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  • Lighting and colour


CIS 80-706 Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Lighting of workplaces in foundries and the iron and steel industry - Finish cleaning and inspection/reception
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - finrensning och kontroll-avsyning [en sueco]
Workplaces in 3 foundries were studied. Finish cleaning and inspection of castings require great visual effort and may be classified as precision tasks. The work is made difficult by poor contrast between the surfaces of the piece, grains of sand adhering to the surface, and shadows cast into the cavities. The improvements made at the workplaces are described: local lighting with antiglare screens, arrangement of local lighting luminaires on 2 or 3 sides, increased illuminance levels, adjustable luminaires, use of light tables with the light under an opaque surface or a movable light source using optic fibres.
Ljuskultur, 1978, Vol.50, No.6, p.16-25. Illus.

CIS 80-324 Standard for safety: Emergency lighting equipment.
This standard (adopted as American national standard ANSI/UL 924 on 16 Oct. 1978) issues requirements for battery-powered emergency lighting and power equipment for use in ordinary indoor locations, in accordance with the National Electrical Code (CIS 78-31). Such equipment is intended to automatically supply illumination and/or power to critical areas and equipment in the event of failure of the normal supply. Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: construction (frame and enclosure; corrosion protection; current-carrying parts; wiring; earthing; batteries; electronic circuits; capacitators; overcurrent protection); exit lights; performance (leakage current, current input temperature, overvoltage and undervoltage, voltage surge, dielectric withstand); ratings; markings; instruction manual; low-frequency and high-frequency inverters. The supplement (revision pages) indicates changes from, and additions to, previous editions.
ANSI/UL 924-1978, Fifth edition, Underwriters Laboratories, 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 16 and 19 Feb. 1979. 36p. Illus. Price: US$4.50. Revision pages supplement: 41p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 80-79 Troisi F.M.
Occupational hygiene aspects of vision at work
Igiene della vista nel lavoro [en italiano]
Contents of this general study: visual function (VF) and VF tests (visual acuity, refractive errors, ocular motility; stereoscopic vision, colour vision (CV) and CV tests, binocular instruments for eye tests, work-related visual requirements, measures to improve visual tasks); pathology of VF in relation to work (changes due to age and illness, occupational eye injury, eye injury due to ultraviolet, infrared or ionising radiation, laser beams, microwaves, accident hazards, screens); workplace lighting (lighting and good eyesight, light physics, light distribution, light measurement and instruments used, luminance, reflection, colour schemes, contrast, glare, daylight and artificial lighting; general and local lighting; illumination levels; offices; types of lamps and maintenance).
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, May-June 1978, Vol.65, No.3, p.295-336; July-Aug. 1978, No.4, p.597-626; Sep.-Oct. 1978, No.5, p.765-794; Nov.-Dec. 1978, No.6, p.1095-1136. 50 ref.

CIS 79-1904 De Boer J.B., Fischer D.
Interior lighting.
The first of the 4 parts into which this book is divided reviews the theoretical groundwork: lighting levels to be provided, luminance, glare, colour, air conditioning, and energy considerations. Part 2 surveys the lighting equipment available (lamps, luminaires) and takes a look at electrical installation and lighting maintenance. The results of research on lighting criteria (lighting level, luminance, glare, colour) are summarised in Part 3, and it is shown how these results have been incorporated into the various national lighting recommendations in Western Europe. An examination of the practical calculation and measurement techniques for lighting design follows. Part 4 gives advice and examples for the most important fields of application: industry, offices, shops, hotels, hospitals etc. Appended are a glossary of terms, a table of fundamental quantities, and conversion factors.
Kluwer technische boeken, Brink 25, Postbus 23, Deventer, Netherlands, 1978. 336p. Illus. 81 ref. Price: Glds.119.25.

CIS 79-1593 Brajlovskij V.A., Novikova N.I., Kutikov E.M., Soldatov V.M.
Evaluation of aethetic properties of workplace lighting
Ocenka ėstetičeskih svojstv osveščenija rabočih pomeščenij [en ruso]
The development of the method (studies in a large theatre and industrial undertakings) is reviewed and its practical application presented. Criteria on which the evaluation is based are: harmony between light environment and purpose of room; room light saturation; light colour and rendering; ease of orientation; contemporary styling. An evaluation sheet with concrete data and a classification of factors determining lighting at the workplace are reproduced.
Tehničeskaja ėstetika, Aug. 1978, p.2-5. 7 ref.

