Lighting and colour - 381 entradas encontradas
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Federal German Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung)
Guidelines concerning workplaces
Arbeitsstätten-Richtlinien [en alemán]
Publication of the new amended text (Mar. 1981 edition) of these guidelines issued under the Workplaces Ordinance 1975 (CIS 75-1494). Detailed provisions for the application of section 7, subsection (4) of the Ordinance - emergency lighting for evacuation - and section 41, subsection (3) - artificial lighting of workplaces and of outside communication ways.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Mar. 1981, No.3, p.68-71.
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - recommendations for lighting levels in iron foundries
This data sheet provides recommendations on optimum lighting levels in foundries, choice of luminaires and their maintenance.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1980. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Portable electric lamps
This seventh updating edition, approved as an American National Standard 21 July 1980, covers portable electric lamps for use in accordance with the U.S. National Electrical Safety Code (CIS 81-333). Principal contents: construction (switches, wiring, earthing); performance; manufacturing and production tests; long-chain portable lamps; pin-up lamps; standards for components.
Underwriters Laboratories, 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, Illinois 60062, USA, 20 Apr. 1981. 29p. Illus.
Exterior lighting for industry and security
This book outlines the principles, the equipment and the design methods used for many applications of exterior lighting which is used as an aid to productivity, safety and security. It will be of interest to planners, designers, builders, architects and electrical engineers. Contents: the eye and vision; the principles of lighting; lighting terms and units; generation of light; luminaires; lighting design; towers and masts; maintenance of exterior lighting; electrical design practice; managing the installation contract; industrial area lighting; security lighting; exterior emergency and incident lighting; construction and civil engineering sites; lighting for quarries and surface installations at mines; airfield lighting; lighting for ports and shipbuilding; lighting for petroleum and chemical industry.
Applied Science Publishers Ltd., Ripple Road, Barking, Essex, United Kingdom, 1980. 321p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: Ł.20.00.
Compatability between aesthetic and occupational health requirements of workplace colour and lighting
O soglasovanii ėstetičeskih i gigieničeskih trebovanij k svetocvetovoj srede proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij [en ruso]
Considerations on the characteristics of a lighting/colour environment that would meet the requirements of visual hygiene, aesthetics, optimal lighting criteria and current standards. Two practical examples illustrate the methods to be used by architects and illuminating engineers in achieving this objective. The value of close collaboration between the two professions in this field is emphasised. Proposals for future research.
Svetotehnika, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.7-9.
Bureaux [en francés]
This issue is devoted to articles on present aspects of artificial lighting and recent developments in this field: review of development trends in office buildings; general lighting versus local lighting in offices; open-plan office lighting in Germany; visual criteria for lighting video display positions; examples of lighting in various banking and insurance company buildings.
International Lighting Review, 1980, No.4, p.103-134. Illus.
Industrijski objekti [en serbocroata]
Contents: choice of site for buildings; industrial areas; surrounding land and site of buildings; forms and dimensions of buildings; building materials; roofing; thermal insulation of roofs and walls; wall surfacing; flooring; natural and artificial lighting; noise in industry, sound propagation, soundproofing; heating; ventilation; fire protection; choice of ambient colours.
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu, Višegradska bb, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1980. 304p. Illus. 48 ref.
Weis B., Pawlowski G.
Modern mine lighting in Germany
Moderne Bergwerksbeleuchtung in Deutschland [en alemán]
Mine lighting requirements are reviewed and the basic characteristics of effective lighting are enumerated: nominal illumination level, uniform local lighting, light colour temperature. Advice on lighting design and calculation, specific recommendations for lighting different mine areas (shaft, areas, main roadways, roadway driving area and coal face). Description of fixed and portable mine lamps.
Licht, 1980, No.11, p.568-572, 577. Illus. 7 ref.
Electrical installations of buildings - Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Chapter 56: Safety services.
Installations électriques des bâtiments - Cinquičme partie: Choix et mise en oeuvre des matériels électriques - Chapitre 56: Services de sécurité. [en francés]
This chapter of the international standard defines the characteristics and installation of a safety service in the event of fire: operating conditions, protection against indirect contacts, sources, circuits, lamps.
