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  • Lighting and colour

1983

CIS 84-1881 Carlsson L., Knave B., Lennerstrand G., Wibom R.
Glare with outdoor high-mast illumination - Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity effects in studies on different floodlighting systems
Bländning vid utomhus högmast-belysning - Effekter på synskärpa och kontrastkänslighet i jämförande studier över olika [en sueco]
Glare effects on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were studied during outdoor timber yard work (sorting of logs) with two different systems of floodlighting. The binocular visual acuity of 19 volunteers was measured at 40, 55 and 80% contrast and the contrast sensitivity of 14 volunteers at spatial frequencies of 0.5 to 16 cycles/degree. One of the lighting systems used conventional floodlights with symmetrical distribution of the light over a wide area. The other system used a new type of oblique floodlight with an asymmetrical light distribution. With the light source 15° from the centre of the visual field, the visual acuity and the contrast sensitivity were consistently lower with the conventional type than with the new type of floodlight. Thus, not only is the vision of details impaired by glare but so is the contrast perception of coarse patterns. The workers scored the difference in glare between the two floodlight systems as "great" to "very great".
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 27p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 84-1269 Menne P., Sorge J.
Improvement of lighting equipment in mines
Verbesserung der Beleuchtungseinrichtungen an bergmännischen Arbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
Ergonomic, lighting and electrotechnical studies leading to the development of measuring equipment, methods and regulations, lighting criteria for underground work and an intrinsically safe lighting system are described. The minimum lighting values established will become compulsory in the Federal Republic of Germany, and equipment and methodology will be standardised.
Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe, 7514 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 2, Federal Republic of Germany, Sep. 1983. 170p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: DM.33.50.

CIS 84-1267 Martin R., Graveling R.A.
Background illumination and its effects on peripheral visual awareness for miners using cap lamps
Experiments with 6 volunteers are reported. Lighting environments studied were: cap lamp only, cap lamp and 5lux background illuminance, 5lux ambient illuminance only, control condition of 450lux. Targets used had a range of reflectance of 6-72%. An object moving into the visual field was detected at a significantly wider angle with the 5lux ambient illuminance than without it. A greater target reflectance increased the range of peripheral vision.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1983, Vol.14, No.2, p.139-141. 10 ref.

CIS 84-966 Christensen M.
Paint colors for HPS lighting and a practical technique for determining reflectance under various lighting systems
A procedure for selection of suitable paint colours, and a simple method for determining reflectance, are described which can be used to decide on colour combinations and paints to be used in working environments lit with high-pressure sodium light sources. Appropriate colour co-ordination results in a pleasant environment in which more efficient performance is possible.
Lighting Design and Application, Jan. 1983, Vol.13, No.1, p.20-27. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 84-677 Klotzbücher E., Fichtel K., Miericke H., Hamdorf G.
The effect of two lamps with the same colour temperature, but with different spectra, on mental performance and on certain physiological functions
Über den Einfluss zweier Lampen mit gleicher Farbtemperatur, aber verschiedener spektraler Zusammensetzung auf Leistung bei geistiger Arbeit und ausgewählte physiologische Funktionen [en alemán]
The experiments lasted 1.5h each and involved problem solving in rooms with illuminance levels of 400lx produced either by an incandescent light source (tungsten-halogen lamp) or by a fluorescent source (metal halide lamp), both at a colour temperature of 3,200°K. There was no difference in performance between the two groups, but there was a significant increase in symptoms of physiological stress among subjects exposed to the fluorescent light source. Colour temperatures alone cannot be used as criterion for evaluating the effects of the lamps.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1983, Vol.29, No.8, p.467-472. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 84-676 Kainson I.Ja., Manujlova T.N.
Effect of glare on visual fatigue under industrial conditions
Vlijanie slepjaščego dejstvija na zritel'noe utomlenie v proizvodstvennyh uslovijah [en ruso]
Packers at the end of the presses in a newspaper plant experienced visual fatigue as a result of glare from naked lightbulbs mounted in the adjoining shipping department; even relatively undemanding visual tasks were made difficult by glare. Quantitative data on the packers' fatigue were collected: achromatic adysparopia time was measured as a function of exposure time; both total exposure time and exposure period within a shift were varied. The degree of fatigue at any exposure level was lower than the degree of fatigue reported for subjects performing demanding visual tasks. Installation of screens between the shipping and packing area was recommended.
Svetotehnika, 1982, No.9, p.7-9. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 84-674 Konarski S., Świętochowski J., Gniewecki A.
Rationalisation of the electric lighting in sewing departments in the clothing industry
Racjonalizacja ośwetlenia elektrycznego szwalni w zakładach przemysłu odzieżowego [en polonés]
Surveys of lighting conditions in several Polish clothing factories revealed ways in which lighting systems in sewing departments could be improved in terms of vision and energy consumption. An improved distribution of area and task lighting was introduced in one of the factories. It gave a 3-fold increase in light intensity at the sewing machine presser foot and a 2-fold increase at the bed. Flicker was reduced from 28 to 10%. Glare was likewise reduced. The improved system was sectional, which permitted lighting to be adjusted to the demands of production. The principles of the improved system can be applied to many similar workplaces.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1983, Vol.33, No.116, p.41-53. 24 ref.