CIS 79-1592 A review of the physiology of vision
Rappel de la physiologie de la vision. [en francés]
This whole issue is devoted to: general remarks on ocular anatomy, light, physiology of sight, light sensation, colour perception and visual function; characteristics of visual fatigue (symptoms, disturbances at work and away from work); visual disorders (causes of visual fatique); ergonomics of vision (lighting principles, visibility data as a function of illumination; lighting; visual comfort); eye protection (hazards of solid particles, liquid spays, radiation, preventive measures (general fitting out of workshops, selection and maintenance of equipment, wetting, personal protective equipment)).
Revue de médecine du travail, 1978, Vol.6, No.5, p.218-276. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 79-1305 Okara O.I.
Dynamics of the lighting environment at control posts
O dinamike svetovoj sredy operatorskih pomeščenij [en ruso]
Static lighting has the disadvantage of being monotonous with regard to both illumination and colour, and of causing a reduction in alertness. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the influence of lighting on alertness in 2 operators (one performing visual tasks similar to those of a navigator, the other auditory tasks similar to those of a radio operator) working in isolation. The results of observations over an 8h shift confirm the positive role of dynamic lighting, that is gradual adaptation of the illumination level to the type of work and the physiological and psychological status as determined by biological rhythms.
Svetotehnika, Nov. 1978, No.11, p.12-14. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 79-647 Standard for safety - Portable electric light units for use in hazardous locations, Class I, Groups C and D, and Class II, Group G.
This 4th edition of the standard, approved as American National Standard, updates previous editions. It lays down requirements for portable electric lighting units for indoor use in hazardous locations, in accordance with the U.S. National Electrical Code (CIS 78-31). Sections are devoted to: construction (protection of glass parts; joints in lamp enclosure; seal between lamp and terminal compartments; supply connections; external metal parts; grounding; switches, etc.); performance (temperature; thermal shock on glass parts; explosion and hydrostatic tests; grain dust penetration; stability, etc.); manufacturing and production tests; marking.
ANSI/UL-1977, Underwriters' Laboratories, 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1 May 1978. Standard approved on 9 Nov. 1977. 16p. Illus. Price: US-$3.50.

CIS 79-707 Amick C.L.
Modern office lighting trends in America.
Tendances modernes de l'éclairage des bureaux en Amérique. [en francés]
After referring to the American tradition of expecting high levels of visual performance, this article takes note of recent trends in energy saving, even if detrimental to visibility and productivity. Lower levels of general lighting, recommended for general and non-critical areas (at 1/3 and 1/9 of task level), are possible only if the planned future use of such areas is known. Review of reduction possibilities by adequate use of luminaires (preferably fluorescent) and by calculations of visual comfort and lighting efficacy. Another aspect considered is that of the adaptation of task lighting to flexible workplace organisation in an open-plan office: relocating ceiling luminaires, flexible wiring, speech privacy, furniture-mounted luminaires.
International Lighting Review, 1978, No.2, p.54-61. Illus.

CIS 79-706 Bockosh G.R.
The Bureau of Mines research program on mine illumination.
To demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of providing additional illumination in workplaces in underground coal mines, the U.S. Bureau of Mines illuminated 38 machines and four longwall faces in a total of 22 mines. These installations provided guidelines by which most of the machines utilised by the industry could be illuminated. This article describes the illumination systems, reports that analysis of performance over a 3-month period showed good component reliability, describes on information programme launched by the Bureau of Mines concerning the mandatory introduction of additional illumination in coal mines required by U.S. Federal illumination standards (Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1719, Title 30, 1 Oct. 1976), and reports on computerised and other systems for evaluation of mine illumination being developed by the Bureau of Mines and by the U.S. Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA).
American Mining Congress Journal, Apr. 1978, Vol.64, No.4, p.49-53. Illus.

CIS 79-416 Dobrovol'skij A.N., Sidorova T.N., Čistjakova G.M.
Universal installation for study of qualitative lighting parameters
Universal'naja svetotehničeskaja ustanovka dlja izučenija kačestvennyh pokazatelej osveščenija [en ruso]
An experimental room is described in which it is possible to vary the lighting conditions by the use of various combinations of luminaires for studies of luminance, contrast, visual discomfort, etc. Initial studies showed that the arrangement of fluorescent tubes in semicylindrical luminaires gives a characteristic luminance which is independent of the reflecting powers of the neighbouring surfaces.
Svetotehnika, July 1978, No.7, p.10-12. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 79-415 Beljaeva N.M.
Conditions for colour and spectrum of light emitted by illumination sources in working and living premises
Trebovanija k cvetnosti i spektru izlučenija istočnikov sveta, ispol'zuemyh dlja osveščenija promyšlennyh i graždanskih zdanij [en ruso]
Literature survey on the physiological and psychological effects of interior lighting by fluorescent tubes with light having different spectral compositions. Based on objective indices of the effect of the visible part of the spectrum on visual function and health, and subjective assessment of the effects of light and colour, a classification of visual tasks is presented with the most appropriate light source for their execution. Workplaces are classified as: those in which colour perception is very important; those in which work involves colourless objects; those in which the visual task involves perception of a scene and people.
Svetotehnika, July 1978, No.7, p.7-10. 33 ref.