IEC Standard, International Electrotechnical Commission, 1 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1980. 9p. Price: SF.14.00.
Fälker F., Grabosch I., Methling D., Nickel D.
Design data and principles for the use of lighting installations on building sites
Lichttechnische Charakteristika und Anwendungsgrundsätze für Beleuchtungsanlagen im Bauwesen [en alemán]
Two communications on the importance of the quality of lighting for health and work performance, followed by 19 data sheets on special luminaires for construction sites (uses, area of illuminated surface, technical data on lamps, construction, manufacturer).
Arbeitssicherheit, 1980, No.1, p.1-52. Illus.
Klotzbücher E., Fichtel K., Miericke H., Hamdorf G.
Influence of lighting sources of different spectral composition on ability to perform mental tasks, and on selected physiological functions
Einfluss von Beleuchtungsquellen unterschiedlicher spektraler Zusammensetzung auf Leistung bei geistiger Arbeit und ausgewählte physiologische Funktionen [en alemán]
Literature survey on the effects of the spectral composition of light; description of arithmetic performance test methods and results of these tests in lighting conditions from 3 different types of source (fluorescent, halide, high-pressure sodium vapour: performance criteria (time taken for arithmetic tests, percentage of correct solutions), physiological reactions (heart rate, respiratory indices), work rhythm and pulse rate depending on type of light source. The best results are obtained with sodium-vapour lighting. It is probable that this type of lighting (which contains a higher proportion of long waves) stimulates the performers' activity more than the other types of lighting.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, July 1980, Vol.30, No.7, p.241-248. Illus. 26 ref.
Symposium on workplace lighting for CRT display terminals
Symposium "Beleuchtung von Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
Communications presented at a symposium organised by the illuminating engineering societies of Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland (Vienna, 22 May 1980), where the following themes were discussed: prevention of reflections on the screen; improvement of conditions of visibility by contrast; suppression of reflections on the screen by filters; design and layout of, and technical data concerning, luminescent surfaces in VDU workplaces; luminaires to be employed in premises of this kind; experience with, and practical examples of, lighting in offices equipped with VDUs; standardisation in Austria; measurement of illumination levels in workplaces equipped with VDUs.
Österreichische Zeitschrift für Elektrizitätswirtschaft, Sep. 1980, Vol.33, No.9, Beilage "Licht und Beleuchtung", p.9-29. Illus.
Mačugovskij N.B., Iohel'son Z.M., Rudavina O.S.
Flameproof lamps for coal mines, model SZV-60
Rudničnye vzryvobezopasnye svetil'niki zabojnogo tipa SZV-60 [en ruso]
The lamp is designed to be attached to the caps of self-advancing supports in such a manner as not to disturb the miner's movements (height 105mm). The flameproof construction is based on a polycarbonate enclosure, which withstands shocks of 70J. The body of the lamp is made of a zinc-aluminium alloy, thus eliminating spark production due to friction.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.40. Illus.
U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration
Lighting suppliers work to cut glare.
Study of lighting systems that meet the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration's illumination standards without causing excessive glare, in continuous mining operations and in low coal seams. Guide for choice of equipment (synoptic tables): headlamps, fluorescent area lights, machines lights (high intensity discharge, incandescent), high pressure sodium lamps; power supplies, suppression boxes and ballast assemblies, junction boxes. Cost aspects and intrinsic electrical safety are discussed briefly.
Coal Age, May 1980, Vol.85, No.5, p.192-216. Illus.
Visual ergonomic principles for workplace lighting
Principes d'ergonomie visuelle applicables ŕ l'éclairage des lieux de travail. [en francés]
This experimental standard lays down rules for adapting the light environment to the psychophyiological conditions of photoptic vision. Contents: definitions; psychophysiological visual functions; intrinsic content of visual tasks (mean illuminance levels recommended in different industries according to type of task); close visual field (modification of recommended illuminance levels according to prevailing conditions); environment (absolute luminance values, constrast between sources and background, maximum recommended wall illuminance according to luminance of the visual task and the reflection factor of the walls); effct of temporal integration; miscellaneous influences; equipment and methods for measurement of illuminance and luminance levels. Annex: application of the International Commission on Illumination method for control of glare.
Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, June 1980. 29p. Illus.
Colour and work - Colour surroundings - Dyschromatopsia - Occupational capability
Couleur et travail - Ambiance colorée - Dyschromatopsies - Aptitudes professionnelles. [en francés]
MD thesis: physical, physiological and psychological aspects of colour vision; importance of colours for staff morale, accident prevention and fatigue; workplace lighting; medical aspects (colour vision deficiency, screening tests for this condition in occupational medicine); effects of colour vision deficiency on work performance and ability in jobs involving important safety factors; problems arising from dissimulating or simulating colour vision deficiency; importance of role of plant physician in certifying aptitude for work.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisičre - Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1980. 240p. 64 ref.
Brandt H.P., Dietze U., Deufrains A.
Ophthalmological aspects of workplace lighting by fluorescent tubes only
Der ausschliesslich durch Leuchtstoffröhren beleuchtete Arbeitsplatz aus ophthalmologischer Sicht [en alemán]
Measurements carried out in precision engineering shops where the lighting was provided exclusively by fluorescent tubes were evaluated against complaints made by 107 workers. A relation was established between problems of vision, on the one hand, and inadequately corrected refraction problems, insufficient light intensity, high visual requirements and visual stress, on the other. Psychosomatic rejection of purely artificial light is attributed to the non-physiological quality of such light and to attendant hormonal factors. Recommended improvements: supplementary lighting, minimum illumination levels, optimum correction of vision, good contrast, proper choice of colour of light.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, 1980, Vol.35, No.18, p.709-712. Illus. 3 ref.
Von Kiparski R.
Ordinances, directives and recommendations for workplace lighting
Verordnungen, Richtlinien und Empfehlungen für die Beleuchtung am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
In the Federal Republic of Germany mandatory specifications for lighting are laid down in the Workplaces Ordinance, in the directives under the Ordinance, and in standards. The data discussed are: protection of workplaces from solar radiation; qualities of natural lighting (daylight factor, reflection factor from indoor surfaces, design and layout of windows and skylights); artificial lighting (luminance and illumination level, colour of light and colour rendering, prevention of glare). Lighting recommendations for work at CRT display terminals.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.30-35. Illus.
Natural lighting of work premises by rooflighting
Natürliche Beleuchtung am Arbeitsplatz durch Oberlichter [en alemán]
The relations between performance, fatigue and behavioural errors, on the one hand, and illumination levels, on the other, are demonstrated with illustrations, and the factors affecting natural as opposed to artificial lighting are analysed. Rooflighting enables full use to be made of the high degree of luminance from natural zenithal light and provides a more even light distribution than light from windows. This is demonstrated by diagrams, charts and calculations. Rooflighting of the working surface may, however, be limited by the dimensions of he premises, skylight design, glazing materials used and accumulated dirt on skylights.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.22-28. Illus.
Methling D., Peschke M.
Light, lighting and vision
Licht, Beleuchtung und Sehen [en alemán]
This manual sets out the principles of lighting techniques and the phenomenon of vision, and draws on practical experience based on the analysis and evaluation of conditions affecting vision at the workplace. Contents: introduction (physical and technical aspects); phenomenon of vision and effect of light on the human eye; light sources; luminaires; measuring instruments; lighting quality factors; principles of lighting design and calculation; principles for the evaluation and design of lighting installations. Review of protective lenses and list of standards in force in the German Democratic Republic.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1979. 215p. Illus. 54 ref. Price: M.14.00.
Santos Reis J.
Hazards of inadequate lighting - Preventive measures
Insalubridade devida ŕ iluminaçăo - Medidas de controle [en portugués]
Contents: relation between lighting and colour; formula for calculating illumination level; technical data on light sources; colour rendering; reflection indices of surfaces and colours; installation and efficiency of luminaires; optimisation factors for lighting levels (luminous flux, number of luminaires, reflection index, luminance measurement).
