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Lighting in industry
This guidance note looks at hazards resulting from inadequate illumination and explains how correct lighting can be effective in decreasing errors and accidents and improving productivity. Factors to be considered in reducing light-related hazards include human factors, size and shape of area to be illuminated, maintenance and glare. Reference is made to a Canadian standard suggesting levels of illummination for industrial and office environments, and relevant Canadian legislation is quoted. Types of lighting design and light distribution patterns are also described.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 31st Floor, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontartio M4W 3N8, Canada, 1989. 6p.
van den Brulle P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Manual for surveys of factors of the working environment. Noise, lighting, climate and dangerous substances
Leitfaden für Kataster von Arbeitplatzumgebungsfaktoren. Lärm, Beleuchtung, Klima, Gefahrstoffe [en alemán]
This manual presents a method for compiling a register for each of the 4 most important factors of the workplace environment - noise, lighting, climate and dangerous substances. The registers are primarily designed for safety officers and institutions responsible for occupational safety and health. Each of the four manuals can be used separately. Their practical application is demonstrated by 3 studies - bottling, weaving mill and moulding.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, PF 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1989. 186p. Illus. 37 ref.
Desnoyers L., Dumont D.
Cap lamps and visibility in mines: an exploratory study
Lampes de chapeau et visibilité dans les mines: une étude exploratoire [en francés]
Three lamp models were tested. Illumination levels, measured 2 meters in front of the lamps, varied from 380 to 2500 lux when the lamps were adjusted for narrow beam lighting (approximately 5° of arc). Adjusting the lamps for wide beam lighting reduced centre-field illumination by 80 to 90% while increasing levels in the immediate periphery. At the end of the 7 hour shifts, illumination levels produced by new lamps were reduced by 45 to 60%. Used lamps were still in service which gave off only 2/3 to 1/4 of the illumination produced by new lamps. Rockface reflectance averages only 9 to 22% and therefore miners use their lamps set for narrow beam illumination, in order to obtain high enough luminances. However, this also produces luminance ratios as high as 350:1 between the center of the visual field and its immediate periphery. This value is 100 times more than the maximum level recommended to avoid glare.
Travail et santé, Fall 1989, Vol.5, No.3, p.S19-S23. 7 ref.
Planning of new and modernisation of old lighting systems - demands are rising
Planung neuer und Sanierung alter Beleuchtungsanlagen - Steigende Anforderungen [en alemán]
Effects of proper and improper lighting are discussed. Glare causes rapid tiring of the eyes. Increasing the illumination level from 500 to 1000lux raises productivity of older employees by 6%, of younger ones by 4%. Work in dark environments imposes additional strain. The new illumination systems for an office and for a workshop are described.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1989, Vol.11, No.1, p.16-21. Illus.
Robertson A.S., McInnes M., Glass D., Dalton G., Burge P.S.
Building sickness, are symptoms related to the office lighting?
Office lighting has been suggested as one of the possible factors in producing building sickness. Health questionnaires were completed by 106 out of 109 workers in six randomly sampled multi-occupied offices in each of two buildings, one air-conditioned and one naturally ventilated. There was a significantly higher prevalence of work-related headache and work-related lethargy in the air-conditioned building than in the naturally ventilated one. There was also less daylight in the air-conditioned building and lower mean luminance and illuminance of the work positions despite there being more lights on. The workers had a greater dislike of fluorescent lighting and overall found the lighting to be less comfortable and glare readings were higher. The workers perceived their control of lighting as poorer and consequently there was less agreement about it. Those with work-related headache found the lighting less comfortable and perceived more glare. This study suggests the need to maximize the use of natural light from untinted windows, to reduce the impingement of fluorescent tubes on the line of sight and to return the control of levels of lighting to each individual worker.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.1, p.47-59. 16 ref. Illus.