CIS 84-390 Fluorescent lamps and health
Lampes fluorescentes et santé [en francés]
Review of possible ill effects of fluorescent lighting and a possible causal relation between this type of lighting and skin cancer. A review of the literature and a critical analysis of a recent publication linking melanoma with fluorescent lighting in workplaces in Australia refutes the proposed linkage. The Working Group on Ultraviolet of the Industrial Hygiene section of the High Council for Public Health (Conseil supérieur d'hygiène publique) of France has accepted the equation of minimal erythemal dose (MED) with minimal melanogenic dose (MMD); this equation is based on recent research. Only ultraviolet light in the B and C regions of the spectrum is carcinogenic; A-region ultraviolet is not. Fluorescent lamps emit only ultraviolet A, and at low levels which may actually be beneficial.
Centre d'information de l'éclairage, 52, boulevard Malesherbes, 75008 Paris, France, Jan. 1983, Hors Série No.8, 4p. 18 ref.

CIS 84-75 de Visme M.
Work with VDTs: ergonomic evaluation of the lighting of CRT display workstations
Travail sur terminaux à écran: évaluation ergonomique de l'éclairage des postes de travail devant écran cathodique [en francés]
Description of techniques for the ergonomic evaluation and the installation of adequate lighting systems for CRT display terminals. Definition of the workstation and the associated vision problems: screen, keyboard, working document, glare hazards, flicker. Measurement and evaluation of lighting at the workstation: contrast between characters and the screen, the working document and the keyboard, luminance balance, illumination level. Listing of possible actions with regard to artificial and natural lighting, terminal installation and the terminals themselves.
Revue de la sécurité, Sep. 1983, Vol.19, No.204, p.5-16. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 83-1822 Emergency lighting systems for establishments subject to the Labour Code
Les installations d'éclairage de sécurité dans les établissements assujettis au Code du travail [en francés]
A brochure for architects' and designers' offices. Review of French regulations and of different types of emergency lighting. Provisions of the Labour Code with respect to emergency lighting. Description of centrally or independently supplied emergency lighting systems. Selection criteria for lighting equipment based on illumination level, number of personnel and dimensions of given spaces. Use of portable equipment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1983. 61p. Illus.

CIS 83-1876 Decrees No.83-721 and 83-722 of 2 Aug. 1983, completing the Labour code (2nd part) regarding lighting in the workplace
Décrets n°83-721 et 83-722 du 2 août 1983 complétant le code du travail (2e partie) en ce qui concerne l'éclairage des lieux de travail [en francés]
Decree No.83-721 regulates in premises, passages, outdoor locations and indoor communication ways in the workplace; in particular, minimum lighting levels are given and a checking procedure is instituted. Decree No.83-722 is aimed at new buildings, and the owner must, in additions to his obligations in the 1st decree, ensure the use of natural lighting wherever possible, and give staff a view outside.
Journal officiel de la République française, 5 Aug. 1983, Vol.115, No.180, p.2558-2560.