FUNDACENTRO - Atualidades em prevençăo de acidentes, Aug. 1980, Vol.11, No.128, p.12-14. Illus. 3 ref.
Luminaires - Part 2: Particular requirements; Section twenty-two - Luminaires for emergency lighting.
Luminaires - Deuxičme partie: Rčgles particuličres; Section vingt-deux - Luminaires pour éclairage de secours. [en francés]
This standard specifies requirements for emergency lighting luminaires for use with tungsten filament, tubular fluorescent, and other discharge lamps (≤1000V). This section is applicable in conjunction with IEC Publication 598-1 (general provisions). Provisions are given for marking, construction, testing, photometric performance, changeover operation (from normal to emergency mode). Requirements for batteries are given.
IEC standard, Publication 598-2-22, International Electrotechnical Commission, 1 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genčve 20, Switzerland, 1980. 19p. Price: SF.25.00
Lighting in underground coal mines and its contribution to safety
Die Beleuchtung in Gewinnungsbetrieben des Steinkohlenbergbaus unter Tage und ihr Einfluss auf die Sicherheit [en alemán]
A historical overview and outline of physical concepts and parameters are followed by considerations on the effect of light on the nervous system (fatigue, visual acuity, reactivity, adaptation). For incorporated fluorescent lighting for self-advancing supports, the appropriate points for measurement of illuminance in underground worksites are defined (points set out in standards do not apply), and possibilities of reducing luminance and preventing glare are discussed.
Kompass, Jan. 1980, Vol.90, No.1, p.5-10. Illus. 12 ref.
The importance of lighting
Det viktiga ljuset [en sueco]
This series of brief reports compares examples of good and bad lighting and offers many practical hints: general lighting in a welding shop; glare due to projectors in fashion stores; reflection on terminal screens; local lighting and moderate contrast for precision work; sudden transition between light and darkness for restaurant personnel; poor lighting and accident hazards; importance of light colour; lighting for a publishing house and printing shop; elimination of glare; school lighting; improvement of lighting without additional energy consumption.
Arbetsmiljö, 5 Mar. 1980, No.3, p.14-25. Illus.
Good lighting at the workplace
Bra belysning pĺ jobbet [en sueco]
Contents: basic principles (light, lamps and luminaires; physiology of sight; measurement and monitoring of lighting); problems and their solution (glare, rapid transition from light to dark, poor luminance, change of visual distance, perception of details, deficient contrast, poorly illuminated premises, daylight and windows, workplace lighting, lighting and colour, accident hazards); lighting planning and maintenance (examples from practice with annotated checklists: radial drill, film editing and retouching, telephonist, contact testing machine; choice and maintenance of lamps and luminaires). Special brochures are available for metalworking shops (36p.), foundries (28p.), printers (24p.) and restaurants (16p.).
Arbetarskyddssfonden, Sveavägen 166, 113 46 Stockholm, Sweden, 1980. 91p. Illus.
Ambient factors at the office workplace
Umgebungseinflüsse am Büroarbeitsplatz [en alemán]
This pocket-size manual analyses the extensive literature on ergonomic design and layout of offices, with particular reference to lighting, air-conditioning and noise control. Definition of basic concepts and assessment criteria, description of equipment and installations required for optimal effectiveness. Acoustics: basic terminology, noise effects, speech communication, structural components, noise control measures, noise protection and recommendations. Lighting: characteristics, effects on man, lighting installations, recommendations for different types of offices. Microclimate: fundamentals and characteristics of microclimate, comfort, effects on health and productivity, heating and ventilation installations, protection against solar radiation. Bibliography and list of standards.
Verlag TÜV Rheinland GmbH, Am Grauen Stein, 5000 Köln 91, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 115p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: DM.19.80.
Daylight at work.
A simple, quick and reasonably accurate method is provided for calculating interior daylight values under average environmental conditions. Contents: general method; windows; rooflight; skylights; sawtooth roofs; monitor roofs; quality of illumination; examples (windows in one wall, windows in opposite walls, skylights, sawtooth roof, monitor roof). Appendices: recommended service illuminance; vector/scalar criteria.