CIS 79-572 Leist J., Bauer E.
Evaluation of work and performance in a landscaped office, from the viewpoint of occupational medicine
Arbeits- und Leistungsbewertung in einem Grossraumbüro aus arbeitsmedizinischer Sicht [en alemán]
Detailed account of the required conditions and technical data concerning the design and layout of a landscaped office: dimensions, floorspace, furnishing, choice of colours and light reflection measurements, artificial lighting (illumination, colour of light, colour rendering), ventilation and air conditioning (sources of air pollution in the office, minimum space per employee, air exchange rate, thermal comfort factors, recommended microclimates, measurement of microclimate), noise level and sound absorption techniques. Optimum values and data are given, and illustrated by diagrams and tables. These optimum values are compared with existing conditions in an office, where the ventilation and air conditioning did not satisfy the required conditions.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, July 1978, Vol.13, No.7, p.152-158. Illus.

CIS 79-362 Guide for the choice of workplace colour schemes
Ratgeber Farbe am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
The choice of colours for the workplace and workpost design are not merely questions of well-being and comfort; colours are also factors affecting output, mental concentration and safety. This booklet emphasises the physiological and psychological influence of colours on workers and gives guidance for the choice of colours and colour schemes in workplaces (walls, ceilings, floors, machinery), washrooms, changing rooms etc., with explanatory illustrations. General considerations and check-list in preparation for painting. The last part of the booklet is devoted to safety colours.
Deutsches Lackinstitut GmbH, Karlstrasse 21, 6000 Frankfurt am Main, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 27p. Illus.

CIS 79-554 Directives on prevention of visual disturbances in cathode ray terminal work (Sweden), 1978
Anvisningar om ĺtgärder till förebyggande av synbesvär vid avläsning av bildskärmar [en sueco]
These directives (effective 1 Jan. 1979) deal with general lighting, which must be adapted to workplaces where work at terminals plays a predominant role (200-300lx), supplementary lighting for workplaces close to the terminal where other work must be performed, elimination of all sources of glare from the visual fields, possibility of adjusting the viewing distance and angle of inclination of the screen to individual requirements, visual comfort for spectacle wearers, and organisation of work.
Anvisningar nr 136, National Board for Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1978. 4p.

CIS 79-82 Hollwich F., Dieckhues B.
Lighting at the workplace and its medical importance for man
Arbeitsplatzbeleuchtung und ihre medizinische Bedeutung für den Menschen [en alemán]
Light not only has an optical function, but also an energetic one, which stimulates and regulates organ function and metabolism. Artificial light differs from daylight in its spectral composition, its monotonous character, its incidence and its intensity. Over-intense artificial light activates hormone secretion, giving rise to a stress reaction. Combination of light sources with different spectra in a lighting unit, and addition of local lighting, yield satisfactory results. The results of tests to determine the influence of daylight and artificial light on ACTH and hydrocortisone production in man are given.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, May 1978, Vol.13, No.5, p.103-106. 10 ref.

CIS 79-81 Hüer H.H.
Requirements for lighting at the workplace
Anforderungen an eine arbeitsgerechte Beleuchtung in gewerblichen Räumen [en alemán]
The psychological importance of good lighting combined with judicious use of colours in the undertaking and at the workplace is pointed out, and the main criteria for artificial lighting at the workplace reviewed: effective field of vision, appropriate illumination and optimum luminance, elimination of the stroboscopic effect (due to fluorescent tubes) and glare, contrast, distribution of luminance values, colour of light. The calculation method for lighting based on the efficiency factor is mentioned, and attention is called to the importance of the wavelength of artificial light for wearers of optical lenses.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, May 1978, Vol. 13, No.5, p.93-97. 18 ref.