Emergency and security lighting handbook
This book aimed principally at managers, engineers and technicians encompasses the subjects of emergency and security lighting: lighting fundamentals; lamp selection; power supplies; emergency lighting; security lighting; maintenance and economics. The first part covers specialised safety lighting for use in case of fire or other emergencies, in order to facilitate an orderly evacuation. The second part covers the comparatively new field of security lighting (floodlighting, infra-red lighting etc.).
Heinemann Professional Publishing, Halley Court, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8EJ, United Kingdom, 1988. 120p. Illus. Index. Price: USD 15.00.
Colour in industry
This guidance note looks at a classification system for the identification of pipes, that uses colour to distinguish the hazards or purpose of their contents. Other uses of colour include marking restricted areas, identifying physical hazards, separation of work areas, vehicle visibility and indicator lights or buttons. Factors to be considered in colour selection are outlined, together with requirements for personnel training.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 31st Floor, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1988. 8p.
Occupational safety and health in quarries
Ohrana truda na kar'erah [en ruso]
Contents of this training manual written for vocational training school students: general aspects; fundamentals of Soviet OSH legislation; OSH organisation; occupational injuries and diseases; general requirements for the protection of workers and environment at the stage of quarry design and operation; workplace climate and microclimate; noxious dust and gas control; workplace lighting; radiation protection; safety of the main processes; safety of the pressure vessels and systems, hoisting and lifting equipment and repair work; electrical safety; fire safety; flood and snow-drift control; mine rescue fundamentals.
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 197p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: SUR 0.30.
Hentschel H.J., Prahl W.
DIN 5035 Part 7: The new standard on illumination for visual displays
DIN 5035, Teil 7: Die neue Norm für die Beleuchtung an Bildschirmen [en alemán]
The German (Fed.Rep.) standard DIN 5035 Part 7 addresses illumination design in rooms where VDUs are used. Maximum permissible illumination levels for lamps reflected on the screen are defined with the purpose of reducing glare.
Licht, 1988, Vol.40, No.8, p.586. 1 ref.
Kaufmann E., Gubany J.
Safety lighting on underground construction sites
Sicherheitsbeleuchtung auf Baustellen unter Tage [en alemán]
Coverage: definition of photometric terms, e.g. luminous intensity and luminous flux; description of various types of safety lights and batteries, e.g. head lamps, spot lamps, hand lamps, cap lamps, nickel-cadmium batteries; recommendations on design and arrangement of safety lighting in underground construction sites. A table for the approximate determination of the illumination level and a formula for its calculation are presented.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1988, Vol.100, No.7, p.508-515. Illus. 5 ref.
More daylight in the office
Mehr Tageslicht ins Büro [en alemán]
Panels of acrylic plastic prisms, each of which can be electronically adjusted towards the sun, are described. With the aid of mirrors, daylight can be distributed throughout offices during 70 to 80% of the work day.
Maschinenmarkt, 1988, Vol.94, No.37, p.73-78. Illus.
Illumination and flexibility in the office
Beleuchtung und Flexibilität im Büro [en alemán]
In order to avoid glare from paper and from computer terminals, the luminance level in offices should range from 200 to 400cd/m2 and illumination should be indirect. If the required illumination of 750lux in drafting rooms is supplied by ceiling-mounted lamps alone then the contrast on terminal screens is too low. Optimum lighting is achieved by a combination of ceiling-mounted lamps of 20W/m2 and direct light from individual lamps for each upright drawing board.
Management-Zeitschrift IO, Mar. 1988, Vol.57, No.3, p.153-155. Illus. 4 ref.
Eclairage [en francés]
Training brochure with colour illustrations.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis, route des Acacias, 1227 Genève, Switzerland, 1987. 8p. Illus.
The workplace environment
Työympäristö [en finlandés]
Workplace environmental factors like heat, cold, noise, illumination and vibration have quite narrow ranges of comfort, outside of which work performance deteriorates. When, e.g., climatic conditions are surveyed at the worksite, their measurement lies within the domain of the industrial hygienist; when noise is so great that it can cause hearing loss, the problem is medical; when environmental factors affect the workers' performance in a man-machine system, the problem can be solved with the aid of knowledge of human factors or ergonomics. This issue deals with the human-factors problems of heat, cold, noise and illumination.