CIS 83-1875 Krochmann J., Kirschbaum C.F.
Apparatus for the determination of ergonomically necessary workplace illumination
Gerät zur Ermittlung der ergonomisch notwendigen Beleuchtung am Arbeitsplatz [en alemán]
An introduction on the principles of visibility measurement (criteria of optical perception, visibility thresholds as measures of the visibility of objects) is followed by a description of a device for measuring visibility (its overall design, light path, operation, testing). The device was standardised and tested by means of measurements taken during the performance of real and reference tasks under different lighting conditions. The device enables measurements with or without time limits, measurement of relative visibility, evaluation of the effect of glare on visibility and evaluation of changes in visual adaptation. Visual comfort criteria are useful in determining the optimal area and level of workplace lighting.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 127p. Illus. 113 ref. Price: DM.22.50.

CIS 83-1285 Fischer D.
Contrast rendition in offices
Rendu des contrastes dans les bureaux [en francés]
Review of the main factors for consideration in drafting new national and international recommendations on light contrast in visual tasks. Methods and criteria for the quantitative assessment of visual comfort (veiling reflections, contrast rendition factor, equivalent sphere illumination, observation directions, calculation points, reflection reference) are presented together with means of improving office lighting: recommended contrast rendition factor values, covering the work area, solutions for obtaining a high contrast rendition factor and combating glare.
Revue internationale de l'éclairage, 1983, Vol.34, No.1, p.9-13. Illus.

CIS 83-1284 Lighting for zones containing visual display units
Eclairage des zones comportant des écrans de visualisation [en francés]
Analysis of vision problems of a visual display unit operator. Examples of lighting arrangements to facilitate the operator's task: elimination of annoying reflections, lighting levels, direct and indirect lighting.
Revue internationale de l'éclairage, 1983, Vol.34, No.1, p.6-8 and 14-15. Illus.

1982

CIS 92-682 Office lighting
This American national standard on office lighting is a revision of ANSI A132.1-1973. Contents: office tasks and visibility; lighting design processes; lighting criteria for visual performance and comfort; luminous environmental factors; the lighting system; lighting of specific areas; energy management, emergency lighting; safety; end user responsibility and maintenance. Appendices include: a method for prescribing illumination; measurements and instruments used in the lighting survey; characteristics of light sources use in office lighting; cost-benefit analysis; glossary.
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1982. 44p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 84-380 Tereškevič S.G.
Determining the glare from luminous ceilings in industrial locations
Opredelenie slepjaščego dejstvija svetovyh potolkov v proizvodstvennyh pomeščenijah [en ruso]
A method is given for estimating the glare of luminous ceilings. Tables give the maximum allowable luminous emittance of uniform-diffuse ceilings for given levels of luminance of working surfaces. Allowable luminous emittances for other luminance levels and for louvered ceilings can be calculated with the equations and coefficients given.
Svetotehnika, 1982, No.8, p.13-16. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 84-378 Godin A.M.
Necessary improvements in the lighting conditions in transportation facilities
O neobhodimosti ulučšenija svetovoj sredy transportnyh predprijatij [en ruso]
A survey of 100 railway sheds and shops showed that the lighting in over half of them was inadequate for safe and healthy work. A major factor contributing to this inadequacy was shading of the work area by rolling stock. It is proposed that the formulae used to calculate window and skylight area for such buildings (Construction Standards and Rules II-4-79, Annex 5) be modified to include correction factors taking account of the presence of rolling stock. Modified formulae are given.
Svetotehnika, 1982, No.7, p.21-23. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 84-76 Skobareva Z.A., Tekševa L.M.
Assessment of the health effects of pulsation of the light in mixed lighting systems
Gigieničeskaja ocenka pul'sacii osveščennosti v uslovijah sovmeščennogo osveščenija [en ruso]
Volunteers conducted a quantitative analytical task under 3 different lighting regimes: fluorescent lighting powered with alternating current at normal mains frequency (100Hz), fluorescent lighting powered by a high-frequency source (4kHz) and a mixture of natural light with normal-frequency fluorescent light. Visual fatigue was least with the high-frequency illumination and worst with the normal-frequency illumination; mixed lighting gave intermediate values of the performance criteria measured. Thus, the 100-Hz flicker of normal fluorescent lights has definitely deleterious effects. These effects are best obviated by changing the power supply (revision of lighting codes may be required), but they can be counteracted to some extent by including natural light in the illumination of the workplace.
Svetotehnika, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.10-13. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 83-1587 Konarski S., Gadomska H.
The relation between visual performance and type of lighting in industrial sewing machine locations
Zależność wydolności wzrokowej przy obsłudze maszyn szwalniczych od rodzaju ich oświetlenia [en polonés]
Results of tests on 18 students aged 20-24 years, conducted for the purpose of determining the optimum level of lighting in industrial stitching shops. The tests were carried out under differing lighting conditions (general lighting and combined general and local lighting), with the equipment and test specially designed to simulate machine sewing, Landolt ring tests having been judged inappropriate. Combined lighting is best for the purpose, and the optimal lighting level is 600lx, with general and local lighting making an equal contribution.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.115, p.299-309. 27 ref.