CIS 79-80 Hentschel H.J., Pusch R.
A new lighting concept for better vision and judicious power consumption
Neues Beleuchtungskonzept für besseres Sehen und sinnvolle Energienutzung [en alemán]
The basic relations between reduction of contrast and reflected glare and the American ESI (Equivalent Sphere Illumination) method of evaluating lighting systems are set out. A new system of lighting is presented, combining ceiling-mounted units with a broad light distribution curve and supplementary local luminaires with an asymmetric light distribution curve having fluorescent tubes and adjustable mirrors. This dual component technique permits a reduction in general lighting, flexible adaptation of local lighting, optimum contrast conditions, and savings in electricity.
Siemens-Zeitschrift, 1978, Vol.52, No.4, p.185-187. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 79-79 Ross D.K.
Task lighting - Yet another view.
Report on recent laboratory studies of the relation between illumination levels and visual performance efficacy in view of energy costs. It is concluded that at least for some tasks there may be an optimum lighting level, with performance falling off with either more or less light than optimum, and that at average levels in the range of 30-75 footcandles problems associated with glare from the lighting are minimised. The data demonstrate that, in most cases, for material normally occurring in an office environment, increased illumination is not an effective economic choice.
Lighting Design and Application, May 1978, Vol.8, No.5, p.37-43. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 78-1588 Smorčkova N.N.
Lighting of young workers' workplaces at assembly lines for small precision parts
Osveščenie rabočih mest podrostkov-sborščikov melkih detalej na konvejere [en ruso]
Results of a survey of 52 assembly workers, aged 17-18, in the watchmaking industry. The parts to be assembled were so minute that these young workers often had to use a magnifying glass (up to 65% of the work shift) for these visual tasks. Mere visual examination of the parts to be assembled caused eye fatigue (particularly of the focussing muscles); this fatique was in relation to the length of time a magnifying glass had to be used. Laboratory tests on young watchmakers assembling watch parts showed that visual scrutiny of parts less than 0.15mm in diameter requires a lighting level of 4,000lx, and that the level should be increased to 5,000lx if a magnifying glass has to be used.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1978, No.2, p.118-120. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 78-1587
Central Soviet Institute for Lighting Research (VNISI), Moskva, 3 May 1977.
Recommendations concerning operation of lighting installations in industrial undertakings
Rekomendacii po ėkspluatacii osvetitel'nyh ustanovok promyšlennyh predprijatij [en ruso]
Contents of these recommendations, which set out minimum illuminance requirements for various workplaces: acceptance of new or renovated lighting equipment; maintenance of interior lighting equipment (tasks; personnel; means of access to luminaires; periodic control of illuminance levels, etc.). Appendix: determination of illuminance levels when the power supply does not correspond to the rated voltage; rights and obligations of the lighting engineer; determination of number of maintenance workers; recommended method for measuring illuminance level; composition of products for cleaning luminaires.
Svetotehnika, Feb. 1978, No.2, p.14-20.

CIS 78-1586 Častuhina T.N.
Effect of quality of lighting on productivity and work quality when inspecting shiny fabrics
Vlijanie kačestva osveščenija na proizvoditel'nost' i kačestvo truda pri rabotah s blestjaščimi tkanjami [en ruso]
Report of a comparative study of 2 variants of workplace for inspecting shiny fabrics: in one, fluorescent tubes for local lighting (h=1.6m) were arranged vertically above the workplace in the direction of the fabric; in the other, the light fixtures were at the right of the operators, at right angles to the workplace. The second arrangement produced no glare and thus facilitated the work. Productivity was 27% higher than with the first variant, with no increase in visual fatigue.
Svetotehnika, Jan. 1978, No.1, p.14-15. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 79-813 Manninen O.
Ratings of discomfort due to noise and inadequate illumination at work
Työympäristöjen melun ja valaistuksen haittaavuusarviot [en finlandés]
Discomfort ratings of metal factory workers were compared with technical measurements and assessments of an external group. There was a good correspondence at the group level among the 3 ratings. About 90% of the workers' noise ratings agreed, but the lighting evaluation agreement was less. The highest correlation was that of equivalent noise level; this level and the lighting level which caused discomfort in about 50% of the raters were 50dB(A) and 900lux, respectively. Technical measurements are not sufficient to evaluate discomfort, but group level ratings of workers can be used instead of the technical measurements. Demographic and socio-economic variables, general job satisfaction, time of exposure or hearing ability had no significant effects on the results of discomfort ratings.
Kansanterveystieteen julkaisuja M 31/77, Tampereen yliopiston kansanterveystieteen laitos, 33100 Tampere 10, Finland, 1977. 52p. Illus. 75 ref.

CIS 79-417 Costa G., Bellucci R.
Ergo-ophthalmological study of women textile workers in visually demanding jobs
Indagine ergooftalmologica in un gruppo di operaie di una industria tessile con compiti ad alta richiesta visiva [en italiano]
The main problems of work requiring good visual performance are reviewed (lighting, contrast, glare, type and colour of lighting, visual comfort, visual fatigue). Studies performed in 168 textile workers engaged in inspection and mending of fabrics showed a high proportion of visual disturbances and inadequate lighting conditions. Proposals for improvement are: use of lighting with higher chromatic efficiency; greater number of lights above the workplaces, with individual switches; painting of walls with colours having a low reflection index; correct mounting of fluorescent lights to avoid flickering; positioning of lights to prevent glare.
Securitas, Sep.-Oct. 1977, Vol.62, No.9-10, p.533-542. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 78-1584 Hartmann E.
Optimum lighting at the workplace
Optimale Beleuchtung am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
This book is composed of short chapters each relating to a specific subject for easy reference: physical fundamentals of light, lighting, vision and light measurement, light adaptation and glare, colour of light, lamps and luminaires, types of lighting, and desirable and undesirable features of lighting. Recommendations are given concerning illumination and luminance, lighting of large halls or windowless premises, general and local lighting, supplementary lighting, and illuminating ceilings. The final chapters are concerned with problems of air conditioning, lighting problems in work with display screens, natural lighting, and design of lighting installations. Glossary.
Friedrich Kiehl Verlag GmbH, Pfaustrasse 13, 6700 Ludwigshafen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1977. 159p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: DM.23.00.

