detection limit), and a reduction in the regulatory emission limit could be implemented technically and economically without difficulty (except for possible serious administrative problems). A better approach might be to retain the current limit and apply the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle.
Health Physics, Nov.1982, Vol.43, No.5, p.727-731. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 83-1585 Shahnavaz H.
Lighting conditions and workplace dimensions of VDU-operators
Lighting conditions were evaluated at ergonomically-designed visual display unit workstations in use during day and night shifts by 26 female and 2 male operators at a telephone information centre. The operators preferred much lower luminance and workplace illuminance than previously reported in the literature. Large interindividual differences in screen and workplace lighting adjustment were found.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1982, Vol.25, No.12, p.1165-1173. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 83-1289 Gieffers F., Müller K.D.
The video workstation
Arbeitsplatz Bildschirm [en alemán]
This publication considers ergonomic, psychological, sociological and legal aspects of work with video terminals, and considers the views of both labour unions and employers' organisations. Contents: ergonomic analysis of video workstations from the occupational scientist's point of view; the eye and the video data terminal; psychological aspects of the introduction and operation of workstations with cathode-ray displays; introduction of video workstations and personel relations; video workstations as seen by employers' asociations; video workstations as seen by unions; legal context of the introduction of video workstations in the Federal Republic of Germany.
I.H. Sauer Verlag, Häusserstrasse 14, 6900 Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 286p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DM.49.00.

CIS 83-673 Krueger H., Müller-Limmroth W.
Good work practice at VDU terminals
Arbeiten mit dem Bildschirm - aber richtig [en alemán]
This scientifically based booklet provides information on: principles of lighting and visual perception, VDU equipment, workplace design, occupational medical aspects, psychological and sociological remarks, user information, checklists, relevant standards. French translation may be obtained from: Agence nationale pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 7 bd Romain-Rolland, 92120 Montrouge, France.
Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Winzerstrasse 9, 8000 München 40, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 40p. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 83-672 Hinz B.
Visual display unit workplaces
Bildschirmarbeitsplätze [en alemán]
The literature, tabulated data and recommendations on various aspects of work with visual display units are reviewed: signals, screen, keyboard, table, chair, footrest, noise, microclimate, lighting, radiation, working hours, medical supervision.
Informationen, 1981, Vol.14, p.14-30. 94 ref.

CIS 83-392
Labour Inspectorate (Arbeidsinspectie)
Work at CRT display terminals
Het werken met beeldschermen [en holandés]
Contents of this information sheet: definitions of terms; generalities on terminals and types of VDU; data on radiation, heat and noise emitted by VDUs; readability of displays (luminance, contrast, characters, colours); input elements (keyboard, cursors, light pens, touch control); workstation design (work-room lighting, reflection, viewing distance, sitting posture, furniture); vision, spectacles and ophthalmological examinations; lay-out of information on CRT displays; speed of work; task design; special advice.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1982. 51p. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 83-93 Kapuścińska B., Grass-Adameczek A.
Physiological assessment of the workload at computer terminal display units
Fizjologiczna ocena obciążenia pracą przy monitorach ekranowych [en polonés]
Report on the examination (pulse rate, arterial blood pressure and field of vision at the start and finish of work, visual performance and electro-oculography) of 72 female computer terminal operators (aged 19-35 years) to assess the various components of workload at computer terminal displays (visual and mental workload, postural stress). There was considerable eye fatigue. Conclusions and recommendations: pre-employment and periodical eye testing; maximum working time 5h/day; workbreaks of 10min after each hour of work and gymnastics during these workbreaks; ergonomic workplace design and layout (equipment, screens, keyboards, workposture) and anthropometric design of workplace seats and tables.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.112, p.13-20. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 82-1965 Michel-Laharie A.M.
Applications of vision tests in occupational medicine
Intérêt des "visiotests" en médecine du travail [en francés]
MD thesis. Considerations on: anatomy of the eye and physiology of vision; principal eye and vision disorders; study of working conditions of VDU operators; comparison between usual vision tests and recent developments in "visiotests" used in occupational medicine. "Visiotests" enable more accurate analysis of visual functions to be made than current methods. Information on the principle of "visiotests" and how they are conducted; analysis of results of clinical tests carried out over the last 2 years. Emphasis on the role of the company physician/oculist in screening for visual disorders (espacially VDU operators) and future possibililies of "visiotests".
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de Médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1982. 87p. 57 ref.

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