Department of Productivity, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, 1979. 35p. Illus.
Artificial light at work.
This publication is intended for use by executives, factory managers, engineers, architects and students in these professions, to enable them to define their requirements vis-ŕ-vis lighting consultants and to make them aware of the problems involved. Contents: basic requirements; planning new installations; light sources and their uses; typical luminaires and their uses; assessing luminaire design; general lighting; local lighting; avoiding troublesome reflections; specialised illumination and difficult visual tasks; interior colour treatment; maintenance; common faults and difficulties; estimating relative costs; glare limitation. Appendix: basic principles of discomfort glare.
Department of Productivity, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, 1979. 56p. Illus.
Systems for automatic triggering of emergency lighting
Dispositifs pour mise en service automatique de l'éclairage de sécurité. [en francés]
This standard sets the requirements for the electrical equipment used in these devices. Contents: classification; specification of equipment; characteristics (protection class, operating conditions, making and breaking capacity, mechanical resistance, protection against arc propagation); testing (nominal making and breaking capacity, operating conditions, heating of manual auxiliary equipment); labelling, diagrams.
Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, Apr. 1979. 9p. Illus.
German Electrotechnical Commission (Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission)
Installation and operation of heavy current equipment in public buildings, and safety lighting in workplaces
Errichten und Betreiben von Starkstromanlagen in baulichen Anlagen für Menschenansammlungen sowie von Sicherheitsbeleuchtung in Arbeitsstätten [en alemán]
These VDE rules also constitute a DIN standard of the German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut für Normung). It applies to theatres, commercial buildings, hotels, hospitals etc., and covers mainly: circuits, electrical equipment (voltage above or below 1kV), layout of premises, battery-powered safety lighting, emergency electric power source, and, in particular, the electrical equipment of the above-mentioned buildings and workplaces. Appended: examples of circuits and commentaries.
VDE-Verlag GmbH, Bismarckstrasse 33, D-1000 Berlin 12, 1979. 71p. Illus. Price: DM.42.40.
Licht [en alemán]
Pocket manual of information on artificial lighting. Contents: nature of light, parameters and units used in illuminating engineering, types of incandescent and discharge lamps, service life of lamps, choice of lamps, types of luminaires, reflection, absorption and transmission of light, lighting systems, optimal working conditions, lighting quality criteria, regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany, maintenance and destruction of lamps, check list for existing lighting systems, technical rules and standards.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft, Ehrenbreitsteiner Strasse 36, 8000 München 50, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 64p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: DM.6.75.
USSR National Committee for the Building Sector (Gosstroj).
Natural and artificial lighting - Design standards
Estestvennoe i iskusstvennoe osveščenie. Normy proektirovanija. SNiP P-4-79 [en ruso]
Full text of Section P-4-79 of this standard (adopted June 1979; effective 1 Jan. 1980). Contents: general rules; natural lighting; combined natural and artificial lighting; artificial lighting (industrial premises and others, emergency lighting and safety lighting); exterior lighting. Appended: definitions, categories of visual tasks, illumination levels, categories of luminaires, evaluation of natural lighting, colour of light recommended for specific visual tasks, measures to prevent glare from reflected light.
Svetotehnika, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.1-29. Illus.
American national standard practice for industrial lighting.
This standard, a revision of ANSI A11.1-1973 (CIS 74-1015), provides an updated and more precise text, with material emphasising energy conservation and energy management, and additional illumination levels for recently studied industries. Contents: general conditions (factors affecting seeing tasks in industry, factors of good illumination, influence of environmental factors); building design for the use of daylight; electric lighting (luminances, general and supplementary lighting, special techniques); maintenance (cleaning of luminaires). Tables give recommended levels of illumination for special working areas and lighting techniques for specific visual tasks. A section describes the effect of lighting on safety and lists minimum levels of illumination for safety pruposes. Appendices: information for determination of illumination levels; measurement of disability glare; light sources; energy versus lighting.