CIS 78-994 Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Lighting conditions for mould and coremaking operations in foundries
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - form- och kärntillverkning [en sueco]
Subjective observations and measurements of lighting were obtained for 5 foundries; detailed studies were made and several arrangements were tested in 2 of them. Visual tasks were difficult because the dark moulding sand allows no contrast; shadowing in mould and core cavities further decreases the light. Workplace lighting is rare even though general lighting is ineffective. Workers frequently have to adopt postures which cause them to shade the working area with their bodies. In some places, illumination levels were sufficient, but quality was unacceptable due to wrong direction and glare. Spot check interviews of 15 core makers produced complaints about the direction of the light for manual work; 13 indicated workplace lighting would be an improvement. Suggestions are made for such lighting.
Ljuskultur, 1977, Vol.49, No.3, p.3-12. Illus.

CIS 78-993 Weis B.
Technical problems of emergency lighting
Lichttechnische Probleme bei der Notbeleuchtung [en alemán]
The various types of emergency lighting (safety, standby, substitute lighting), are defined with reference to the German (Fed.Rep) regulations. The technical requirements to be satisfied by emergency lighting are examined on the basis of British, Soviet and West German studies: illuminance levels of approx. 0.5-1.5lx are sufficient for evacuation of the workplace. Glare should be limited to very low levels. The values prescribed by various standards are shown. Considerations on the design of emergency lighting equipment.
Lichttechnik, Jan. 1977, Vol.29, No.1, p.27-30; Feb. 1977, No.2, p.66-68. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 78-702 Luminaires for tubular fluorescent lamps - Safety requirements for air-handling luminaires.
Luminaires pour lampes tubulaires ŕ fluorescence - Rčgles de sécurité pour les luminaires ventilés. [en francés]
This standard, which applies to luminaires for use with a ventilated plenum or duct (air-handling luminaires), specifies particular safety requirements which are additional or to modify the requirements of IEC Publication 162 "Luminaires for tubular fluorescent lamps". Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: marking; construction (luminaires suitable for direct mounting on normally flammable surfaces; temperature under normal operating conditions; overall performance and temperature of adjacent surfaces under abnormal conditions). Appendices: method of making heating tests; explanation of "ta" (maximum temperature in which a luminaire may be operated under normal conditions) in respect of air-handling luminaires.
IEC Standard, Publication 162A, International Electrotechnical Commission, 1 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1977. 11p. Price: SF.16.00.

CIS 78-388 Carlsson L., Knave B., Wibom R.
Workplace lighting in foundries and smelting plants - Manual casting
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - manuell avgjutning [en sueco]
Results of a survey and measurements made in 4 Swedish foundries to determine the optimum parameters for new lighting installations. The visible radiation from furnaces and molten metal raises problems of adaptation of workers' eyes to work environmental lighting conditions. Visual tasks are rendered more difficult by the lack of sharp contrast between casting sand moulds and the cast iron. Visibility is further reduced by insufficient lighting shadows, low contrast, and wearing of protective goggles. Recommendations on ways to improve lighting by using mercury-vapour lamps; cost aspects.
Ljuskultur, 1977, Vol.49, No.3, p.4-11. Illus.

CIS 77-1895 Dodille D.
Workpost lighting
L'éclairage des postes de travail. [en francés]
MD thesis. Definitions; brief survey of pertinent French legislation; study of workpost lighting under 2 broad aspects: daylight; artificial light. Description of lamps and luminaires, choice of lighting units, types of lighting systems, maintenance and measurement of lighting levels. Physiology of the eye. Conditions to be met by lighting systems to provide visual comfort at the workpost. Effects of poor lighting: visual fatigue, nervous fatigue, accidents. Special problems of personnel working in semi-darkness (e.g. effects of headlamp glare on truck drivers). Role of the plant physician: technical (ensuring adequate lighting) and medical (pre-employment vision testing and periodic eye examinations).
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Cochin - Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1977. 50p. Illus. 82 ref.