CIS 83-1585 Shahnavaz H.
Lighting conditions and workplace dimensions of VDU-operators
Lighting conditions were evaluated at ergonomically-designed visual display unit workstations in use during day and night shifts by 26 female and 2 male operators at a telephone information centre. The operators preferred much lower luminance and workplace illuminance than previously reported in the literature. Large interindividual differences in screen and workplace lighting adjustment were found.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1982, Vol.25, No.12, p.1165-1173. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 83-1283 Krochmann J.
Apparatus for measuring the daylight factor
Gerät zur Messung des Tageslichtquotienten [en alemán]
Measurement of daylight is important for evaluation of the lighting conditions in workplaces and for studies of ways to save energy. After a review of theoretical considerations, principles of measurement and characteristics of existing measuring devices, this report presents a new type of apparatus with 2 photometric sensors and describes its application. Schematic diagrams of the various types of apparatus are appended.
Bundesinstitut für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 45p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: DM.10.50.

CIS 83-968 Beral V., Shaw H., Evans S., Milton G.
Malignant melanoma and exposure to fluorescent lighting at work
In a study of 274 women with malignant melanoma, and 549 matched controls, exposure to fluorescent light was associated with a doubled risk of melanoma. The risk grew with increasing duration of exposure and was higher in women who had worked mainly in offices. A significant increase in melanoma risk (4.4) was also found in men (27 with melanoma and 35 controls) exposed to fluorescent lighting for >10 years.
Lancet, 7 Aug. 1982, Vol.2, No.8293, p.290-293. 21 ref.

CIS 83-1043 Jensen A.A.
Melanoma, fluorescent lights, and polychlorinated biphenyls
PCBs are used as a dielectric fluid in "closed" electric components such as the small capacitors used in fluorescent light installations and other electric apparatus in offices. High PCB concentrations have been detected close to data screen terminals, and in kitchens and laboratories. PCBs may escape from electrical systems, especially if the temperature is high. Indoors PCB exposure may be linked to malignant melanoma.
Lancet, 23 Oct. 1982, Vol.2, No.8304, p.935. 13 ref.

CIS 83-390 Hentschel H.J.
Light and lighting - Theory and practice of illuminating engineering
Licht und Beleuchtung - Theorie und Praxis der Lichttechnik [en alemán]
This manual makes allowance for the increasing importance of the subjective evaluation of lighting and of economic factors in lighting design. Basic concepts are reviewed (structure and function of the eye; lighting and units of measurement; luminance and adaptation; light sensitivity; visual acuity; glare), as well as light and colour measurement, light generation and lamp design, materials and fittings, and interior and exterior lighting - all on the basis of the latest technological developments. Also: methods of lighting and of assessing lighting quality; modern electronic ballasts for the economic use of fluorescent lamps; relation between lighting and air-conditioning systems. The specialist is given a review of the latest developments.
Dr. Alfred Hüthig Verlag GmbH, Postfach 102869, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 338p. Illus. 450 ref. Price: DM.68.80.

CIS 83-389 Amoudru C., Ladureau J., Malet J.P., Mentré G., Léonet O., Portal G., Schütz R., Voss K.H., Carta M.
Round table on mine lighting
Table ronde sur l'éclairage des mines [en francés]
This issue reproduces the papers presented at a round table conference on mine lighting, covering: physiology of the eye, lighting terminology and individual lighting; coal-face lighting; lighting a face with advancing roof supports and its end gates; trials on improving the lighting in the Lorraine ore mines; built-in lighting on self-propelled underground machines in French coal mines; lighting underground workings in the coal mining industry in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Industrie minérale - les techniques, 1982, No.1, Supplement to No.1, Jan. 1982, p.3-42. Illus.