ANSI/IES RP-7-1979, Illuminating Engineering Society, 345 East 47th Street, New york, N.Y. 10017, USA, 26 June 1979. 33p. Illus.
Optimisation of vision and "visualising light sources"
Optimalisation de la vision et "lumičres visualisantes". [en francés]
Studies since 1956 in a large number of workers undertaking a precision task on miniaturised micro-electronic units are reported. Experiments are reported that lead to a theory of "visualising light sources" (spectral bands at the edge of the visible spectrum which enhance the efficiency of lighting and thus improve vision). This may be of value in the ergonomic solution of lighting problems at the workplace.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1979, Vol.7, No.5, p.359-368. Illus.
Ergonomic criteria for lighting at the workplace
Critčres ergonomiques d'éclairage en situation de travail. [en francés]
Performance of visual tasks is a function of the detail involved, illuminance, operator's age, specular reflection of background, duration of task, and the general light environment (absolute values and balance of luminance levels, contrast of luminance, colours). Conditions that the visual quality of an installation must satisfy are the quality of luminance contrasts, colour rendering, and balance between the various types of lighting. Practical recommendations are given for determination of optimum illuminance, avoidance of glare and light-shade transitions, choice of luminance sources, and maintenance of lighting equipment. Appendices: recommended illuminance levels; calculation of luminance limits of luminaires; photometric characteristics and use of lamps.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1979, Vol.7, No.5, p.339-353. Illus.
Kotik G.G., Undasynov G.N., Fedjukina G.V., Matveev A.B.
Principles for the establishment of a visual discomfort scale
Principy postroenija škal diskomforta [en ruso]
Results of 4 series of experiments involving young subjects required to assess their own visual discomfort when looking at illuminated surfaces (15, 25, 35 and 45cd/m2). Their assessments were evaluated statistically, taking into account psychological factors involved in the subjective assessment of differences in luminance. The scale of values can be used to limit glare from lighting installations in industrial or other premises.
Svetotehnika, Sep. 1979, No.9, p.8-10. Illus. 9 ref.
Compes P.C., Kretzschmer E., Elias B.
Interior lighting with artificial light - Tables for workplaces
Innenraumbeleuchtung mit künstlichem Licht - Tabellen für Arbeitsräume [en alemán]
These tables serve as an aid to the planning, evaluation and testing of general lighting installations, applicable by experts as well as laymen. Tables and text cover: design and testing of lighting installations; technical data (quality characteristics, calculation procedures, safety measures, operation, maintenance and efficiency, examples).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, 4600 Dortmund-Dorstfeld, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 204p. 84 ref. Price: DM.22.00.
German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut für Normung), Berlin (West).
Artificial lighting of interiors
Innenraumbeleuchtung mit künstlichem Licht [en alemán]
Definitions (physical parameters of artificial lighting, types of lighting methods, glare, colour of light and colour rendering, role of lighting). Part 1: technical data for obtaining optimum lighting; rules to be observed when designing installations. Part 2: artificial lighting of workplaces, with table showing recommended illumination levels and indices for colour of light, colour rendering, and limitation of direct glare in various types of premises, activities and industries.
DIN 5035, Parts 1 and 2, Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-10, D-1000 Berlin 30, Oct. 1979. 11+10p. Illus. Price: DM.28.80. and 25.20.
Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Lighting of workplaces in foundries and the iron and steel industry - Maintenance of luminaires, results of a long-term study
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - belysningsunderhĺll, redovisning av resultat frĺn lĺngtidsprov [en sueco]
Studies over more than a year of 8 types of luminaires installed at 43 foundries, and a questionnaire survey of maintenance practices, are reported. Considerable differences were noted in the degree of soiling due to deposited smoke and dust, depending on luminaire design. The least soiled were those with ventilation. Open reflectors are not suitable for foundries as they are get dirty too quickly. The light output of lamps in closed luminaires fell more quickly than that of those in open ones. Thorough cleaning of luminaires once a year considerably improves lighting conditions.