CIS 77-1298 Jensen J.H.
The role of light and radiant energy in health and safety.
This article considers 4 fundamental factors of visibility (time, size of object, contrast and brightness) and examines workplace lighting problems such as: older workers' increased lighting needs; design and location of lighting to minimise or eliminate glare; effect of light on comfort and safety colour interpretation; problems of infrared and ultraviolet radiation; safety aspects (fatigue; stroboscopic effect and moving machinery); costs and benefits of good lighting.
Professional Safety, Apr. 1977, Vol.22, No.4, p.12-16. Illus.

CIS 77-679 Thornton W.A.
The design of safety-colors.
Instead of basing the ease of safety colour identification on the illuminant, the safety colour is designed to be used with any illuminant. The chromaticities of present colours illuminated by standard fluorescent, high pressure and mercury lamps are compared and the ambiguities are shown. Two new approaches are discussed: redesign of spectral reflectance distribution and use of fluorescent safety colours. The chromaticities of the new colours using various illuminants are shown, and the advantages pointed out (reliability, use of illuminants lacking certain colours).
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Jan. 1977, Vol.6, No.2, p.92-99. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 77-827 Lighting in the logging and sawmill industries
This report contains recommendations for good lighting practice; the desired end results are given rather than specific means of achieving them. After a brief introduction on logging and sawmill operations, survey findings and recommendations are broken down into short chapters: scope of the guide; material flow (sorting, etc.); visibility requirements for specific tasks; illumination level recommendations (quality and quantity); safety considerations; lighting maintenance; energy conservation; emergency lighting. Appendices contain visual task evaluations of typical tasks and relative efficacies of light sources. This document should be used in conjunction with the "American national standard practice for industrial lighting", published in Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Vol.2, No.4, July 1973, p.461 (CIS 74-1015).
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Jan. 1977, Vol.6, No.2, p.67-79. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 78-1774 Roedler F.
Aspects of the working climate in landscaped offices
Facteurs d'ambiance dans les bureaux-paysages. [en francés]
Translation of: Arbeitsklimatische Gesichtspunkte für Grossraumbüros. Gesundheits-Ingenieur, München, Germany (Fed.Rep.), July-Aug. 1975, Vol.96, No.7-8, p.184-189. Illus. (CIS 76-266). The interrelations between lighting, microclimate and noise in landscaped offices render close collaboration between the architect and specialists in these 3 disciplines necessary. Problems examined: lighting (relation between illumination level and daylight, heat production, glare, and influence of windows): microclimate (temperature distribution, supply and exhaust of air via the ceiling, cigarette smoke); acoustics (sound level up to 50-55dB(A), ceiling design, carpeting and furniture, electroacoustic production of background noise). Recommendations are made.
Traduction INRS 74 B-76, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1976. 24p. Illus.

CIS 78-703
Department of the Environment Property Services Agency, London.
Site lighting
This folder emphasises the importance of good lighting on building sites, for both productivity and safety. In gives general rules for lighting, with useful tips for the lighting layout, working areas, walkways, plant lighting, escape lighting, emergency lighting; notes on area and site lighting (with recommended illuminances) and details of site lighting equipment (flame and electric lamps).
Advisory Leaflet 71, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1976. 4p. Illus. Price: Ł0.15.

CIS 77-1894 Kiefer G.
Choice and installation of luminaires
Leuchten - richtig ausgewählt und installiert [en alemán]
A list of the regulations of the Association of German Electrical Engineers (VDE) and DIN standards for safety of lighting installations is followed by a description of and commentary on precautions to be taken in the installation of luminaires: prevention of indirect contact, choice of luminaires according to the protection they offer against indirect contact, water and dust, dimensions and characteristics of cables and colour identification of conductors, connection and attachment of luminaires, circuits and balancing of discharge lamps. Some special cases (explosive or damp atmospheres).
Elektrische Energie-Technik, 2 Nov. 1976, Vol.21, No.22, p.497-501. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 77-1296 Ruth W., Carlsson L., Wibom R., Knave B.
Workplace lighting in foundries and smelting plants - General analysis of work process and lighting conditions
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - översikt och analys av olika arbetsmoment [en sueco]
A 1975 Swedish government study showed that 51% of iron and steel workers believed the workplace illumination to be unacceptable. The following problems exist: luminous radiation from furnaces and molten metal; low contrast of moulds and cast iron; shadowing of light by workers' bodies; repetitive visual tasks and short viewing distances; smoke and dust; breaking of lamps owing to vibration; glare; limited colour rendering. This study showed only partial improvement achieved by illuminating engineering. Improved shielding of light sources is required, but changes in work processes are more necessary.
Industribelysning V, Ljuskultur, Box 5512, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, 1976, Vol.48, No.4-5, p.28-36. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 77-1295 Konarski S.P., Gadomska H., Brunsz R.
Capacity of perception of objects during execution of visual tasks under incandescent, fluorescent or mercury lighting
Zdolność rozpoznawania przedmiotu pracy wzrokowej przy oświetleniu żarowym, fluorescencyjnym i rtęciowym [en polonés]
Visual work capacity changes were noted in 12 students (19-23 years) required to indicate the position of Landolt rings under light produced by incandescent, mercury vapour and fluorescent lamps, at luminance levels of 15 and 135nt (54.3 and 488lx). The findings, which are recapitulated in a table and commented on, show the need to continue research into the causes of low productivity under incandescent lighting, especially at a luminance of 15nt, and the adverse effect of fluorescent or mercury light sources on the perceptive capacities in subjects fatigued by prolonged visual tasks (change in visual perception with time). Further studies should clarify the minimum luminance level for each type of source as a function of the apparent size index of the object observed.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1976, Vol.26, No.91, p.259-279. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 77-1294 Birkhahn W.
The eye and light from the viewpoint of occupational safety and health
Auge und Licht im Spiegel der Arbeitssicherheit [en alemán]
An accident occurring in the building industry is used to show how dazzling can have grave consequences, that many errors of judgment are due to poor lighting and that good visual perception of the task is an important factor in occupational safety. Description of visual function, followed by a review of certain anomalies that play a major role in the accident phenomenon. Requisite properties for safety spectacles. Advice for improving working conditions by good harmony between the surface colours and light.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Oct. 1976, Vol.26, No.10, p.205-215. Illus.