CIS 83-388 Is fluorescent lighting dangerous?
Problems of general concern considered are: no evidence for health hazards due to fluorescent lighting; complaints by people working under fluorescent lighting; differences in the spectral composition of fluorescent light compared to daylight and incandescent light; effects of the discontinous spectrum of fluorescent lamps; stress caused by high-level fluorescent lighting; health effects of the skin absorption of ultraviolet and infrared radiation; skin cancer by fluorescent lighting; hazard of mercury pollution by fluorescent lamps. The explanations given dispel all popular concerns and misconceptions about the use of fluorescent lighting.
International Lighting Review, 1982, Vol.33, No.4, p.104-105. 4 ref.

CIS 83-328 Lighting fittings for fluorescent tubular "hand lamps" with a rated voltage not exceeding 250V
Appareils d'éclairage électrique à main pour lampe tubulaire à fluorescence dits "lampes baladeuses" de tension nominale ne dépassant pas 250V [en francés]
Sections cover: definitions; general requirements; testing, marking and labelling; protection against electric shock; heating, durability, moisture resistance; insulation resistance and electric strength; mechanical strength; connection to the mains supply; construction; screw fixings; leakage paths; insulation distances; resistance to fire, heat, creep currents, and corrosion; requirements for lamp parts.
Union technique de l'électricité, 12 place des Etats-Unis, 75783 Paris Cedex 16, France, June 1982. 47p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 83-94 Schmitt E.
Lighting the assembly area for an A.N.F. continuous mining machine
Eclairage d'une zone de montage de machine d'abattage A.N.F. [en francés]
Description of a project to improve safety and working conditions in mine work by raising the standard of lighting in an underground worksite some 25m in length, where, whilst the face was being equipped, various machine parts were being manhandled and the continuous mining machine was being assembled. The object was to obtain glarefree lighting using a lighting installation which was easy to set up and move to another area of the mine. Description of the installation, the tests carried out and the results which proved very satisfactory.
Travail et maîtrise - Edition mines, Apr. 1982, Vol.38, No.383, 4p. insert. Illus.

CIS 82-1249 Scheme for the identification of piping systems
To promote greater safety and reduce chances of error, confusion or inaction, especially in times of emergency, this standard (approved as an American National Standard 16 Nov. 1981) specifies the identification of the contents of piping systems by legends and colour schemes. Types of hazards identified are: flammable or explosive substances, chemically active or toxic substances (e.g. corrosive or productive of poisonous gases), substances at temperatures or pressures, radioactive substances, materials of inherently low hazard, fire-quenching materials. Colour schemes according to ANSI Standard Z.53.1; size of legend lettering.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 28 Feb. 1982. 4p. Illus. Price: US-$4.50.

CIS 82-616 Explosionproof luminaires to European standard specification
Explosionsgeschützte Leuchten nach Europa-Norm [en alemán]
Review of Federal Republic of Germany regulations and standards for explosion hazard zones and for electrical equipment safe for use in explosive atmospheres, texts amended to meet European standards, and definitions of danger zones. Choice of type of protection depends on lamp temperature (table of temperature categories and lamp types). Description of the design of explosionproof luminaires to European standard specifications: enhanced safety luminaires. luminaires with an explosionproof casing, luminaires with a pressurised or ventilated casing, enhanced-safety handlamps. Marking.
Elektrische Energie-Technik, Mar. 1982, Vol.27, No.1-2, p.23-27. Illus.

1981

CIS 84-1882 Industrial lighting
This technical memorandum covers: legal requirements in Canada; benefits of lighting and visual needs; light supply and quantity; the effect of finishes on walls, ceilings and floors; supplementary and emergency lighting; maintenance.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 23rd floor, 2 Bloor St. East, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3C2, Canada, 1981. 3p.