Ergonomiatiedote, 1987, No.3, p.1-17. Illus. 20 ref. Price: FIM 18.00.
L'éclairage [en francés]
Contents of this illustrated brochure: the sense of sight; visual stimuli; characteristics of light sources; application of fundamental knowledge to the workplace (good lighting, avoiding glare, examples of installations, measurement of illumination).
Commissariat général à la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliart, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1987. 23p. Illus.
Erzberger H., Görner C., Ilg R.
The use of colour for improved presentation of information on visual display terminals
Der Einsatz von Farbe zur verbesserten Informationsdarstellung auf den Bildschirmgeräten [en alemán]
After a review of the physiological background of colour vision, 24 recommendations for designing menus and screens are listed. Colour should not be the sole means of conveying information (colour blindness) and its significance should conform to customary uses (e.g. red for danger). The number of different colours should not exceed 7, and red should be used sparingly.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, Dec. 1987, Vol.9, No.10, p.10-15. Illus. 20 ref.
Unit: Industrial and commercial lighting - Module: Sufficient and suitable lighting
Training manual designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. There are 2 segments: 1 - sufficient light: standards and calculations (definitions; the CIBS Code for Interior lighting; variations of illuminance with time and position; illuminance calculations for local and general lighting). 2 - Suitable lighting: safety, facility and the visual environment (suitable lighting for safety and for the task; a suitable visual environment).
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Department of Design, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, United Kingdom, 1987. 68p. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Lighting at work
Guide written for employers, safety personnel and those who design, install and maintain lighting installations. Contents: lighting recommendations; lighting equipment (control systems); lighting installations (interior and exterior lighting, maintenance); emergency lighting; relevant legal obligations; common complaints and remedial measures; measurement of illuminance. A glossary of terms and lists of British standards and other relevant publications are appended.
HMSO Publications Centre, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1987. 36p. Illus.
Lighting of workplaces
Eclairage des lieux de travail [en francés]
1. Summary of texts applicable to enterprises subject to the French Labour Code, and of the obligations of managers: scope, general provisions, lighting levels (area and task lighting, average working levels, warehouses), natural lighting, luminance, thermal effects, lighting controls, maintenance, agricultural enterprises, construction sites, photometry. 2. Obligations of contractors in the construction or remodelling of buildings. List of cited texts.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.30, p.133-142. 6 ref.
Rey P., Meyer J.J.
Ambiances lumineuses [en francés]
Survey of lighting in the working environment: non-visual effects of light; light sources in the workplace (windows, natural light, area or local artificial lighting); lighting and safety; lighting and thermal comfort; role of colour in lighting; lighting and work with computers; interventions by the occupational physician in the design and modification of lighting systems.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1987, 8p. 29 ref.
Lighting and work at display screens - Recommendations of the French Lighting Association
Eclairage et travail sur écrans de visualisation - Recommandations AFE [en francés]
Contents: ergonomics; medical and physiological aspects, and medical surveillance; lighting; the visual environment (Recommended values); examples of application of recommendations. In appendices: determination of limits for reflections that reduce the contrast of characters on the screen; measuring the luminance characteristics of display screens.
Lux Société d'éditions, 52, boulevard Malesherbes, 75008 Paris, France, 1986. 34p. Illus.
Ballarín Marcos L.
Evaluación de las condiciones de iluminación en puestos de trabajo
Descriptions of 2 procedures for the determination of lighting conditions at workplaces. The first concerns the measurement of illumination of desks intended for reading, writing or drawing (measurement of illumination, reflected light or luminance and luminous contrast or luminance ratios of the entire working surface). The second concerns CRT display terminals, where it is necessary not only to measure the illumination of the workplace, but also the luminosity ratios between the characters on the screen and the background, contrast in the areas of text and keyboard and the luminance ratios between screen and text, screen and keyboard, and text and keyboard.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1986, Vol.6, No.22, p.39-47. Illus. 8 ref.