CIS 77-1293 Hughes P.C., McNelis J.F.
Safety color perception under HID lighting.
This study attempted to discover (1) if any safety colour (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple) could not be identified under mercury, metal halide or high-pressure sodium lighting and (2) if these light sources are sufficient for discrimination of the colours. Plant conditions were reproduced for discrimination of the colours. Excellent mean identification was realised for all colours except orange under mercury lighting. The mean of observers correctly identifying the colours under incandescent, various types of mercury arc, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium lighting at 10 foot-candles was 99%; at 5 foot-candles it was 97.8%.
Plant Engineering, 16 Sep. 1976, Vol.30, No.19, p.128-130. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 77-1292 Lighting in underground mines
Beleuchtung im Bergbau unter Tage [en alemán]
Aspects of miners' lamps dealt with: fixture points (helmet, belt), weight of the storage battery, luminous efficiency, type of bulb, rated voltage, service life and profitability. Table comparing the characteristics of different types of lamp. The choice of stationary lamps is made on the basis of their luminance, luminous efficiency and service life. Comparison of these factors for different lamps shows an advantage for fluorescent tubes. Flameproof construction should be enhanced for higher temperatures. The low temperatures of fluorescent tubes allow recourse to increased safety methods. Arguments against the English system of 125V direct current and advice for planning of lighting installations in mines.
Lichttechnik, 1976, Vol.28, No.8, p.326-330. Illus.

CIS 77-1291 Subjective impression of luminance
Subjektiv empfundene Helligkeit [en alemán]
Report of a series of tests to determine subjective evaluation of illumination level, in which 41 subjects were tested, to verify the results of previous research (CIS 74-1891). The subjects had to change the illumination level (reduce it by one half or increase it twofold) following a subjective impression received. The results obtained by this test method do not agree; it does not appear possible to draw up a subjective illumination scale in a simple and unequivocal manner.
Lichttechnik, 1976, No.6, p.266-270. 9 ref.