CIS 83-1287 Beljaeva N.M., Rjabov Ju.S.
Optimising the interior colour environment for visual work
K voprosu optimizacii cvetovoj otdelki v inter'erah po zritel'noj rabotosposobnosti [en ruso]
The effect of a coloured background on the ability of persons to perform demanding visual tasks with achromatic objects was determined. Average mathematical models were constructed to relate the visual working ability, visual fatigue and central nervous system fatigue to the hue, colour saturation and angle (formed with the line of vision) of the illuminated area. Hue was a much less important determinant of performance than were the other two factors.
Svetotehnika, Aug. 1981, No.8, p.7-10. 20 ref.

CIS 83-1281 Boyce P.R., Slater A.I.
The application of CRF to office lighting design
Veiling reflections reduce task visibility and may cause visual discomfort. They can be quantified by the contrast rendering factor (CRF). The factors determining the magnitude of the CRF are dealt with using data from the literature. The chief cause of low CRF is the presence of a high luminance in the offending zone. A minimum CRF standard of 0.7 for written tasks on matt or semi-matt paper is proposed for offices. General guidelines for good CRF design are proposed; they include the use of a small number of efficient luminaries arranged in a regular linear array in a room with high reflectance surfaces, together with low specularity visual tasks.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1981, Vol.13, No.2, p.65-79. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 83-1174 State Decree of 30 May 1981 prescribing Safety Regulations No.7, laying down provisions governing working conditions in places where work is carried out
Staatsbesluit van 30 mei 1981, houdende Veiligheidsvoorschrift No.7, betreffende de voorschriften aangaande de werkomstandigheden op plaatsen waar arbeid wordt verricht [en holandés]
Sections of this decree (effective 29 June 1981) cover: general provisions and definitions; natural and artificial lighting of work premises; measures to be taken to create a comfortable microclimate in the working environment; prevention or limitation of harmful noise and vibration; prevention or limitation of health hazards due to physical loads or psychic stress at work. A commentary is appended.
Staatsblad van de Republiek Suriname, 1981, No.72. 15p.

CIS 83-92 Aver'janov V.A., Beljaeva N.M., Zoz N.I., Mel'nikova S.I.
Study and assessment of dynamic-spectrum lighting in industrial premises
Issledovanie i ocenka dinamičeskogo po spektru osveščenija v proizvodstvennyh pomeščenijah [en ruso]
Comparative study undertaken to assess the effect of artificial light with both a constant (static) and varying (dynamic) spectral composition. Tests were carried out in the laboratory and under actual working conditions (precision work involving colourless workpieces). Human variables studied were visual fatigue, functional changes of the central nervous system, work capacity and quality of work. Dynamic-spectrum lighting has definite advantages over static-spectrum lighting.
Svetotehnika, Mar. 1981. No.3, p.13-16. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 82-1572 Guha S.K.
Clerical task under HPS light
This letter reviews work on the performance of visual clerical tasks under high pressure sodium (HPS) lamp light and fluorescent light and discusses the theoretical and practical criteria which indicate that HPS light cannot be as effective, for office type visual tasks, as white light, daylight or fluorescent light.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1981, Vol.13, No.4, p.209-211. 4 ref.