Ljuskultur, 1979, Vol.51, No.2, p.11-27. Illus.
Light and lighting conditions for work at CRT terminals in newspaper printing works
Ljus och belysningskrav vid arbete med textskärmar pĺ tidningsföretag [en sueco]
Report based on numerous workplace studies (composition and correction of texts and advertisements, editing at the terminal). Contents: definition of lighting terms; data concerning the workposts studied; problems linked to tasks, terminal workplace equipment, working environment and lighting; measurements taken (lighting distribution and location of luminaires, luminance measurement, subjective assessment of lighting conditions, tests to obtain optimum lighting of manuscript-holder); recommendations and proposals for daylight workplace lighting (vertical adjustable Venetian blinds), workplace design and layout (situation in relation to windows, choice of colours, etc.), general and local lighting (many examples); advice and checklists for new projects.
Tidningarnas arbetsmiljökommitté, Box 45136, 103 25 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 75p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: Swe-cr.29.85.
Enšina O.D., Faermark M.A.
Choice of models for visual tasks with different levels of precision
O vybore modelej zritel'noj raboty različnoj točnosti [en ruso]
A model to standardise experimental conditions for evaluating workload is presented. It comprises 4 quality-control tasks (normal and defective metal, plastic, paper and fabric objects). Controls were carried out in free working conditions with illumination levels of 70-2,500lx. Assessment of visual fatigue under industrial conditions showed that an hour and a half devoted to the tasks proposed produced the same visual fatigue as a day's work at a high-precision task. The model should permit better comparison of results of psychophysiological studies.
Svetotehnika, Aug. 1979, No.8, p.15-17. 8 ref.
Building Research Establishment, Department of the Environment.
Thermal, visual and acoustic requirements in buildings.
The simpler indices useful to the design and appraisal of buildings are identified. Target values are given to cover common thermal, visual and acoustic requirements. Sections cover: thermal comfort (activity, room temperature, air movement, humidity, temperature tolerance, climate and season); lighting (artificial, daylight and windows, daylight factors); acoustics (acceptable levels related to hearing hazard, interference with speech communication, annoyance).
Digest 226, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, June 1979, 7p. Illus. 18 ref.
Lighting and optical physiological problems of work with data display screens
Lichttechnische und physiologisch-optische Probleme bei der Arbeit an Datensichtgeräten [en alemán]
Rapid shifting of the field of vision from the screen to a brighter surface area (e.g. window or manuscript) gives rise to a visual adaptation problem. This adaptation can be facilitated by increasing the size of the characters on the screen and having a luminance ratio between the screen and the environment of 1:3 to 1:4. The possibility of improving screen luminance is examined. Glare and its suppression are very important. Problems of presbyopia can be resolved with corrective lenses suited to the various work distances. Other recommendations are made for the distance between the screen and manuscript, and visual fitness examinations.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Aug. 1979, Vol.14, No.8, p.182-186. Illus. 9 ref.
Kovalenko I.G., Belickij I.V., Meškova O.K., Ivanova V.P.
Influence of direct glare on visual working capacity
Vlijanie otražennoj bleskosti na zritel'nuju rabotosposobnost' [en ruso]
Study of working capacity and examination of visual functions during work performed on polished metal surfaces under different lighting conditions. Prolonged work with lighting conditions producing glare results in considerable visual fatigue and reduced visual functions. The most favourable range of luminance for the perception of a bright object on a dark polished surface falls between 1,500-2,500cd/m2. Visual fatique due to this type of work can be evaluated by means of indices such as constancy of visual functions, visibility and sensitivity to luminouus and electric stimulations.
Tehnika bezopasnosti i proizvodstvennaja sanitarija - Sbornik naučnyh rabot institutov ohrany truda VCSPS, Profizdat, Moskva, USSR, 1979, p.90-96. Illus. 6 ref.