Colour vision of workers under non-actinic lighting
Cvetovoe zrenie rabotajuščih pri neaktiničnom osveščenii [en ruso]
Results of surveys carried out in 104 practically healthy women (age 21-53) employed in a photographic paper factory. Working experience under non-actinic lighting ranged from 20 to 35 years (the control group comprised 50 women aged 20-35 years). The workrooms had no natural light. The lighting was in the red range of the visible spectrum (maximum energy at wavelengths of 635±2, 630±2 and 625±2nm); illumination was 4.6Lx and equivalent luminance was 0.65cd/m2. Detailed examination revealed a significant increase of colour distinction thresholds for each of the three basic colours (red, green, blue) in comparison with the control group. In most cases the maximum reduction in sensitivity was seen in the red receptors. The observed changes in colour vision resulted from the action of non-actinic lighting on the cortical part of the visual analyser. Measures aimed at improving the colour discriminating function of the eye and reducing visual fatigue in dark-room workers are proposed.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1986, No.4, p.86-87. 14 ref.
Video terminal work: use of colour in screens
Travail sur écrans: utilisation de la couleur sur les écrans [en francés]
A set of tables. One summarises psychophysical phenomena (image sharpness, adaptation), their effects on perception, recommendations for displays and the importance of the recommendations. The other 3 tables present applications of the principles of Table 1 to text processing, computer-aided design and process control.
Travail et sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 1986, No.9-10, p.532-534.
Lighting for hazardous areas - Unbalancing the explosion equation
A discussion of lighting equipment appropriate for areas where there is an explosion risk. Such equipment must not have hot surfaces or develop sparks that can serve as ignition sources. Relevant standards in the United Kingdom, types of protection, approval and certification, selection of apparatus, lighting design, choice of light source, environmental considerations, maintenance.
Safety Practitioner, Nov. 1986, Vol.4, No.11, p.21-24. Illus. 5 ref.
Labour protection in shipbuilding
Ohrana truda v sudostroenii [en ruso]
This manual intended for students covers the main aspects of labour protection in the shipbuilding industry: fundamentals of labour legislation, assessment of occupational safety, safety engineering and occupational hygiene (working conditions, harmful and hazardous factors, workplace air, ventilation, lighting, electrical safety), fire protection (flammability of substances, prevention of fires, fire-fighting work), social and economic aspects of labour protection (economic consequences of unfavourable working conditions, economic efficiency of labour protection).
Izdatel'stvo Sudostroenie, ul.Gogolja 8, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1985, 223p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: Rbl.0.80.
Labour protection and fire protection in the mining industry
Ohrana truda i protivopožarnaja zaščita v gorno-rudnoj promyšlennosti [en ruso]
This manual covers major technical, hygienic, economic, legal and organisational aspects of labour protection. Contents: general provisions (labour legislation, prevention of accidents, organisation of safe work); industrial hygiene (requirements for workshops and faces in mines, lighting, prevention of occupational diseases); fire protection (explosive and flammable substances and materials, organisation of fire protection, mining rescue work); safety requirements for underground mining work (driving and supporting stopes, haulage and transport, storage and transport of explosives, transport of loads and persons on the surface and underground, safety in the use of electrical equipment and explosives).
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, Tret'jakovskij pr. 1/19, 103633 Moskva, USSR, 1985, 246p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: Rbl.0.95.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Construction - Permissible levels of illumination
Normy osveščenija stroitel'nyj ploščadok [en ruso]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) applies to the design and use of electric lighting equipment for all operations on building sites and inside buildings where construction and assembly work take place, and establishes permissible illumination levels and methods of measurement. Contents: general provisions (requirements for fixtures, illumination systems: working, emergency, evacuation and safety; types of lamps, etc.), permissible illumination levels, measurement of illuminance, safety. In appendices: parameters of lighting equipment for general uniform illumination at levels of 2 and 0.5lx; design of floodlights, minimum permissible height of floodlights and similar fixtures.
Izdatelstvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 27p. Price: Rbl.0.10.
Pikman I. Ja.
Electric lighting of explosion - and fire-hazard zones
Ėlektričeskoe osveščenie vzryvoopasnyh i požaroopasnyh zon [en ruso]
Aspects covered in the manual include general information about environments that present fire and explosion hazards (definitions and characteristics of flammable substances, classification of explosive mixtures, fire and explosion protection of electric lighting equipment etc.); lighting fixtures; electrical parts of lighting equipment (wiring, switches, junction boxes, earthing, operation of lighting systems).
Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114, Moskva, USSR, 1985. 104p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: Rbl. 0.30.
Sosnova T.L., Loseva E.I., Frid Ju.V., Taldykina I.V., Zorina E.V.
Hygienic characteristics of dynamic illumination in workshops without windows
Gigieničeskaja harakteristika dinamičeskogo osveščenija v bezokonnyh pomeščenijah [en ruso]
Operators engaged in visual work in railroad workshops without windows were exposed to varied illumination systems - static illumination, where illumination level was invariable during 8-hour working shifts, and 2 types of dynamic illumination. The 1st type provided increasing illumination levels within the last hours of the working shift and the 2nd type provided increasing illumination level within the middle hours of the working day and decreasing illumination level toward the end of the shift. Examination of visual functions of operators showed earlier visual function disorders and a pronounced decrease of visual capacity when operators worked under static illumination. Of the 2 types of dynamic illumination, the 1st type was recommended as the more effective system.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.28-30. Illus. 7 ref.
(Comités techniques nationaux interprofessionnels de l'alimentation, des commerces non alimentaires, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie
Safe work with the major cutting machines
Sécurité du travail sur les principales machines coupantes [en francés]
Safety measures applicable to circular-knife meat slicers, meat grinders, meat choppers, dough cutters, kneaders and mixers. An analysis of occupational accident statistics on these machines is followed by a presentation of criteria for equipment selection and recommendations for their safe use. French regulations and standards applicable to each type of machine are reviewed.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1985, No.11, p.576-599. Illus.
Movement under emergency lighting: the effect of illuminance
An investigation was carried out in a large open-plan office with the aim of identifying the illuminance necessary for rapid, safe movement under emergency lighting conditions. At a mean illuminance of 0.2lx, the test subjects had difficulty in moving quickly over the escape route. Optimum illuminance for quick and orderly evacuation was established at 1lx. It seems that the prsent emergency lighting criterion of 0.2lx used in the United Kingdom should be revised and the 1lx standard adopted.
Lighting Research and Technology, 1985, Vol.17, No.2, p.51-71. Illus. 12 ref.
Iohel'son Z.M., Kravčenko A.V., Gar'kovec A.M.
Mains-powered illumination of the coal face in narrow seams
Sredstva setevogo osveščenija dlja očistnyh zaboev na tonkih plastah [en ruso]
Description of a highly explosion-proof lighting system for use in the mechanised mining of narrow seams of coal. A stabilised direct-current power supply feeds a series of converters spaced along the seam. The power supply includes circuitry for protection against short circuits and ground faults. The converters provide power at 8V and 20-44kHz to fluorescent bulbs mounted on the roof supports. Each converter can supply 10 bulbs. The system provides 5lx at the working face as required by standards, with a spacing between bulbs of no more than 3m.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Nov. 1984, No.11, p.36. Illus. 1 ref.
Sen'ko V.F., Kuznecov B.A., Mačugovskij N.B., Krasik Ja. L.
Spark safety of an electrical circuit for battery-powered miners' lamps
Iskrobezopasnost' ėlektričeskoj cepi šahtnogo akkumuljatornogo svetil'nika [en ruso]
To avoid ignition of flammable gases in the air of mines by sparks from damaged wires, safety circuitry must disconnect the battery in less than the time required for ignition (15-120µs). The schematic diagramme of a transistorised circuit that operates in 3-5µs is presented.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Dec. 1984, No.12, p.34-35. Illus.