CIS 82-1571 Lowson J.C.
Practical application of the Einhorn (CIE) glare index formula
A method for reducing basic glare formulae to a form simple enough to apply to routine lighting design problems using only a slide rule or simple pocket calculator is presented and applied to the CIE Glare Index formula developed by H.D. Einhorn. A detailed step-by-step procedure is shown with a worked example. Comparison of the formula with established glare calculation theory and observation suggests that it is a useful compromise between different national schemes.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1981, Vol.13, No.4, p.169-191. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 82-1297 Weis B.
Emergency lighting
Notbeleuchtung [en alemán]
The illumination and electrical engineering aspects of emergency lighting installations are considered. Part 1 defines lighting requirements for emergency exit routes, high-risk workplaces and emergency rescue signals: minimum illumination level, uniformity, glare limits, switch-on delay, minimum operating time, colour rendering, visual perception distance, luminance, height of light source above floor level. Part 2 covers electrical engineering aspects: single-battery or multi-battery electricity supply (battery types and characteristics, service life and operating life, capacity and environmental temperature, advantages of the individual battery). Review of legal requirements in the Federal Republic of Germany for workplaces that must be fitted with an emergency-lighting installation and provisions relating to installation techniques.
Licht, 1981, Vol.33, No.7-8. p.418, 423, and No.9, p.475-479. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 82-949
Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, laboratoire de physiologie du travail et d'ergonomie
Physical environment at the workplace
Ambiance physique des ateliers [en francés]
Document designed to help in training workers in the analysis of their working conditions. Sections are devoted to: noise (definition, measurement, effects on man, hearing, protection); lighting and vision (factors determining visibility, vision system); vibration (characteristics, transmission, effects on man, protection); toxic substances and toxicology (toxic phenomena, mechanisms of poisoning, recommendations).
Agence nationale pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail, 16-20 rue Barbès, 92120 Montrouge, France, 1981. 79p. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 82-684 Gericke L., Richter O., Schöne K.
Colour design for the workplace
Farbgestaltung in der Arbeitsumwelt [en alemán]
In scientific work management, the correct choice of environmental colours can contribute to worker comfort, and maintain or improve working capacity, health and safety. Sections of this manual cover: general concepts and sociological, aesthetic, technological and economic factors; principles of colour composition and typical solutions; typical applications (workplaces, machines, plant, premises, safety colours and signs, working clothes, offices, parts of buildings); standards of colour co-ordination; influencing factors (lighting, luminaires, visual function, field of vision, visual perception); painting technology (coating structure, types of paints). Glossary. List of regulations and standards in the German Democratic Republic.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1981. 224p. Illus. 86 ref. Price: M.75.00.

CIS 82-331 Luminaires - Part 2: Particular requirements; Section Eight - Handlamps
Luminaires - Deuxième partie: Règles particulières; Section huit - Baladeuses [en francés]
This section of the IEC international standard specifies requirements for handlamps and similar portable luminaires (fitted with tungsten-filament and tubular-fluorescent lamps on supply voltages not exceeding 250V) which are hand held during use: general test requirements, marking, construction, terminals, wiring, protection against electric shock, endurance tests, thermal tests, resistance to heat and tracking. This section should be read in conjunction with the relevant sections of IEC Publication 598-1 (General requirements) (CIS 80-81).
International Electrotechnical Commission, 1 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1981. 24p. Illus. Price: SF.30.00.

CIS 82-388 Bedocs L., De P.N.
A study of the installed performance of industrial luminaires
In many industrial installations the luminaires are seldom cleaned except during re-lamping. This may result in substantial loss of luminaire light output and therefore of task illuminance. This paper reports on both field and laboratory studies made on high-bay and fluorescent lamp luminaires, including so-called "self-cleaning" reflectors with slotted neck. The need for regular maintenance of industrial luminaires is stressed and the positive effects of the luminaires with self-cleaning action are shown.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1981, Vol.13, No.3, p.137-142. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 82-387 Yonemura G.T.
Criteria for recommending lighting levels
The major categories of variables included in the perception of the visual environment are identified and classified with respect to their relation in developing lighting criteria and standards: acceptance by the office user, visual task performance, non-visual environmental influences (temperature, noise, colour, psychological factors), visual process, sensory process, perceptual process, visibility, threshold visibility. The implications for standardisation are considered: Recommended light levels for commercial tasks should be based on laboratory studies of suprathreshold visibility. It is stressed that the setting of higher light levels for an infrequently encountered difficult task can lead to visibility losses for other more frequently encountered tasks.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1981, Vol.13, No.3, p.113-129. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 82-227 Giust A.
CH4 danger level detector - for incorporation in a cap lamp
Circuit détecteur de seuil de CH4 incorporable à une lampe chapeau [en francés]
Description, circuit diagram and explanation of the operation of an instrument that every 4min analyses the atmospheric CH4 content and, by flashing the cap lamp, indicates 4 alarm situations: breakage of the detector filament or the compensator filament; atmopsheric methane concentration exceeding 2% (selected threshold); discharged battery.
Annales des mines de Belgique - Annalen der Mijnen van België, May 1981, No.5, p.433-439. Illus.