Light and colour at the workplace
Licht und Farbe am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
The influence of light and colour on comfort and work capacity and safety is well established scientifically. The requirements for good lighting are set out: luminance and visual acuity, reflectance, elimination of glare, light and colour contrast, utilisation factor. A large section is devoted to the colour climate: colour temperature, colour of workplace surfaces, effects of colours, colour of light, colour rendering, use of safety colours for signs. The importance of other factors such as the construction elements, type of work, daylight, is mentioned.
Sicher ist Sicher, Apr. 1979, Vol.30, No.4, p.180-193. Illus. 19 ref.
Bekanntmachung, Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung), Bonn, 20 Apr. 1979.
Arbeitsstätten-Richtlinien [en alemán]
Issued in pursuance of the Workplace Ordinance 1975 (CIS 75-1494) these guidelines (June 1979 edition) provide specifications for Article 7, Paragraph 3, artificial lighting. General rules are set out for lighting installations, with information on approximate assessment and measurement of illuminance. A detailed table gives the minimum illumination levels for different workplaces and industries.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, July-Aug. 1979, No.7-8, p.62-65.
Lighting and its planning
Belysning och belysningsplanering [en sueco]
Contents of this elementary pamphlet: aim of lighting; the eye and its functions; ergonomics of vision (qualitative criteria for the workplace, illumination levels, distribution of luminance, angle of incidence of light and reflection, colour of light); lighting engineering (light sources such as incandescent lamps, fluorescent tubes, etc.); luminaires (distribution of light, classification, technical data and their significance, design, components and electrical safety); maintenance of lighting equipment and calculations (light loss due to age and soiling, maintenance programme, calculation of illumination level and glare factor); light measurement; lighting in a machine shop. Glossary of technical terms.
ADI 176, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1979. 33p. Illus. Gratis.
British Cast Iron Research Association
The working environment - terms used in lighting engineering
This data sheet provides definitions and units for the common terms related to lighting such as illumination, radiant and luminous flux, illuminance, luminance, reflectance, contrast and glare.
BCIRA, Alvenchurch, Birmingham B48 7QB, United Kingdom, 1978. 2p. Illus. 5 ref.
International symposium on vision and work
Colloque international vision-travail. [en francés]
Record of proceedings of the symposium (Rodez-Toulouse, France, 23-25 Nov. 1978). Themes discussed by the 10 working groups (physicians, ergonomists, lighting experts, opticians, etc.); visual functions, aptitudes and fatigue; lighting; eye injuries due to accidents; eye disorders of occupational origin; early screening of visual disorders; vision correction; visual handicaps; work at VDUs (a major theme of the symposium).
Institut de recherche pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 37 Allées J. Guesde, 31000 Toulouse, France, 1980. 500p. Illus.
Laboratoire d'économie et sociologie du travail.
Analysis of working conditions - 3. Lighting
Eléments d'analyse des conditions de travail - 3. L'éclairage. [en francés]
Designed for non-specialists, this booklet is part of a series devoted above all to the physical workplace environment. It contains data on the physics of light and the physiology of the eye necessary to understand, measure, analyse, and improve lighting conditions taking account of the visual tasks involved. Contents: light (characteristics and physical data); physiology of vision; standards and recommendations on lighting (contrast, illuminance, balance of illumination levels in the visual field, types of lighting equipment, work at display screens and binocular equipment); measurement apparatus and methods.
Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 15 quai Anatole-France, 75700 Paris, France, 1978. 43p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: FF.15.00.
Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Lighting of workplaces in foundries and the iron and steel industry - Finish cleaning and inspection/reception
Arbetsbelysning i gjuterier och smältverk - finrensning och kontroll-avsyning [en sueco]
Workplaces in 3 foundries were studied. Finish cleaning and inspection of castings require great visual effort and may be classified as precision tasks. The work is made difficult by poor contrast between the surfaces of the piece, grains of sand adhering to the surface, and shadows cast into the cavities. The improvements made at the workplaces are described: local lighting with antiglare screens, arrangement of local lighting luminaires on 2 or 3 sides, increased illuminance levels, adjustable luminaires, use of light tables with the light under an opaque surface or a movable light source using optic fibres.
Ljuskultur, 1978, Vol.50, No.6, p.16-25. Illus.
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