Loseva E.I., Solomatina N.M., Sosnova T.L., Tihonov A.I., Frid Ju.V.
Bases for the lighting level in underground railways
Obosnovanie urovnej osveščennosti dlja metropolitena [en ruso]
Light levels were measured in the driver's (motorman's) cab of trains of the Moscow (USSR) metro and in the tunnels and stations. The visual acuity of drivers, corrected for preadaptation and stray-light conditions, was tested in the laboratory. The results support the following recommendations: to reduce the demands of periodic readaptation, headlights should illuminate the walls of the tunnel as well as the roadbed; the walls should be light-coloured (reflectance ≃ 0.3); the brightness of the surfaces in the driver's field of view should not exceed 1500cd/m2; station lights should have diffusers, and the upper third of the cab windows should be covered with a neutral light filter; the 100m of tunnel before a station or yard should be painted a light colour and illuminated to a brightness of 1000-1500cd/m2.
Svetotehnika, 1984, No.11, p.9-10.
Nesterova M.L., Častuhina T.N., Jakovlev F.A.
Calculating the distribution of brightness on the surface of shiny fibres
Rasčet raspredelenija jarkosti po poverhnosti blestjaščih nitej [en ruso]
A visual task frequently encountered in the textile industry is the discrimination of fibres against a background of the same fibres; this is especially difficult when the fibres are shiny. To provide an objective basis for optimising the lighting of workplaces in which such visual tasks must be carried out, equations were developed to characterise the relative brightness and reflectance of fibres under various conditions of illumination and observation. Grapha representing several of these equations are presented.
Svetotehnika, 1984, No.10, p.6-8. Illus. 5 ref.
Lindner H., Knoche H.
Demands of sewing on vision in relation to workplace illumination
Sehanforderungen und Beleuchtung an Näharbeitsplätzen [en alemán]
Sewing is the major task in the fabrication of textile articles and footwear; it is a cause of considerable visual stress. Typical visual tasks in sewing are described. Working posture, the distance of the workpiece from the worker and the direction of incident light are analysed. Sewers should be able to vary freely the direction of lighting, even directing light parallel to the line of sight. Present task-lighting fixtures do not meet this requirement.
Augenoptik, 1984, Vol.101, No.2, p.35-39. Illus. 5 ref.
Beljaeva N.M., Rjabov Ju.S.
Fitness for work and fatigue in a coloured environment
Rabotosposobnost' i utomlenie v cvetovom okruženii [en ruso]
Volunteers manipulated colourless objects in a testing chamber in which the hue, saturation and apparent angle of the surfaces could be varied. After an exposure period averaging 1h, the volunteers were subjected to psychological and physiological tests. Under the conditions of the experiment, he had no effect on performance or fatigue at a given level of saturation. Saturations of 40-60 times the threshold intensity and angles of 50-70° gave optimal performance and/or minimal fatigue; values above or below these ranges were less favourable.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1984, No.1, p.18-21. Illus. 9 ref.
Shahnavaz H., Hedman L.
Visual accommodation changes in VDU-operators related to environmental lighting and screen quality
Study on the possible relations between operator's accommodation changes after 6h work at a display unit and workstation lighting and screen characteristics. For 29 operators, the visual accommodation before and after work, workplace lighting, luminance, contrast and screen qualities were measured during day and night shifts. The state of visual accommodation was determined by laser optometry. The relation between lighting conditions and accommodation changes was low but significant. The influence of screen characteristics was more evident during the night shift.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1984, Vol.27, No.10, p.1071-1082. Bibl.
Lighting up the CRT screen - problems and solutions
3 award-winning lighting design systems which provided a working environment responsive to new functional tasks performed at CRT screens are described.
Lighting Design and Application, Jan. 1984, Vol.14, No.1, p.14-17. Illus.