CIS 82-100 Boyce P.R.
Electricity Council Research Centre
Human factors in lighting
This book summarises what is known about people's responses to the lighting of buildings and roads and will be of interest to engineers concerned with the research specification and design of lighting, lighting equipment manufacturers, architects, ergonomists and building scientists. Contents: foundations (light, vision); light and work (methods, models and results; specifics, uncertainties); the appreciation of lighting (revealing impressions, avoiding discomfort, wider horizons); consequences (standards, codes and guides, the way ahead).
Applied Science Publishers Ltd., Ripple Road, Barking, Essex, United Kingdom, 1981. 421p. Illus. 580 ref. Price: £26.00.

CIS 81-1903 Böcker W.
Artificial lighting: ergonomics and energy savings
Künstliche Beleuchtung: ergonomisch und energiesparend [en alemán]
Following a review of the principles of illumination engineering, the effect of various characteristics of lighting systems on workers' health and welfare are considered: illumination level, luminance distribution, glare and reflection, light direction and contrast, light colour and colour rendering, microclimate. Description of influencing factors and methods of calculating ergonomic lighting conditions, and review of cost factors in lighting systems. Emergency lighting, luminosity control, light measurement and installation maintenance are also considered.
Campus Verlag GmbH, Schumannstrasse 65, 6000 Frankfurt 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 153p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 81-1900 Vandeplanque P.
Lighting - Basic concepts - Lighting installations projects
L'éclairage - Notions de base - Projets d'installations [en francés]
Reference work intended for all non-specialist technicians and engineers who are required to design and install ordinary lighting systems. Contents: fundamentals of light measurement; equipment (incandescent lamps, discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps, luminaires); indoor lighting (elements to be considered at project design stage; checking to ascertain if project has been properly carried out; examples of lighting installations, e.g. in a workshop and a drawing office); outdoor lighting.
Technique et documentation, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris Cedex 08, France, 1981. 170p. Illus. Price: FF.115.00.

CIS 81-1899 Mayer A., Barlier A.
Working conditions at CRT visual display units - Study of lighting environment
Conditions de travail devant les écrans cathodiques - Etude de l'environnement lumineux [en francés]
Result of lighting measurements made on industrial and office premises. Two aspects of lighting levels were studied: visual performance with evaluation of visibility of the screen, keyboard and documents, and comfort, with evaluation of the glare hazard (due to daylight, lighting fittings and localised lighting systems), the hazards of unbalanced luminance conditions and discomfort due to reflection. Recommendations cover the arrangement of the premises, workplace layout and the selection of terminals. (English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street E, Hamilton, Ont. L8N 1H6, Canada. (CCOHS translation series No.124)).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1981, No.104, Note No.1332-104-81, p.373-386. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 81-1898 Clausen V.
Inspection lighting in the electronics industry
The lighting for visual inspection of machine-soldered printed circuits is very difficult, as small details of each soldered connection must be made visible without disturbing reflections. After some basic considerations on the lighting scheme for this task, a new luminaire is presented. It has an asymmetrical light distribution so that it can be placed to the side of the worker in such a position as to avoid producing specular reflection in the work piece and yet throws enough light onto it.
International Lighting Review, 1981, Vol.32, No.2, p.46-47. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 81-1897 Carlsson L., Wibom R.
Light loss in foundries
In this study 8 luminaires of different design fitted with a 400W mercury lamp were tested during regular foundry operations with special reference to fouling and maintenance. The design and the material of the luminaire and the reflector and reflector ventilation have great influence on the degree of fouling, shown by the luminous intensity distribution curves of these luminaires. Description of the results of measurements is followed by economic considerations. Luminaires with the lamp and the aluminium reflector protected by glass were found to be most suitable. A maintenance interval of 1 year is proposed for ease of cleaning and lighting efficiency.
International Lighting Review, 1981, Vol.32, No.2, p.38-41. Illus.

CIS 81-938
Federal German Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung)
Guidelines concerning workplaces
Arbeitsstätten-Richtlinien [en alemán]
Publication of the new amended text (Mar. 1981 edition) of these guidelines issued under the Workplaces Ordinance 1975 (CIS 75-1494). Detailed provisions for the application of section 7, subsection (4) of the Ordinance - emergency lighting for evacuation - and section 41, subsection (3) - artificial lighting of workplaces and of outside communication ways.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Mar. 1981, No.3, p.68-71.

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