CIS 77-993 Florence N.
Comparison of the energy effectiveness of office lighting systems.
This paper suggests a method for rating the effectiveness of general office lighting systems by considering 2 aspects of lighting. The first is the quality of environmental lighting, the luminous relationships seen in horizontal viewing; it can be rated in terms of the visual comfort probability (VCP). The second is the quality and quantity of visual task lighting; it can be rated in terms of equivalent sphere illumination (ESI). The possibility of using the average and minimum values for VCP and ESI as figures of merit for comparing the effectiveness of different lighting systems is examined. 19 general direct lighting systems were investigated. The influence of luminaire spacing and of luminaire light distribution is studied. Results are discussed in terms of discomfort glare.
Lighting Design and Application, Sep. 1976, Vol.6, No.9, p.30-36. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 77-992 Shellko P.L., Williams H.G.
The integration of task and ambient lighting in office furniture.
Incorporating lighting into office furniture, with lighting for task visibility supplied only at the task and reduced levels elsewhere, results in energy savings, a more interesting space and better task visibility. This furniture-integrated lighting demands a design evolution, combining the efforts of lighting and industrial designers. The authors examine the visual needs of the office, the relation of office workers to their furniture, and the economics of furniture-integrated office lighting. Several trial approaches were developed with a prototype installation of task and ambient lighting luminaires built into typical office furniture. The arrangements are illustrated, and details of luminaires are given.
Lighting Design and Application, Sep. 1976, Vol.6, No.9, p.14-23. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 77-678 Goodbar I.
A simplified method for determining the acceptability of a luminaire from the VCP standpoint.
The author deals with the simplified evaluation of a luminaire from the standpoint of visual comfort probability (VCP) according to the method recommended in a report of the Illuminating Engineering Society (RQQ Report No.3). The background of the method is a division of the luminous areas into a number of modules. Formulae are derived for computing the discomfort glare rating and the luminance of the luminaire. Rapid determination of the equivalent luminance with the aid of a graph is explained.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Oct. 1976, Vol.6, No.1, p.21-28. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 77-677 Fry G.A.
A simplified formula for discomfort glare.
This article deals with the basis for criteria established in a report of the Illuminating Engineering Socieity (RQQ Report No.3) on a method for determining the acceptability of a luminaire from the standpoint of visual comfort probability in large rooms. It is based on formulae for a discomfort glare rating, given by Guth and Goodbar. The author gives an evaluation for the luminance value L of a luminaire and describes a computing method for assessing discomfort glare.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Oct. 1976, Vol.6, No.1, p.10-20. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 77-514 Chironis N.P.
New lighting regulations to spark improved safety production for coal mines.
The mine lighting regulations issued by the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (USA) in April 1976 above all concern mechanised workplaces in underground coal mines and their hazards. Increased productivity is also expected from improved lighting. The surfaces designated must be illuminated to 0.06fL whenever self-propelled mining equipment is operated, e.g. continuous miners, coal-loading machines, cutting machines, roof-bolting machines. Other requirements concern voltage limitations for light fixtures and their earthing. The choice of footLamberts and the necessary light-measuring methods are explained. Permissible mine illumination systems (fluorescent, mercury vapour, high-pressure sodium vapour) are presented.
Coal Age, May 1976, Vol.81, No.5, p.79-87. Illus.

CIS 77-402
Fiche de sécurité G.105, Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Issy-les-Moulineaux, June 1976.
Provisional electrical installations for worksite illumination
Installation électrique provisoire pour l'éclairage des chantiers. [en francés]
Contents of this technical data note: purpose of lighting of construction and civil engineering worksites, not including underground worksites (normal and emergency lighting); characteristics of worksite lighting installations (general; zones to be illuminated); different types of luminaires and accessories; illumination level (general lighting, functional exterior and interior lighting; general provisions concerning the electrical installation (choice of voltage, type of protection and cables; electrical installation of dependent premises (offices, storerooms, etc.)); emergency lighting (standby generating unit, central storage batteries, storage or dry battery lamps; maintenance).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May-June 1976, No.3, 6p. (detachable insert). 5 ref.

CIS 77-330
Ministry of Labour (Ministčre du travail), Paris.
Order of 10 November 1976 concerning safety circuits and installations
Arręté du 10 novembre 1976 relatif aux circuits et installations de sécurité. [en francés]
Date of entry into force: 1 Dec. 1977 (except as regards existing electric installations and those being constructed, for which an additional 2-year waiting period is granted). Contents: definition of electrical emergency installations and responsibility of management for their good working order and maintenance; conditions for the installation and working of safety lighting systems; supply to emergency systems and alternative current sources; high-rise buildings. Annexes: details of design, planning and execution of emergency lighting systems; exceptional cases where safety circuit energy sources may be used to replace the main sources.
Journal officiel de la République française, 1 Dec. 1976, supplementary issue 102 N.C., p.6334-6337.

CIS 77-92 Hartill R.
Modern lighting in British coal mines
Moderne Grubenleuchten im britischen Steinkohlenbergbau [en alemán]
This article, written by the Chief Electrical Engineer of the Mining Department of the United Kingdom National Coal Board, reviews briefly the main provisions of the British regulations concerning lighting in mines, with a tabulated list of recommended illumination levels at various underground workposts. This is followed by detailed comments on recent developments in lighting at the workplace, incidentally improving occupational safety, and on miners' cap lamps (with comments on the design of cap lamps). For fixed lighting installations at the workface 6 or 8W fluorescent tubes are more and more frequently used. Cap lamps are equipped with rechargeable lead batteries.
Glückauf, Mar. 1976, Vol.112, No.5, p.209-214. Illus.

CIS 76-1882 Birkhahn.
Climate, light, colour
Klima, Licht, Farbe [en alemán]
Part 1 of this article: brief comments on in-plant microclimate, psychological environment and ventilation, followed by a study of visual acuity and lighting conditions (luminance and colour). Part 2: considerations on lighting conditions necessary for good vision (sufficient luminance, illumination homogeneity, prevention of glare and diffuse reflection, colour rendition). Comparison of colour of light from various lamps.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1976, Vol.7, No.2, p.8-12; and Mar. 1976, No.3, p.30-33. Illus.

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