Legislative and regulatory texts: conditions of work, occupational safety and health; prevention of technical hazards, fire, environmental protection, list of safety equipment suppliers
Textes législatifs et réglementaires: conditions de travail, sécurité, hygiène; prévention des risques techniques, incendie, protection de l'environnement, répertoire des fournisseurs de la sécurité [en francés]
This special issue follows that of July-Aug. 1983 (CIS 83-2093). It provides a consolidation of OSH laws and regulations published in France between June 1983 and June 1984. The texts are grouped into: (A) Conditions of work, safety and health: occupational accidents, the workplace air, noise, OSH committees, lighting, training, institutions representing employees, rights of workers, occupational diseases, industrial medicne; (B) prevention of technical risks; agriculture, pressure vessels, construction, electricity, building site machinery, gas installations, lifting and handling, machines, radioactive substances, mines and quarries; ionising radiation, dangerous substances, aerial ropeways and cables, agricultural and forestry tractors; (c) fires; (D) protection of the environment; (E) measuring instruments, standardisation; safety equipment suppliers.
Revue de la sécurité, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.20, No.213, p.6-181. Illus.
(Ministère des affaires sociales et de la solidarité nationale)
Lighting in the workplace
L'éclairage des lieux de travail [en francés]
Reproduction of decrees No.83-721 and 83-722 of 2 Aug. 1983 (CIS 83-1876) and of the circular of 11 Apr. 1984 (Journal officiel, complementary issue of 11 May 1984), which comments paragraph by paragraph on the provisions of these two decrees.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1984, No.116, Note No.1497-116-84, p.395-401.
Andro M., Dorval P., Le Bouar G., Le Pluart C.
Occupational accidents in ocean fishing. Part II. Analysis of the working environment in ocean fishing
Les accidents du travail dans la pêche maritime. Partie II. L'analyse des situations de travail dans la pêche maritime [en francés]
Study conducted aboard 4 trawlers during 4 fishing seasons off the north coast of Scotland. Description of the ships, organisation and rhythm of work. Sound spectra taken on different decks (engine room, bridge, fish-cleaning room, cabins, etc.); exposure to noise by sailors and mechanics. Lighting of the main deck, fishing deck, bridge and gangways, ladders, fish-cleaning rooms; measurement and characteristics of effective lighting, commentary. Importance of a global approach to safety from the ship-design stage on.
Laboratoire de recherche "sécurité et conditions de travail à la pêche maritime", Institut universitaire de technologie de Lorient, 10, rue Jean Zay, 56100 Lorient, France, 1983. 55p. Illus. Bibl.
Wells A.M., Giampaoli E., Zidan L.N.
Riscos físicos [en portugués]
This textbook covers the basics of the measurement, hazards and control of: noise and vibrations (including ultrasound and medical uses); extreme temperatures; electromagnetic radiations (ionising and non-ionising radiation and visible light); abnormal pressures (including Brazilian legislation).
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente, 710 - CEP 05409 - São Paulo (SP), Brazil, 1983. 112p. Illus. Bibl.
Complexity of overhead natural lighting
Složitost horního denního osvětlení [en checo]
Discussion of the complexity of the solution of the daylight factor and the possible simplification of the solution by determining the point with the average daylight factor, (by using fictive source heights with fictive subdivision of space, by more accurate derivation of the values kø and q of the distributed luminous flux, by using geometrical construction for an approximate determination of interreflection by the method of coefficients, by more accurate derivation of the coefficient of light loss due to light-well construction, and by expressing the influence of external obstacles and that of monitor tops of saddle skylights.
Zdravotní technika a vzduchotechnika, 1983, Vol.26, No.2, p.93-104. 6 ref.
Hahne H., Quellmalz E., van den Brulle P.
Survey of environmental factors in the workplace - Lighting, microclimate, noise and dangerous industrial substances in a foundry
Kataster von Arbeitsplatzumgebungsfaktoren - Beleuchtung, Klima, Lärm, gefährliche Arbeitsstoffe am Beispiel einer Giesserei [en alemán]
This report illustrates the problems and methods of an industrial hygiene survey of the physical and chemical environment of a foundry. The possibilities and limitations of representing several factors graphically on a map of the workplace are discussed. Microclimate, artificial lighting, dangerous substances and noise at various sampling points are mapped on floor plans of different parts of the foundry.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. 266p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: DM.34.00.
Mihedov N.A., Jazev V.L., Guzenfel'd Z.M.
Effect of the opacity of mine air on the level of illumination at the work site
Vlijanie neprozračnosti šahtnoj atmosfery na uroven' osveščennosti rabočih mest [en ruso]
Present methods of designing lighting systems for mines do not take adequate account of light attenuation by airborne dust. The Bouguer-Lambert law of light attenuation by a turbid medium can be developed to yield an equation relating the size, density and concentration of dust particles in air to the light level at a given distance from a source. The equation contains an empirical coefficient, B, which was evaluated by measurements in a coal mine. The experimental value agreed with a theoretical value arrived at by making a number of assumptions about the properties of the dust. Calculations with this value of B showed that the presence of 0.1g/m3 of dust with given properties would reduce the light level 1.5m from a 150-candle lamp from 6 to 4.4lx.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Feb. 1983, No.2, p.30. Illus.
Setting health standards for artificial lighting on seagoing, river and factory ships
Gigieničeskoe normirovanie iskusstvennogo osveščenija v pomeščenijah morskih, rečnyh i promyslovyh sudov [en ruso]
A review of the studies underlying the development of 2 USSR Ministry of Health standards (2109-79 and 2506-81) and a draft directive. Further government action was made necessary by the inadequate lighting levels and resulting visual defects which were possible under preexisting regulations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1983, No.5, p.15-18. 11 ref.
Smirnov G.K., Faermark M.A.
Task and area lighting for assembly work
Mestnoe i lokalizovannoe osveščenie sboročnyh rabot [en ruso]
Analysis of workstation design for assembly work, and of the relevant lighting requirements. Solutions of specific problems in area and task lighting are presented, with individual light sources for task lighting and multiple fixtures for both task and area lighting. Standards and recommendations on the selection and placement of lighting fixtures for a wide range of assembly operations are summarised in a table.
Svetotehnika, 1983, No.6, p.14-17. Illus. 3 ref.
Jankowski W.P., Kaufman J.E., Vincent R.L.
1983 IES annual conference papers
The 23 papers presented at the annual conference of the Illuminating Engineering Society (7-11 Aug. 1983, Los Angeles, California, USA) are reproduced with abstracts in English, French and Spanish. Topics covered include: illuminance and exitance; calculations in obstructed spaces; fluorescent lamps; glare; metal halide lamps; discharge lamps; performance of incandescent lamps; behaviour response; energy efficiency; lighting of electronic offices; lighting confined spaces and tunnels.
Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Oct. 1983, Vol.13, No.1, p.1-256. Illus. 101 ref.
Carlsson L., Knave B., Lennerstrand G., Wibom R.
Glare with outdoor high-mast illumination - Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity effects in studies on different floodlighting systems
Bländning vid utomhus högmast-belysning - Effekter på synskärpa och kontrastkänslighet i jämförande studier över olika [en sueco]
Glare effects on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were studied during outdoor timber yard work (sorting of logs) with two different systems of floodlighting. The binocular visual acuity of 19 volunteers was measured at 40, 55 and 80% contrast and the contrast sensitivity of 14 volunteers at spatial frequencies of 0.5 to 16 cycles/degree. One of the lighting systems used conventional floodlights with symmetrical distribution of the light over a wide area. The other system used a new type of oblique floodlight with an asymmetrical light distribution. With the light source 15° from the centre of the visual field, the visual acuity and the contrast sensitivity were consistently lower with the conventional type than with the new type of floodlight. Thus, not only is the vision of details impaired by glare but so is the contrast perception of coarse patterns. The workers scored the difference in glare between the two floodlight systems as "great" to "very great".
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 27p. Illus. 7 ref.
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